Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1119

Search results for: emotional exhaustion

1119 Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work

Authors: Nidhi S. Bisht

Abstract:

The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, India, microfinance institutions (MFIs), work-home interference

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1118 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention

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1117 Effects of Work Load and Surface Acting on Emotional Exhaustion and Work Satisfaction of Social Worker Students: Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Trait as Moderator

Authors: Chung-Kwei Wang, Kuo-Ying Lo

Abstract:

The study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuon' the adjustment of social worker students during their practicum. Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized by collective-oriented Chinese society for thousand years. Based on interview and literature review, we operationalized the concept as four factors, including ‘harmonious interaction’, ‘understanding and tolerance’, ‘empathetic communication’ and ‘rule abiding’. We administer the scale to 96 social worker senior students before their summer practicums begins and collect their response on emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work load, work satisfaction. We also ask their supervisors rated their performance on empathy, interpersonal relationships, performance on practicum and their Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results indicated that self-ratings of students on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are correlated with rating from their supervisors. Students who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku have better adjustment and higher ratings from their supervisor. Ren-qing Shi-ku also moderate effects of surface acting labor and work load on emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. However, Ren-qing Shi-ku seems more beneficial under low work load situations. The finding of this study suggested traditional social skill training might be very effective for social service providers in a collective-oriented culture.

Keywords: emotion labor, ren-qing shi-ku, emotional exhaustion, work satisfaction and performance

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1116 A Comparative Study of Burnout and Coping Strategies between HIV Counselors: Face to Face and Online Counseling Services in Addis Ababa

Authors: Yemisrach Mihertu Amsale

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare burnout and coping strategies between HIV counselors in face to face and online counseling settings in Addis Ababa. The study was mixed approach design that was quantitative and qualitative. For the quantitative data the participants involved in this study included 64 face to face and 47 online HIV counselors in both counseling settings. In addition, 23 participants were involved to offer qualitative data from both counseling settings. For the purpose of gathering the quantitative data, the instruments, namely, demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the COPE questionnaire, were used to gather quantitative data. Qualitative data was also gathered in the FGD Guide and Interview Guide. Thus, this study revealed that HIV counselors in online counseling settings scored high on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low in personal accomplishment dimensions of burnout as compared to HIV counselors in face to face setting and the difference was statistically significant in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, but there was no a significant difference on depersonalization dimension of burnout between the two groups. In addition, the present study revealed a statistically significant difference on problem focused coping strategy between the two groups and yet for on the emotion focused coping strategy the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically negative correlation was observed between some demographic variables such as age with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions of burnout; years of experiences and personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. A statistically positive correlation was also observed between average number of clients served per day and emotional exhaustion. Sex was having a statistically positive correlation with coping strategy. Lastly, a significant positive correlation was also observed in the emotional exhaustion dimension of the burnout and the emotional focused coping strategy. Generally, this study has shown that HIV counselors suffer from moderate to high level of burnout. Based on the findings, conclusions were made and recommendations were forwarded.

Keywords: counseling, burnout management, psychological, behavioral sciences

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1115 A Study on the Effect of the Work-Family Conflict on Work Engagement: A Mediated Moderation Model of Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Psychology Capital

Authors: Sungeun Hyun, Sooin Lee, Gyewan Moon

Abstract:

Work-Family Conflict has been an active research area for the past decades. Work-Family Conflict harms individuals and organizations, it is ultimately expected to bring the cost of losses to the company in the long run. WFC has mainly focused on effects of organizational effectiveness and job attitude such as Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention variables. This study is different from consequence variable with previous research. For this purpose, we selected the positive job attitude 'Work Engagement' as a consequence of WFC. This research has its primary research purpose in identifying the negative effects of the Work-Family Conflict, and started out from the recognition of the problem that the research on the direct relationship on the influence of the WFC on Work Engagement is lacking. Based on the COR(Conservation of resource theory) and JD-R(Job Demand- Resource model), the empirical study model to examine the negative effects of WFC with Emotional Exhaustion as the link between WFC and Work Engagement was suggested and validated. Also, it was analyzed how much Positive Psychological Capital may buffer the negative effects arising from WFC within this relationship, and the Mediated Moderation model controlling the indirect effect influencing the Work Engagement by the Positive Psychological Capital mediated by the WFC and Emotional Exhaustion was verified. Data was collected by using questionnaires distributed to 500 employees engaged manufacturing, services, finance, IT industry, education services, and other sectors, of which 389 were used in the statistical analysis. The data are analyzed by statistical package, SPSS 21.0, SPSS macro and AMOS 21.0. The hierarchical regression analysis, SPSS PROCESS macro and Bootstrapping method for hypothesis testing were conducted. Results showed that all hypotheses are supported. First, WFC showed a negative effect on Work Engagement. Specifically, WIF appeared to be on more negative effects than FIW. Second, Emotional exhaustion found to mediate the relationship between WFC and Work Engagement. Third, Positive Psychological Capital showed to moderate the relationship between WFC and Emotional Exhaustion. Fourth, the effect of mediated moderation through the integration verification, Positive Psychological Capital demonstrated to buffer the relationship among WFC, Emotional Exhastion, and Work Engagement. Also, WIF showed a more negative effects than FIW through verification of all hypotheses. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications on research and management of the WFC, and proposed limitations and future research directions of research.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, positive psychological capital, work engagement, work-family conflict

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1114 Gender and Seniority Differences among Service Organizations' Employees: Motivation, Commitment, and Burnout

Authors: K. Michael, G. Yanay-Ventura

Abstract:

Objectives: It is well established that employees are the essence of the organization. Employees' personal characteristics and emotional state may decrease or increase organizational performance. Therefore, organizations should enhance employees' well-being. The present study examined gender and seniority differences in three factors of employees' well-being: motivation, commitment, and burnout. Methods: Participants in this quantitative cross-sectional study were 400 service organization employees aged 19-71 (Mean=29.94; SD=10.25). Regarding gender, 59.7% were women, and regarding seniority, 66.9% were less than two years in the organization. All participants completed questionnaires evaluating motivation, sense of organizational commitment (affective, continuance), and level of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS (version 25) through independent-sample t-tests. Results: Women were less motivated and felt less affective commitment toward the organization than men. They also felt more burnout than men in terms of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Additionally, employees in lower seniority levels felt less affective commitment toward the organization than employees in higher seniority levels. They also felt more burnout than employees in higher seniority levels in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Conclusions: The findings suggest that women and employees in lower seniority levels experience more vulnerable emotions in service organizations. Therefore, strategies for enhancing their well-being are recommended.

Keywords: burnout, gender and seniority differences, motivation, organizational commitment

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1113 Effects of Work Stress and Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Social Wisdom on Emotional Exhaustion, Work Satisfaction and Well-Being of Insurance Workers

Authors: Wang Chung-Kwei, Lo Kuo Ying

Abstract:

This study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuo’ on the adjustment of insurance workers. Rationale: Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized and practiced by collective-oriented Chinese for thousand years. The concept of‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’includes values, beliefs and behavior rituals, which helps Chinese to cope with interpersonal conflicts in a sophisticated and closely tied collective society. Based on interview and literature review, we found out Chinese still emphasized the importance of ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’. The concepts contains five factors, including ‘proper emotion display’, ‘social ritual abiding’, ‘ make empathetic concession’, ‘harmonious and proper behavior’ and ‘tolerance for the interest of the whole’. We developed an indigenous ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’scale based on interview data and a survey on social worker students. Research methods: We conduct a dyad survey between 294 insurance worker and their supervisors. Insurance workers’ response on ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku,emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work stress and load, work satisfaction and well-being were collected. We also ask their supervisors to rate these workers ‘empathy, social rule abiding, work performance, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results: Students’self-ratings on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are positively correlated with rating from their supervisors on all above indexes. Workers who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku score also have lower work stress and emotion exhaustion, higher work satisfaction and well-being, more emotion deep acting. They also have higher work performance, social rule abiding, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance rating from their supervisor. The finding of this study suggested Ren-qing Shi-ku is an effective indicator on insurance workers ‘adjustment. Since Ren-qing Shi-ku is trainable, we suggested that Ren-qing Shi-ku training might be beneficial to service industry in a collective-oriented culture.

Keywords: work stress, Ren-qing Shi-ku, emotional exhaustion, work satisfaction, well-being

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1112 A Multicenter Assessment on Psychological Well-Being Status among Medical Residents in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Mahera Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Objective: Healthcare transformation from traditional to modern in the country recently prompted the need to address career choices, accreditation perception and satisfaction among medical residents. However, a concerted nationwide study to understand and address burnout in the medical residency program has not been conducted in the UAE and the region. Methods: A nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate professional burnout and depression among medical residents in order to address the gap. Results: Our results indicate that 75.5% (216/286) of UAE medical residents had moderate to high emotional exhaustion, 84% (249/298) had high depersonalization, and 74% (216/291) had a low sense of personal accomplishment. In aggregate, 70% (212/302) of medical residents were considered to be experiencing at least one symptom of burnout based on a high emotional exhaustion score or a high depersonalization score. Depression ranging from 6-22%, depending on the specialty was also striking given the fact the Arab culture lays high emphasis on family bonding. Interestingly 83% (40/48) of medical residents who had high scores for depression also reported burnout. Conclusion: Our data indicate that burnout and depression among medical residents is epidemic. There is an immediate need to address burnout through effective interventions at both the individual and institutional levels. It is imperative to reconfigure the approach to medical training for the well-being of the next generation of physicians in the Arab world.

Keywords: mental health, Gulf, Arab, residency training, burnout, depression

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1111 Work-Related Risk Factors and Preventive Measures among Nurses and Dentists at Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine

Authors: Marwa Mamdouh Shaban, Nagat Saied Habib, Shireen Ezz El-Din Taha, Eman Mahmoud Seif El-Naser

Abstract:

Background: Dental nurses and dentists were constantly exposed to a number of specific work related health risk factors which develop and intensify with years. Awareness regarding these work-related health risk factors and implementation of preventive health care measures could provide a safe work environment for all dental nurses and dentists. Aim of the study: to assess the work-related health risk factors among dental nurses and dentists and preventive health care measures applied among dental nurses and dentists. Research design: A descriptive design was utilized. Sample: Convenience sample of 50 dental nurses and 150 dentists were included in the current study. Setting: This study was conducted at the dental clinics at faculty of oral and dental medicine, Al-Kasr Al Ainy Hospital. Tools of data collection: Three tools were developed, tested for clarity, and feasibility: a-Socio-demographic data sheet, b-Work-related health risk factors questionnaire, and c-structured observational checklist. Results: The most common work risk factors prevailing among dental nurses were emotional exhaustion (82%), low back pain (76%) and latex allergy (62%) and the most common work risk factors prevailing among dentists were percutaneous exposure incident (100%), emotional exhaustion (100%) and low back pain (93.3%). Also, statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.274, at p = 0.045) between the incidence of chemical health risk factors and application of chemical preventive measures among dental nurses. A statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.177, at p = 0.030) between the incidences of mechanical health risk factors among dentists and application of mechanical preventive measures. Conclusion: The studied dental nurses and dentists exposed to many work related health risk factors as latex allergy, percutaneous exposure incidents, low back pain and emotional exhaustion related to inappropriate application of preventive health care measures. Recommendation: Raise awareness of dental nurses and dentists about work-related health risk factors, design and implement health education program for preventive health care measures.

Keywords: work-related risk factors, preventive measures, nurses, dentists

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1110 Exploring Program Directors’ and Faculty’s Perception and Factors Leading to Burnout in Higher Education Institutions in Azerbaijan

Authors: Gunay Imanguliyeva

Abstract:

Burnout is one of the concerning issues in education. The present paper aimed to explore the concept of burnout among program directors and faculty working in three higher education institutions (HEIs) in Azerbaijan and identify the factors contributing to burnout and the possible consequences of this syndrome on research participants’ professional and personal life. The researcher believed that if the concept of burnout was defined precisely and explored among more faculty, administration, and educational institutions, university leadership may have looked for the ways to support program directors and faculty, which would increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover. An exploratory qualitative research design was chosen for this study. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The instruments of the research were semi-structured interviews, observation, and document review. Three EFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) instructors and three program directors of the English Language Department working in three higher educational institutions in Azerbaijan participated in this study. The major findings of this study showed that both program directors and faculty suffered from burnout. Though they were aware of the factors that caused burnout, they did not know how to deal with this feeling. While research participants had high feeling of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, they had a low feeling of Personal Accomplishment. The researcher suggests that further research is important to measure the level of burnout and to enable HEIs to increase the productivity of program directors’ and faculty’s work as well as decrease the rate of retention in future. Also, in order to help program directors and faculty to cope with burnout, the research recommends the university leadership to meet their psycho-social needs, emotional-physical needs, and personal-intellectual needs. Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, factors, well-being, higher education

Keywords: burnout, well-being, higher education, factors

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1109 Microstructural Evidences for Exhaustion Theory of Low Temperature Creep in Martensitic Steels

Authors: Nagarjuna Remalli, Robert Brandt

Abstract:

Down-sizing of combustion engines in automobiles are prevailed owing to required increase in efficiency. This leads to a stress increment on valve springs, which affects their intended function due to an increase in relaxation. High strength martensitic steels are used for valve spring applications. Recent investigations unveiled that low temperature creep (LTC) in martensitic steels obey a logarithmic creep law. The exhaustion theory links the logarithmic creep behavior to an activation energy which is characteristic for any given time during creep. This activation energy increases with creep strain due to barriers of low activation energies exhausted during creep. The assumption of the exhaustion theory is that the material is inhomogeneous in microscopic scale. According to these assumptions it is anticipated that small obstacles (e. g. ε–carbides) having a wide range of size distribution are non-uniformly distributed in the materials. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ε–carbides in high strength martensitic steels. In this study, high strength martensitic steels that are crept in the temperature range of 75 – 150 °C were investigated with the aid of a transmission electron microscope for the evidence of an inhomogeneous distribution of obstacles having different size to examine the validation of exhaustion theory.

Keywords: creep mechanisms, exhaustion theory, low temperature creep, martensitic steels

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1108 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.

Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting

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1107 Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Ercan Yilmaz, Ali Murat Sünbül

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management.

Keywords: teachers, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, education

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1106 Coronavirus Anxiety and Job Burnout of Polish Front-Line Health-Care Workers. Mediation Effect of Insomnia

Authors: Lukasz Baka

Abstract:

Objective. The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion from the perspective of Hobfol Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. According to COR theory, critical events (e.g. the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleep troubles, which over time, results in an increase in exhaustion. Materials and Methods: Data were collected among 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance, and wardens. Three measurements were used: Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ, sleep trouble subscale) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI, exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested by the use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleep problems depleted healthcare providers’ resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients, therefore researches into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety are needed.

Keywords: coronavirus anxiety, front-line healt-care workers, insomnia, job burnout

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1105 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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1104 Resilience and Mindfulness as Individual Resources Building Communication Skills for Physicians

Authors: Malgorzata Sekulowicz, Krystyna Boron-Krupinska, Paulina Morga, Blazej Cieslik

Abstract:

Burnout is highly prevalent in health care employees, especially in physicians. It significantly reduces the efficiency of these employees, which can have negative consequences for both physicians and patients. Resilience and mindfulness enhancing positive emotions, leading to sustainable development and personal commitment, can have a significant impact on burnout. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between burnout symptoms and mindfulness and resilience among physicians. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among seventy-four polish physicians. Participants filled out the following psychometric tools: the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Areas of Work-Life Survey (AWS), International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Resilience Assessment Scale (SPP-25) and the Mini-COPE Inventory. The relationship between burnout and resilience and mindfulness was assessed with path analysis. Analyzing the relationship between MBI-HSS components and mindfulness, a significant negative correlation of the FFMQ score with emotional exhaustion (-0.50, p < 0.05) and depersonalization (-0.43, p < 0.05) and a positive correlation with personal accomplishment (0.50, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Analyzing resilience, a statistically significant relationship of SPP-25 with all tested components of MBI-HSS was demonstrated: emotional exhaustion (-0.54, p < 0.05), depersonalization (-0.31, p < 0.05) and personal accomplishment (0.35, p < 0.05). In the group of medical doctors, the higher the level of mindfulness and resilience, the lower the risk of burnout. Furthermore, the more frequently used active coping strategies (planning, acceptance), the lower the risk of burnout, while the use of passive, evasive strategies increases the risk of burnout. It may be worth considering implementing mindfulness intervention to effectively manage burnout symptoms in this group.

Keywords: burnout, medical doctors, mindfulness, physicians, resilience

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1103 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria

Abstract:

The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling

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1102 'You Block Yourself from the Emotion': A Qualitative Inquiry into Teacher's Use of Discordant Emotional Labor Strategies in Student Aggression

Authors: Michal Levy

Abstract:

Despite the emotional impact students' misbehavior and aggression has on teacher's emotional wellbeing, teachers frequently use suppressive strategies in the classroom, which maintain a discordance between felt and expressed emotions. The current study sought to gain a deeper insight into teachers' utilization of discordant emotional labor strategies (i.e., expressive suppression, surface acting and emotional dissonance) and their motives to using these strategies in student aggression. A qualitative study was conducted on 16 special education Jewish Israeli teachers. Thematic analysis of the in-depth semi-structured interviews revealed novice teachers were inclined to use expressive suppression, while experienced teachers used emotional dissonance. The teacher's motives for using discordant emotional labor strategies included both instrumental and hedonic goals. Implications for policymakers and professionals in practice are discussed to improve teachers' emotional wellbeing.

Keywords: discordant strategies, emotional labor, student aggression, teachers

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1101 A Challenge of the 3ʳᵈ Millenium: The Emotional Intelligence Development

Authors: Florentina Hahaianu, Mihaela Negrescu

Abstract:

The analysis of the positive and negative effects of technology use and abuse in Generation Z comes as a necessity in order to understand their ever-changing emotional development needs. The article quantitatively analyzes the findings of a sociological questionnaire on a group of students in social sciences. It aimed to identify the changes generated by the use of digital resources in the emotional intelligence development. Among the outcomes of our study we include a predilection for IT related activities – be they social, learning, entertainment, etc. which undermines the manifestation of emotional intelligence, especially the reluctance to face-to-face interaction. In this context, the issue of emotional intelligence development comes into focus as a solution to compensate for the undesirable effects that contact with technology has on this generation.

Keywords: digital resources, emotional intelligence, generation Z, students

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1100 The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Alfalah Tasneem, Abdallah Bataineh, Falah Jannat, Alfalah Salsabeel

Abstract:

The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, higher education, job performance, job satisfaction

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1099 Affectness of Emotional Intelligence on Employee Profesionalism

Authors: Vanisa Damayanti Yuningsih

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Employee professionalism is certainly the hope for every company to create a good working environment. Emotional intelligence is one of the factors that determine the success of professionalism, for, in emotional intelligence, an employee can control his ego and can understand and understand his coworkers and thus create a dynamic environment in which to work. Each employee is encouraged to have professionalism in order to optimize his resources. This professionalism is shown by employees being able to do their work and taking responsibility in their profession by involving controlled feelings and emotions. The problem which is drawn from this research is how emotional intelligence can affect the professional attitudes of employees. The purpose of this research is to find out how far emotional intelligence goes in the professional manner of employees.

Keywords: professionalism, emotional intelligence, work environment, company

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1098 Reimagining Writing as a Healing Art: A Case Study on Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Shawnrece Campbell

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Emotional intelligence as an essential job skill is growing in popularity among human resource professionals and hiring managers. Companies value those who have high emotional intelligence because of their personal competences (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation) and social competences (empathy, social skills). In implementing any training system to teach emotional intelligence, the best methodologies for acquiring and/or improving these competences should be taken into consideration. This study focuses on how students perceived the art of writing as a tool for self-improvement. During this session, participants will engage in a brief activity designed to help students develop emotional intelligence. As a part of the discussion, participants will learn the results of a junior-level literary seminar conducted to better understand students’ thoughts and views about the effectiveness of writing as a tool for emotional healing. An analysis of qualitative textual data is presented. The outcomes indicated that students found using writing as a tool for emotional intelligence development as highly effective. The findings also revealed that students have positive perceptions of using writing as a self-healing art that leads to increased emotional intelligence and believe that writing courses of this nature enhance students’ appreciation of the value of the liberal arts.

Keywords: emotional intelligence quotient, healing, soft skills, writing

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1097 Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Emotional Contagion

Authors: Andres Pinilla Palacios, Ricardo Tamayo

Abstract:

Emotional contagion is characterized as an automatic tendency to synchronize behaviors that facilitate emotional convergence among humans. It might thus play a pivotal role to understand the dynamics of key social interactions. However, a few research has investigated its potential mechanisms. We suggest two complementary but independent processes that may underlie emotional contagion. The efficient contagion hypothesis, based on fast and implicit bottom-up processes, modulated by familiarity and spread of activation in the emotional associative networks of memory. Secondly, the emotional contrast hypothesis, based on slow and explicit top-down processes guided by deliberated appraisal and hypothesis-testing. In order to assess these two hypotheses, an experiment with 39 participants was conducted. In the first phase, participants were induced (between-groups) to an emotional state (positive, neutral or negative) using a standardized video taken from the FilmStim database. In the second phase, participants classified and rated (within-subject) the emotional state of 15 faces (5 for each emotional state) taken from the POFA database. In the third phase, all participants were returned to a baseline emotional state using the same neutral video used in the first phase. In a fourth phase, participants classified and rated a new set of 15 faces. The accuracy in the identification and rating of emotions was partially explained by the efficient contagion hypothesis, but the speed with which these judgments were made was partially explained by the emotional contrast hypothesis. However, results are ambiguous, so a follow-up experiment is proposed in which emotional expressions and activation of the sympathetic system will be measured using EMG and EDA respectively.

Keywords: electromyography, emotional contagion, emotional valence, identification of emotions, imitation

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1096 The Role of Context in Interpreting Emotional Body Language in Robots

Authors: Jekaterina Novikova, Leon Watts

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In the emerging world of human-robot interaction, people and robots will interact socially in real-world situations. This paper presents the results of an experimental study probing the interaction between situational context and emotional body language in robots. 34 people rated video clips of robots performing expressive behaviours in different situational contexts both for emotional expressivity on Valence-Arousal-Dominance dimensions and by selecting a specific emotional term from a list of suggestions. Results showed that a contextual information enhanced a recognition of emotional body language of a robot, although it did not override emotional signals provided by robot expressions. Results are discussed in terms of design guidelines on how an emotional body language of a robot can be used by roboticists developing social robots.

Keywords: social robotics, non-verbal communication, situational context, artificial emotions, body language

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1095 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

Abstract:

This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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1094 A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India

Authors: Nitin Joseph

Abstract:

Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, medical students, perceived stress, socio demographic variables

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1093 Positive Psychology and the Social Emotional Ability Instrument (SEAI)

Authors: Victor William Harris

Abstract:

This research is a validation study of the Social Emotional Ability Inventory (SEAI), a multi-dimensional self-report instrument informed by positive psychology, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and sociocultural learning theory. Designed for use in tandem with the Social Emotional Development (SEAD) theoretical model, the SEAI provides diagnostic-level guidance for professionals and individuals interested in investigating, identifying, and understanding social, emotional strengths, as well as remediating specific social competency deficiencies. The SEAI was shown to be psychometrically sound, exhibited strong internal reliability, and supported the a priori hypotheses of the SEAD. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of goodness of fit, convergent and divergent validity, and supported a theoretical model that reflected SEAD expectations. The SEAI and SEAD hold potentially far-reaching and important practical implications for theoretical guidance and diagnostic-level measurement of social, emotional competency across a wide range of domains. Strategies researchers, practitioners, educators, and individuals might use to deploy SEAI in order to improve quality of life outcomes are discussed.

Keywords: emotion, emotional ability, positive psychology-social emotional ability, social emotional ability, social emotional ability instrument

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1092 The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Performance

Authors: Omar Al Ali

Abstract:

The current study was aimed to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and leader's performance. Data were collected from 260 senior managers from UAE. The results showed that there are significant relationships between emotional intelligence and leadership performance as measured by the annual internal evaluations of each participant (r = .42, p < .01). Data from regression analysis revealed that both variables namely emotional intelligence (beta = .31, p < .01), and cognitive ability (beta = .29, p < .01), predicted leadership competencies, and together explained 26% of its variance. Data suggests that EI and cognitive ability are significantly correlated with leadership performance. In depth implications of the present findings for human resource development theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, leadership, performance

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1091 Coconut Shells as the Alternative Equipment for Foot Reflexology

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chananchida Yuktirat

Abstract:

This research was the experimental research. Its purpose was to find out how coconut shells can be adapted to be equipment for foot and calf reflexology. The sample group was 58 female street vendors in Thewet Market, Dusit District, Bangkok, selected by selection criteria and voluntary. The data collecting tool in this research was the Visual Analogue Scale. The massaging tool made from coconut shells (designed and produced by the research team) was the key equipment for this research. The duration of the research was 1 month. The research team assessed the level of exhaustion and heart rate among sample group before and after the massage, then analyzed the data by mean, standard deviation and paired sample t-test. We found out from the research that 1) The level of exhaustion decreased 4.529 levels after the massage. The standard deviation was 1.6195. The heart rates went down 11.67 times/minute. The standard deviation was 6.742. 2) The level of exhaustion and heart rate after the massage decreased with the statistically significance at 0.01.

Keywords: foot reflexology, massaging plate, coconut shells, ecological sciences

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1090 Relationships of Clergy Work-Family Enrichment with Job Attitudes

Authors: John Faucett, Hao Wu, Bruce Moore, Sean Nadji

Abstract:

The demands of the ministry often conflict with responsibilities at home, and clergy often experience domain ambiguity between the domains of work and family. However, the unique level of family involvement in the pastor’s profession might enrich the pastor’s ministry as well as the functioning of the family unit. Life in the church family might offer clergy family members a sense of meaning and purpose, social support, and a feeling of belonging. Church activities can offer enhanced opportunities for family interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of work/family enrichment to clergy job satisfaction, burnout, engagement, and withdrawal. Method: Participants were clergy serving within a state conference of the United Methodist Church. A survey was administered electronically, with e-mails and the United Methodist Church (UMC) Facebook page used as access points to the survey. Usable responses for this portion of the survey were obtained from 132 clergy. Participants completed The Work-Family Enrichment Scales, The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, The Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry, The Satisfaction in Ministry Scale, and a scale of withdrawal developed for the present study. They also answered questions relating to how involved their spouses are in their ministry and the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry. Findings: Higher scores for work to family enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = - .69, p < .01) and engagement (r = .50, p < .01), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01) and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Higher scores for family to work enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = .29, p = .01) and engagement (.24, p < .05), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01), and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Hierarchical regression analysis suggested that clergy perceptions concerning the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry moderates the relationship between degree of spouse involvement in church activities and clergy withdrawal. To the degree that spouse involvement is believed to strengthen ministry, high spouse involvement is related to less clergy withdrawal (Multiple R-Squared = .068, Adj. R-Squared = .043, F = 2.69 on 3 & 110 DF, p = .05). Concluding Statement: Clergy job attitudes are related to work/family enrichment. Spouse involvement in parish ministry is associated with less clergy withdrawal, as long as clergy believe spouse involvement strengthens their ministry.

Keywords: clergy, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, job satisfaction, work/family enrichment

Procedia PDF Downloads 96