Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 153

Search results for: fishing

153 Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Wen Chiat Lee, K. Kuperan Viswanathan


Illegal, Unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing brings great losses to the economies of the fishing nations. Understanding the reasons contributing to IUU fishing is crucial in reducing it. Economic, institutional and social factors are key drivers of IIU fishing. The economic factor is the main contributor to IUU fishing. The two possible ways to curb the IUU fishing is highlighted. One way is to reduce the revenue from IUU fishing and another way is to increase the cost of IUU fishing. There are three costs of IUU fishing that can be increased namely the operating, capital and risk costs. Approaches for reducing the economic rent or profit from IUU fishing are developed and directions for reducing IUU fishing are also suggested. Improved registration of fishing vessels, preventing entry of illegal fish products and most importantly, developing co-management of fisheries are the ways forward for reducing IUU fishing. All governments in ASEAN must work in tandem with the stakeholders involved such as fishers, fishermen agencies or associations to exchange information for reducing the transaction cost of IUU fishing.

Keywords: Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, co-management, fisheries management, economic rent framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
152 A Fishery Regulation Model: Bargaining over Fishing Pressure

Authors: Duplan Yves Jamont Junior


The Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model widely used in labor economics is tailored to fishery. By this way, a fishing function is defined to depict the fishing technology, and Bellman equations are established to describe the behaviors of fishermen and conservationists. On this basis, a negotiation takes place as a Nash-bargaining over the upper limit of the fishing pressure between both political representative groups of fishermen and conservationists. The existence and uniqueness conditions of the Nash-bargained fishing pressure are established. Given the biomass evolution equation, the dynamics of the model variables (fishing pressure, biomass, fish need) is studied.

Keywords: conservation, fishery, fishing, Nash bargaining

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
151 Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana

Authors: Eric K. W. Aikins


Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. The fishing industry dominated by artisanal marine fishing helps Ghana to meet its fish and protein requirements. Also, it provides employment for most coastal dwellers that depend on fishing as their main economic enterprise. Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are the limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.

Keywords: pair trawling, sargassum, spatio-economic development, sustainable marine fishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
150 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa


Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
149 Status of Artisanal Fishery in Libya

Authors: Esmail Shakman, Khaled Etyab, Ibraheim Taboni, Mohamed Et-wail, Abdallah Ben Abdallah


This study was carried out along the Libyan coast during the period from 1st February to 31st March 2013. More than 120 landing sites have been visited in order to investigate their status and fishing activities. The study found that more than 91% of the landing sites were permanent and around 8% were seasonal. The type of landing sites were mostly harbors (42.86%), 31.75% protected bays and 25.4% are open beach. However, seven types of fishing boats were observed; flouka type was the largest percentage (70.06%), then 18.14% for mator, 3.28% for lampara, 0.41% for Tarrad, Gayag (0.16%), 5.97 for Daghesa, and 1.98% for batah. Moreover, the majority of them were concentrated in the western region of the country. The most common used fishing gearsare the trammel nets about 80%, which are used by flouka, mator, Tarrad, and batah. The using of trammel nets rely on the fishing season, fishes size and the target fish species. The other fishing gears are also used but occasionally.

Keywords: fishery, South Mediterranean, landing sites, marine biology

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148 Phylogenetic Investigations Of The Convergent Evolution Of Fishing Behaviour In The Spider Family Pisauridae

Authors: Shelley Edwards, William Rawson, Khanyisile Buthelezi


Pisauridae is a diverse family of spiders distributed widely across the globe. These spiders remain vastly understudied on a molecular level, most notably within the African members. The fishing trait seen within some of these spiders is a unique behavioural adaption. We aim to determine the genetic relationships of South African Pisauridae across the family through a multigene approach, bringing insight into the diversification and evolution of this group. Global distribution within these lineages is likely due to them including specialist and generalist species, limiting possible geographical barriers. While the African lineage, consisting of only fishing spiders from the genus Nilus, could experience greater barriers. A lack of structuring was seen in the Nilus. It is plausible that this is a result of introgression within the mitochondrial genes, as has been seen in Dolomedes. We also investigated whether the fishing behaviour in various Pisauridae genera are due to ancestral character retention and loss or due to independent convergent evolution of the behaviour.

Keywords: introgression, pisauridae, convergent evolution, fishing behaviour

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147 Politicization of India Sri Lanka Fishing Dispute

Authors: Mohamed Faslan


This research examines the impact of the politicization of the fishing dispute on India-Sri Lanka relations, particularly the influence of internal and party politics. The maritime border is clearly demarcated between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka signed bilateral agreements on maritime boundaries in 1974 and 1976 respectively. They signed the United Nations Law of the Sea- III as well. Despite this, fishing disputes persist between the two nations. Tamil Nadu politics is closely linked with Sri Lankan Tamil issues and Tamil Nadu has been playing a significant role in Indo-Lanka relations. This is due to the fact that many Indian trawlers involved in fishing activities in Sri Lankan waters are from Tamil Nadu. The Government of Tamil Nadu is also very concerned about the issue of fishing in Sri Lankan waters. During the ethnic war, Sri Lankan fishermen were restricted on fishing activities in the Northern sea by the Sri Lankan Government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). This created a vacuum in the Northern sea of Sri Lanka, and Indian trawlers filled the vacuum with the support of the LTTE. After the end of the war, Northern fishermen of Sri Lanka recommenced their fishing activities and realized that the Tamil Nadu trawlers had scooped their fishing resources. The Northern fishermen started to protest the invasion of Indian trawlers and pushed the Sri Lankan Government to stop the Indian trawlers. When Sri Lanka arrested Indian fishermen and confiscated their fishing boats, the Tamil Nadu Government used this as an opportunity to accuse Sri Lanka as having a Sinhalese government, to express feelings of hatred towards Sri Lanka due to the ethnic war against Tamils and tried to increase the voting bank by selling Tamil feelings. Thus, this research finds that Tamil Nadu does not associate this fishing dispute with Tamils in Sri Lanka but with the Sinhalese despite the status quo. This research has covered the Northern fishermen and stakeholders of Sri Lanka and could not do any field research in India due to visa restrictions. However, the researcher tries to balance the gap by referring to secondary sources and a few interviews with Indian scholars.

Keywords: Indo Lanka relations, fishing dispute, maritime border, Tamil Nadu & Sri Lankan waters

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
146 Catch Composition and Amount of Illegal and Unreported Fishing in Iranian Coastal Waters - Hormozgan Province

Authors: Yasemi Mehran, Parsa Mehran, Farzingohar Mehrnaz


Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing has been identified as one of the most serious threats to the sustainability of the world’s fisheries. In the present study, illegal and unreported fishing of different species in waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea (Hormozgan province) were evaluated. Among 47 species of 33 families identified in this study, with 39 species belong to teleosts, 4 species belong to elasmobranchs and 4 species belong to invertebrate. The total weight of illegal and unreported catch were 78525.22 tonnes. Maximum and minimum values were found for Dussumiera acuta (20640.74 tonnes) and Tenualosa ilisha (0.733 tonnes), respectively. The most commercial species group was scombridae, carangidae and clupeidae, respectively. Teleosts with 91.15%, elasmobranchs with 4.82 and invertebrates with 4.03% constituted total weight of illegal and unreported fishing. Results of this study provide valuable information in order to access a sustainable management on fish resources.

Keywords: catch composition, illegal, unreported fishing, Hormozgan province

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
145 Bioeconomic Modelling for Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in Queensland: Implications for Recreational Fishing Following Recent Gill Netting Closures

Authors: Sabiha S. Marine, Nicole Flint, John Rolfe


The Queensland state government introduced commercial gill net fishing closures in Cairns, Mackay, and Rockhampton in November 2015 to increase the recreational fishing opportunities, nature-based tourism, and economic benefits in these three regional areas. This management change is likely to improve the potential for more desirable stock structures through natural recruitment. Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is one of the popular target fish for recreational and commercial fishers in Northern Australia. This investigation examines the effects of reduced commercial fishing from both biological and economic perspectives, particularly on the local Barramundi population of the Fitzroy River in Rockhampton, the largest river catchment flowing to the eastern coast of Australia. Data on different parameters of biological and economic aspects have been collated from secondary sources for analysis through a system simulation approach to identify the effectiveness of the commercial netting closures on recreational fishing effort, especially for the Barramundi population. The results have the potential to explain certain consequences of the netting closures in Queensland, which could serve to inform future fisheries management decisions. The study output as a whole will help in the better management of fisheries resources by evaluating recreational fishing opportunities in Queensland, where the potential for increases in recreation is high.

Keywords: Barramundi, bioeconomic model, fishery management, recreational fishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
144 Socio-economic Baselining of Selected Icrmp Sites in Southwestern Cebu, Central Philippines

Authors: Rachel Luz P. Vivas-rica, Gloria G. Delan, Christine M. Corrales, Alfonso S. Piquero, Irene A. Monte


ABSTRACT -Selected Integrated Coastal Resource Management Program (ICRMP) sites in Southwestern Cebu were studied employing a stratified proportional sampling method using semi-structured questionnaires. Four hundred sixteen (416) respondents from five barangays with Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and four barangays without marine sanctuaries were considered in the study. Results showed similarity of socio-economic characteristics in terms of average age, majority were middle aged, and married. Households were male dominated, obtained low education for both MPA and Non-MPA areas. In terms of occupation, majority in both areas engaged in fulltime fishing however part time jobs as carpenter, construction worker, driver or farmer as another income source. Most of the households were nuclear families with average family size of five for both MPA and Non-MPA. Fishing experience ranged from less than 1 year to more than 50 years. Fishing grounds were within the 15 kilometer radius of each considered site. Even if the respondents were totally dependent on fishing as a major source of income, still their income is way below the poverty threshold both in the MPA and Non-MPA areas. This is further explained by the marginality of their fishing implements wherein majority uses gill nets, hook & line, spear and paddle boat in fishing. Their volume of catch from an average of 6 hours fishing expedition ranges from half a kilo to a maximum of 4 kilos. Majority are not members of fishing groups or organizations.

Keywords: integrated coastal resource management program, marine protected areas, socio-economic, poverty threshold

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143 Navigating Rough Seas: A Qualitative Exploration of National Sociotechnical Imaginaries of Myanmar’s Future Marine Fisheries

Authors: Hannes Groeneweg


Myanmar is considered one of the largest fishing nations in the world. The country’s rapid economic and political reform process since 2011 entails both challenges and opportunities for its marine fishing sector. The development pathway of the sector remains unclear. Which future will eventually materialize is shaped and determined by the various visions and actions of the stakeholders engaging in political debates and decision-making. These visions can be conceptualized through the Science and Technology Studies (STS) concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. The research of this article is guided by the question of which imaginaries are currently relevant, who is propagating these imaginaries, and how are these imaginaries produced and contested. Using qualitative documentary analysis of policy documents, reports, and media articles as well as in-depth interviews with key stakeholders, three archetypical national sociotechnical imaginaries of Myanmar’s future marine fisheries were identified: The industrial scale extractivism imaginary views marine fishing sector as a driver for national economic growth and focuses on the industrial and technological development of the production chain, increasing yield and exports. Sustainable fishing management encompasses the vulnerability of marine ecosystems and views increasing efficient sustainability governance, planning, and management into existing fishing practices. In the traditional sufficiency fishing imaginary, small-scale fishing practices are viewed as an important livelihood practice for millions of coastal dwellers. The need to conserve them through strengthening the self-reliance, autonomy, and resilience of these communities is stressed. In national debates, the first two imaginaries are currently dominant. The imaginaries, as well as their contestations, are also linked to other critical political issues. The paper suggests that participatory decision-making processes are needed to create an inclusive imaginary of the future marine fishing sector.

Keywords: science and technology studies, sociotechnical imaginaries, marine fishing, knowledge coproduction, Myanmar

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
142 Understanding Willingness to Engage in pro-Environmental Behaviour among Recreational Anglers in South Africa

Authors: Kelvin Mwaba, Nicole Strickland


Background and Objectives: Overexploitation and illegal fishing have been identified as the primary cause of the global decline in the fish stock. While commercial companies and small-scale fishing sectors are strictly regulated in South Africa, recreational anglers are not. The underlying assumption seems to be that recreational anglers can self-regulate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship that recreational anglers have with nature and how this relationship can predict unlawful fishing practices. Methods: Using a survey design, 99 self-identified recreational anglers were recruited through convenient sampling. The anglers were accessed from fishing tackle shops around False Bay in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire that consisted of pro-environmental behavior survey and the Nature Relatedness Scale. Results: Data analyses indicated that significant differences with regard to nature relatedness on the basis of participants’ age and level of education. Older and more educated anglers scored higher on nature relatedness than younger and less educated anglers. Logistic regression analysis showed that nature relatedness was a significant predictor of pro-environmental behaviors (R²= 0.061). Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of the present study provide support regarding the importance of encouraging healthy and sustainable relationships between humans and nature. Combating harmful fishing practices can achieve through understanding and promoting human care for nature among anglers and others involved in fishing.

Keywords: pro-environmental, behavior, anglers, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
141 Modification Of Rubber Swab Tool With Brush To Reduce Rubber Swab Fraction Fishing Time

Authors: T. R. Hidayat, G. Irawan, F. Kurniawan, E. H. I. Prasetya, Suharto, T. F. Ridwan, A. Pitoyo, A. Juniantoro, R. T. Hidayat


Swab activities is an activity to lift fluid from inside the well with the use of a sand line that aims to find out fluid influx after conducting perforation or to reduce the level of fluid as an effort to get the difference between formation pressure with hydrostatic pressure in the well for underbalanced perforation. During the swab activity, problems occur frequent problems occur with the rubber swab. The rubber swab often breaks and becomes a fish inside the well. This rubber swab fishing activity caused the rig operation takes longer, the swab result data becomes too late and create potential losses of well operation for the company. The average time needed for fishing the fractions of rubber swab plus swab work is 42 hours. Innovation made for such problems is to modify the rubber swab tool. The rubber swab tool is modified by provided a series of brushes at the end part of the tool with a thread of connection in order to improve work safety, so when the rubber swab breaks, the broken swab will be lifted by the brush underneath; therefore, it reduces the loss time for rubber swab fishing. This tool has been applied, it and is proven that with this rubber swab tool modification, the rig operation becomes more efficient because it does not carry out the rubber swab fishing activity. The fish fractions of the rubber swab are lifted up to the surface. Therefore, it saves the fuel cost, and well production potentials are obtained. The average time to do swab work after the application of this modified tool is 8 hours.

Keywords: rubber swab, modifikasi swab, brush, fishing rubber swab, saving cost

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140 Assessment of Women Involvement in Fishing Activities: A Case Study of Epe and Ibeju Lekki LGA, Lagos

Authors: Temitope Adewale, Oladapo Raji


The study was designed to investigate the assessment of women's involvement in fishing. In order to give the study a direction, five research questions, as well as two hypotheses, were postulated, and a total of fifty (50) respondents each were selected from two local government areas for the study. This brings a total of one hundred (100) respondents selected from these local government areas in Lagos state. The outcome of the finding indicates that the percentage of the respondents’ age, 49% was between 31 and 35 years, 56% has a working experience of 6-10 years, 61% were married, 69% had secondary education as their educational level. However, findings show that socio-economic characteristics (x2 =15.504, df=6, p < 0.05) and income (r=0.83, p < 0.05) have a significant relationship on the fishing. It was established that the Women in Fish production/processing were faced with a lot of constraints such as high cost of inputs, inadequate electricity supply, lack of adequate capital, non-availability of the improved oven, non-availability of extension agents, inadequate fish landing, lack of transportation facilities, lack of training on financial management and loan acquisition which affected the level of output of women in Fish processing adversely.

Keywords: women, fishing, agriculture, Lagos

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139 Effects of Effort and Water Quality on Productivity (CPUE) of Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) Resources in Jatiluhur Dam, West Java

Authors: Ririn Marinasari, S. Pi


Hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) is one of Citarum river indigenous fishes that still find in Jatiluhur dam. IUCN at 2013 said that hampal listed on redlist species category, this species was rare in Jatiluhur dam. This species more and more decreasing because change of habitats characteristic such as water quality and fishing effort. This study aims to determine and identify the influence of fishing effort and the quality of water on the productivity of fish resources hampal (Hampala macrolepidota) in Jatiluhur. The study was conducted from October to November 2013. Zones of research include lacustrine zone, transition and Riverin. Hampal fish productivity value computed by Hampal’s CPUE values. The results showed that fish MSY hampal obtained from surplus production model of Schaefer is equal to 0.2045 tons / quarterly. In the years 2011-2012 have occurred over fishing in 2013 while still under fishing. Total catches have exceeded the MSY during the year 2011 and the third quarterly of 2012 tons of fish that exceed 0.2045 hampal. The rate of utilization of fish resources hampal is equal to 80% of MSY or equal to the allowable catch (Total Allowable Catch) for fish in Jatiluhur hampal based Schaefer surplus production theory. Fishing effort, water quality parameters such as DO, turbidity and negatively correlated sulfide as H2S, while the temperature and pH positively correlated to productivity or unit catches fish hampal efforts in quarterly time series in the period 2011-2013. Shows that the higher fishing effort, DO, turbidity and sulfide in H2S and diminishing the temperature and pH of the productivity decreases. Variables that affect the productivity of fishing hampal only H2S only factor beta coefficient -0.834 which indicates a negative effect. It can be caused by H2S levels are toxic and have already exceeded the quality standard, while for other water quality parameters are still below the maximum standards allowed in the waters. Result of the study can be a reference of fishing regulation for hampal conservation in Jatiluhur dam.

Keywords: effort, hampal, productivity, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
138 Feasibility on Introducing an Alternative Solar Powered Propelling Mechanism for Multiday Fishing Boats in Sri Lanka

Authors: Oshada Gamage, Chamal Wimalasooriya, Chrismal Boteju, W. K. Wimalsiri


This paper presents a study on the feasibility of introducing a solar powered propelling mechanism to multi-day fishing boats as an alternative energy source. Since solar energy is readily available on the sea throughout the year, this free energy could be utilized to power multi-day fishing vessels. Multi-day boats have a large deck area where solar panels can be mounted above without much effort. This project involves studying the amount of power that can be generated using onboard solar panels and implementing an independent propelling system to run the boat. A chain drive system was designed to propel the boat, when the batteries are fully charged, from an electric motor using the same propeller. A 60 feet multi-day fishing boat built by a local boat manufacturer was chosen for the study. The service speed of the boat was around 6 knots with the electric motor, and the duration of cruising is 1 hour per day with around 11 hours of charging. 350-watt Mono-crystalline PV module, 75 kW HVH type motor, and 10 kWh lithium-ion battery packs were chosen for the study. From the calculations, it was obtained that the boat has 30 PV modules (10.5 kW), 5 batteries (47 kWh), The boat dimensions are 20 meter length of water line, 5.51 meter of beam, 1.8 meter of draught, and 77 ton of total displacement with the PV system net present value of USD 12445 for 20 years of operation and a payback period of around 8.2 years.

Keywords: multiday fishing boats, photovoltaic cells, solar energy, solar powered boat

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137 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash


UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and non military works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (sound navigation and ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: UAV, Surveillance, RF signals, fishing, sonar, GPS, video stream, school of fish

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136 The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch

Authors: Cenkmen R. Begburs


In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.

Keywords: reef trap, Antalya, environment, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
135 Simulation of Climatic Change Effects on the Potential Fishing Zones of Dorado Fish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) in the Colombian Pacific under Scenarios RCP Using CMIP5 Model

Authors: Adriana Martínez-Arias, John Josephraj Selvaraj, Luis Octavio González-Salcedo


In the Colombian Pacific, Dorado fish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) fisheries is of great commercial interest. However, its habitat and fisheries may be affected by climatic change especially by the actual increase in sea surface temperature. Hence, it is of interest to study the dynamics of these species fishing zones. In this study, we developed Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models to predict Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) as an indicator of species abundance. The model was based on four oceanographic variables (Chlorophyll a, Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly and Bathymetry) derived from satellite data. CPUE datasets for model training and cross-validation were obtained from logbooks of commercial fishing vessel. Sea surface Temperature for Colombian Pacific were projected under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and CPUE maps were created. Our results indicated that an increase in sea surface temperature reduces the potential fishing zones of this species in the Colombian Pacific. We conclude that ANN is a reliable tool for simulation of climate change effects on the potential fishing zones. This research opens a future agenda for other species that have been affected by climate change.

Keywords: climatic change, artificial neural networks, dorado fish, CPUE

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134 Adaptation to Climate Change: An Anthropological Study on Changing Livelihood Strategies in South-West Coastal Bangladesh

Authors: Ashik Sarder


Bangladesh is a disaster-prone and one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. The country has a long coastal area which is frequently being affected by several types of natural disasters due to climate change. The disasters have impacts on the life and livelihood of different natural resources depending on communities living in the coastal areas. The Malo is a Hindu religious traditional fishing community living at Sarafpur Union of Dumuria Upazila of Khulna district of south-west coastal Bangladesh. Fishing is the only means of their livelihood and the community has been engaged in fishing practices inherently in rivers, estuaries, and sea for more than 300 years. and they are totally dependent on this traditional occupation. But, in recent year’s climate change has negative impacts on their only livelihood option. The study aims to examine the impacts of climate change on the livelihood of Malo fishing community in south-west coastal Bangladesh, identify the adaptation strategies undertaken and practiced by Malo fishing community to cope with climate change and sustain their livelihood and explore the changing adaptation strategies undertaken by Malo fishing community and others. The study has been conducted from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Data has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data has been collected in the participatory observation approach following both qualitative and quantitative method. The primary source of data includes village census, face-to-face interview and in-depth case studies using structured questionnaire. The secondary source of the literature includes different national and international documents, policy papers, books and articles; related websites and peer-viewed documents on climate change, vulnerability, adaptation, livelihood, and fisheries. The study has identified different practices of adaption to climate change by Malo fishing community and others in the selected area. Three types of adaption practices have been identified. Firstly, the indigenous adaptation practices by Malo fishing community to cope with climate change have been identified. These identified adaptation practices by Malo fishing community include; ensuring drinking water and sanitation facilities, planting trees to tackle impacts of cyclone, excavating dumps to preserve the valuable assets, growing vegetables and rearing domestic livestock to earn surplus money, taking loans for ensuring continuation of present livelihood and migrating to near city or towns for better livelihood options. Secondly, adaptation initiatives undertaken by the government have provided limited facility to this vulnerable fishing community and made them benefited. And thirdly, some adaptation initiatives commenced by few non-government and community-based organizations have also made the Malo fishing community as beneficiaries. The study has suggested recommendations for Malo fishing community to overcome the challenges and impacts of climate change for retaining their traditional fishing livelihood. The accumulated recommendations would be very useful for the researchers, academicians, policy-makers of Government and non-government organizations to conduct more researches and take initiatives for Malo fishing community to make them more capable to sustain their fishing livelihood.

Keywords: climate change, livelihood, adaptation, anthropology, vulnerability

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133 Securitization of Illegal Fishing Cases in Natuna Waters by Indonesian Government: Study Case of Chinese Vessels Shootouts 2016

Authors: Ray Maximillian, Idil Syawfi


Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone and the infamous China’s nine-dash line are intersected in Natuna waters. Even though from Indonesia perspective, that line does not possess any legal basis, China treat that line as their national boundaries, therefore allowing Chinese fishermen to fish in the area. Under President Joko Widodo leadership, Indonesia which now focusing to suppress illegal fishing cases while emphasizing their maritime sovereignty is facing an imminent threat from China’s presence in Natuna. Tension between these countries spiked after three incident happened on 2016, especially after Indonesian navy shot Chinese fishermen vessel that suspected doing illegal fishing activity. This action seen as an attempt to secure Indonesia’s law enforcement in their waters after several months before such attempt was intervened by Chinese coast guard. Indonesia tries to securitize this issue to justify the shooting they done to Chinese vessels. In the process of securitization, it is imperative to identify the existential threat that leads to implementation of emergency measures which responded by units in the cases. Chinese coast guard presence in Natuna perceived as an existential threat to Indonesia, therefore, responded by shooting to Chinese vessels on the next encounter. This action then responded by Chinese government who said that there is overlapping claim between them and Indonesia in Natuna.

Keywords: China, illegal fishing, Indonesia, natuna, securitization

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
132 Patterns of Gear Substitution in Norwegian Trawl Fishery

Authors: Tannaz Alizadeh Ashrafi


Seasonal variability in biological and ecological factors together with relevant socio-economic determinants affect the choice of fishing gear, frequency of its usage and decision about gear conversion under multi-species situation. In order to deal with the complex dynamics of fisheries, fishers, constantly, have to make decisions about how long to fish, when to go fishing, what species to target, and which gear to deploy. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of gear/ species combination in Norwegian fishery. A comprehensive vessel-level set of data for the main economically important species including: cod, haddock, saithe, shrimp and mixed catch have been obtained from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries covering the daily data in 2010. The present study further analyzes the level of flexibility and rationality of the fishers operating in the trawl fishery. The results show the disproportion between intention of the trawl fishers to maximize profitability of each fishing trip and their harvesting behavior in reality. Discussion is based on so-called maximizing behavior.

Keywords: trawl fishery, gear substitution, rationality, profit maximizing behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
131 Climate Variations and Fishers

Authors: S. Surapa Raju


In Andhra Pradesh, the symptoms of climate variations in coastal villages can be observed from various studies. The Andhra Pradesh coast is known its frequent tropical cyclones and associated floods and tidal surges causing loss of life and property in the region. In the last decade alone, the state experienced 18 devastating storms causing huge loss to coastal people. The year 2007 was the fourth warmest year on record since 1901 and 2009 witnessed the heat wave conditions prevailing over the coastal Andhra Pradesh. With regarding to sea level rise (SLR), 43 percent of the coastal areas considered to be at high risk. The main objectives of the study are: to know the perceptions of fisher people on climate variations and to find out the awareness of the fisher people on climate variations and its effects at village and on fishing households. Altogether 150 households were chosen purposively for this study and collected information from the households based on semi-structured schedule. The present field-based study observed that most of the fisher people are experienced about the changes in climate variations in their villages. The first generation fisher people expressed that the at least 1/2km of sea erosion taken place from the last 20 years and most of them displaced. With regard to fishing activities, first generation fisher people revealed that 20 years back they were fishing in near-shore areas, but now availability of near shore is decreased at a large extent. The present study observed the lot of variations in growth of species in marine districts of Andhra Pradesh from the year 2005-2010. Some species like Silver pomfret, Sole (flat fish), Chriocentrus, Thrisocies, Stakes, Rays etc. are in decaling. The results of the study indicate that huge variation observed in growth rates of fish species. Small and traditional fishers have drastically effected in El NiNo years than the normal years as they have not own suitable equipment such as crafts and nets. The study discovered that many changes taken place in the fishing activities and they are: go for long distance for fishing which increases the cost of fishing operations; decrease in fish catches. Need to take up in-depth studies in the marine villages and tackle the situation by creating more awareness about the negative effects of climate variations among fishing households. Suitable fish craft technology is to be supplied and create more employment opportunities for the fishers in other than fishery.

Keywords: climate, Andhra Pradesh, El nino years, India

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130 Fishing Waste: A Source of Valuable Products through Anaerobic Treatments

Authors: Luisa Maria Arrechea Fajardo, Luz Stella Cadavid Rodriguez


Fish is one of the most commercialized foods worldwide. However, this industry only takes advantage of about 55% of the product's weight, the rest is converted into waste, which is mainly composed of viscera, gills, scales and spines. Consequently, if these wastes are not used or disposed of properly, they cause serious environmental impacts. This is the case of Tumaco (Colombia), the second largest producer of marine fisheries on the Colombian Pacific coast, where artisanal fishermen process more than 50% of the commercialized volume. There, fishing waste is disposed primarily in the ocean, causing negative impacts on the environment and society. Therefore, in the present research, a proposal was made to take advantage of fishing waste through anaerobic treatments, through which it is possible to obtain products with high added value from organic waste. The research was carried out in four stages. First, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in semi-continuous 4L reactors was studied, evaluating three hydraulic retention times (HRT) (10, 7 and 5 days) with four organic loading rates (OLR) (16, 14, 12 and 10 gVS/L/day), the experiment was carried out for 150 days. Subsequently, biogas production was evaluated from the solid digestate generated in the VFA production reactors, initially evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 4 total solid concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6% TS), for 40 days and then, with the optimum TS concentration (2 gVS/L/day), 2 HRT (15 and 20 days) in semi-continuous reactors, were evaluated for 100 days. Finally, the integration of the processes was carried out with the best conditions found, a first phase of VFA production from fishing waste and a second phase of biogas production from unrecovered VFAs and unprocessed material Additionally, an VFA membrane extraction system was included. In the first phase, a liquid digestate with a concentration and VFA production yield of 59.04 gVFA/L and 0.527 gVFA/gVS, respectively, was obtained, with the best condition found (HRT:7 days and OLR: 16 gVS/L/día), where acetic acid and isobutyric acid were the predominant acids. In the second phase of biogas production, a BMP of 0.349 Nm3CH4/KgVS was reached, and it was found as best HRT 20 days. In the integration, the isovaleric, butyric and isobutyric acid were the VFA with the highest percentage of extraction, additionally a 106.67% increase in biogas production was achieved. This research shows that anaerobic treatments are a promising technology for an environmentally safe management of fishing waste and presents the basis of a possible biorefinery.

Keywords: biogas production, fishing waste, VFA membrane extraction, VFA production

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129 The Survey of Sea Cucumber Fisheries in QESHM Island Coasts: Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Rastin Afkhami


Sea cucumbers are aquatic animals with a wide variety useful for human health. Sea cucumbers are from the aquatic creatures that have many important and useful properties known for human health. Increasing demand for beche-de-mer along with steady price increases have led to worldwide intensification of sea cucumber harvesting. The rearing of sea cucumber with shrimp controls the environmental pollution results from extra enriched nutritious built on the pond bottom. These animals eat detritus and with devouring of organic materials on the surface, not only do they make the environment clean, but also they cause the fast growth of shrimp and themselves. Holothuria scabra is a main species for producing of Beche-de-mer and more exploited in tropical region of the world. The wall of body is used in the process of beche-de-mer production that forms the 56% of the whole body. Holothuria scabra (sandfish) is an aspidochirote holothurian widely distributed in coastal regions throughout the Indo-Pacific region. H. scabra is often found on inner reef flats and near estuaries, half buried in the silt sand during the day and emerging at night to feed. In this study upon to information from local fishermen's in Qeshm island, we Providing some data about fishing methods, processing and distribution in the Qeshm island coastline. Comparative study of fishing status with another part of the world determined that the status of sea cucumber stocks in Qeshm Island is suitable. For preventing of over exploited of sandy sea cucumber capture prohibition should be continue. In this study, 7 explotide sites are recognized, the target size for fishermen's was more than 20 cm and sandy cucumber was the target species in Qeshm Island. In this area the fishing operation was only done by scuba diving and has been done only by men's. Although in another countries women's have an important role in sea cucumber fishing operation. In the coast around Qeshm island it is found in Hmoon, Tolla, kovei, Ramchah, Messen, and Hengam. The maximum length and weight was recorded 35 cm and 1080 gr, respectively.

Keywords: sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, fishing status, Qeshm Island

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128 Mobulid Ray Post-Release Mortality to Assess the Feasibility of Live-Release Management Measures

Authors: Sila K. Sari, Betty J.L. Laglbauer, Muhammad G. Salim, Irianies C. Gozali, Iqbal Herwata, Fahmi Fahmi, Selvia Oktaviyani, Isabel Ender, Sarah Lewis, Abraham Sianipar, Mark Erdmann


Taking strides towards the sustainable use of marine stocks requires science-based management of target fish populations and reduction of bycatch in non-selective fisheries. Among elasmobranchs, mobulid rays are faced with high extinction risk due to intrinsic vulnerability to fishing and their conservation has been recognized as a strong priority both in Indonesia and worldwide. Despite their common vulnerabilities to fishing pressure due to slow growth, late maturation and low fecundity, only manta rays, but not devil rays, are protected in Indonesian waters. However, both manta and devil rays are captured in non-selective fisheries, in particular drift gillnets, since their habitat overlaps with fishing grounds for primary target species (e.g. marlin, swordfish and bullet tuna off the coast of Muncar). For this reason, mobulid populations are being heavily impacted, and while national-level protections are crucial to help conservation, they may not suffice alone to insure populations sustainability. In order to assess the potential of applying live-release management measures to conserve mobulids captured as bycatch in drift gillnets, we deployed pop-up survival archival transmitters to assess post-release mortality in Indonesian mobulid rays. We also assessed which fishing practices, in particular, soak duration, affected post-release mortality in order to draw relevant conclusions for management.

Keywords: Mobulid, Devil ray, Manta ray, Bycatch

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127 Preference Heterogeneity as a Positive Rather Than Negative Factor towards Acceptable Monitoring Schemes: Co-Management of Artisanal Fishing Communities in Vietnam

Authors: Chi Nguyen Thi Quynh, Steven Schilizzi, Atakelty Hailu, Sayed Iftekhar


Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) have been emerged as a promising tool for fisheries conservation and management. However, illegal fishing has undermined the effectiveness of TURFs, profoundly degrading global fish stocks and marine ecosystems. Conservation and management of fisheries, therefore, largely depends on effectiveness of enforcing fishing regulations, which needs co-enforcement by fishers. However, fishers tend to resist monitoring participation, as their views towards monitoring scheme design has not been received adequate attention. Fishers’ acceptability of a monitoring scheme is likely to be achieved if there is a mechanism allowing fishers to engage in the early planning and design stages. This study carried out a choice experiment with 396 fishers in Vietnam to elicit fishers’ preferences for monitoring scheme and to estimate the relative importance that fishers place on the key design elements. Preference heterogeneity was investigated using a Scale-Adjusted Latent Class Model that accounts for both preference and scale variance. Welfare changes associated with the proposed monitoring schemes were also examined. It is found that there are five distinct preference classes, suggesting that there is no one-size-fits-all scheme well-suited to all fishers. Although fishers prefer to be compensated more for their participation, compensation is not a driving element affecting fishers’ choice. Most fishers place higher value on other elements, such as institutional arrangements and monitoring capacity. Fishers’ preferences are driven by their socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Understanding of how changes in design elements’ levels affect the participation of fishers could provide policy makers with insights useful for monitoring scheme designs tailored to the needs of different fisher classes.

Keywords: Design of monitoring scheme, Enforcement, Heterogeneity, Illegal Fishing, Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries

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126 The Curse of Oil: Unpacking the Challenges to Food Security in the Nigeria's Niger Delta

Authors: Abosede Omowumi Babatunde


While the Niger Delta region satisfies the global thirst for oil, the inhabitants have not been adequately compensated for the use of their ancestral land. Besides, the ruthless exploitation and destruction of the natural environment upon which the inhabitants of the Niger Delta depend for their livelihood and sustenance by the activities of oil multinationals, pose major threats to food security in the region and by implication, Nigeria in general, Africa, and the world, given the present global emphasis on food security. This paper examines the effect of oil exploitation on household food security, identify key gaps in measures put in place to address the changes to livelihoods and food security and explore what should be done to improve the local people access to sufficient, safe and culturally acceptable food in the Niger Delta. Data is derived through interviews with key informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with respondents in the local communities in the Niger Delta states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers as well as relevant extant studies. The threat to food security is one important aspect of the human security challenges in the Niger Delta which has received limited scholarly attention. In addition, successive Nigerian governments have not meaningfully addressed the negative impacts of oil-induced environmental degradation on traditional livelihoods given the significant linkages between environmental sustainability, livelihood security, and food security. The destructive impact of oil pollution on the farmlands, crops, economic trees, creeks, lakes, and fishing equipment is so devastating that the people can no longer engage in productive farming and fishing. Also important is the limited access to modern agricultural methods for fishing and subsistence farming as fishing and farming are done using mostly crude implements and traditional methods. It is imperative and urgent to take stock of the negative implications of the activities of oil multinationals for environmental and livelihood sustainability, and household food security in the Niger Delta.

Keywords: challenges, food security, Nigeria's Niger delta, oil

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125 Assessment of the Impact of Trawling Activities on Marine Bottoms of Moroccan Atlantic

Authors: Rachida Houssa, Hassan Rhinane, Fadoumo Ali Malouw, Amina Oulmaalem


Since the early 70s, the Moroccan Atlantic sea was subjected to the pressure of the bottom trawling, one of the most destructive techniques seabed that cause havoc on fishing catch, nonselective, and responsible for more than half of all releases of fish around the world. The present paper aims to map and assess the impact of the activity of the bottom trawling of the Moroccan Atlantic coast. For this purpose, a dataset of thirty years, between 1962 and 1999, from foreign fishing vessels using bottom trawling, has been used and integrated in a GIS. To estimate the extent and the importance of the geographical distribution of the trawling effort, the Moroccan Atlantic area was divided into a grid of cells of 25 km2 (5x5 km). This grid was joined to the effort trawling data, creating a new entity with a table containing spatial overlay grid with the polygon of swept surfaces. This mapping model allowed to quantify the used fishing effort versus time and to generate the trace indicative of trawling efforts on the seabed. Indeed, for a given year, a grid cell may have a swept area equal to 0 (never been touched by the trawl) or 25 km2 (the trawled area is similar to the cell size) or may be 100 km2 indicating that for this year, the scanned surface is four times the cell area. The results show that the total cumulative sum of trawled area is approximately 28,738,326 km2, scattered throughout the Atlantic coast. 95% of the overall trawling effort is located in the southern zone, between 29°N and 20°30'N. Nearly 5% of the trawling effort is located in the northern coastal region, north of 33°N. The center area between 33°N and 29°N is the least swept by Russian commercial vessels because in this region the majority of the area is rocky, and non trawlable.

Keywords: GIS, Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, seabed, trawling

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124 Leveraging Advanced Technologies and Data to Eliminate Abandoned, Lost, or Otherwise Discarded Fishing Gear and Derelict Fishing Gear

Authors: Grant Bifolchi


As global environmental problems continue to have highly adverse effects, finding long-term, sustainable solutions to combat ecological distress are of growing paramount concern. Ghost Gear—also known as abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) and derelict fishing gear (DFG)—represents one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans, posing a significant hazard to human health, livelihoods, and global food security. In fact, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear represents approximately 10% of marine debris by volume. Around the world, many governments, governmental and non-profit organizations are doing their best to manage the reporting and retrieval of nets, lines, ropes, traps, floats and more from their respective bodies of water. However, these organizations’ ability to effectively manage files and documents about the environmental problem further complicates matters. In Ghost Gear monitoring and management, organizations face additional complexities. Whether it’s data ingest, industry regulations and standards, garnering actionable insights into the location, security, and management of data, or the application of enforcement due to disparate data—all of these factors are placing massive strains on organizations struggling to save the planet from the dangers of Ghost Gear. In this 90-minute educational session, globally recognized Ghost Gear technology expert Grant Bifolchi CET, BBA, Bcom, will provide real-world insight into how governments currently manage Ghost Gear and the technology that can accelerate success in combatting ALDFG and DFG. In this session, attendees will learn how to: • Identify specific technologies to solve the ingest and management of Ghost Gear data categories, including type, geo-location, size, ownership, regional assignment, collection and disposal. • Provide enhanced access to authorities, fisheries, independent fishing vessels, individuals, etc., while securely controlling confidential and privileged data to globally recognized standards. • Create and maintain processing accuracy to effectively track ALDFG/DFG reporting progress—including acknowledging receipt of the report and sharing it with all pertinent stakeholders to ensure approvals are secured. • Enable and utilize Business Intelligence (BI) and Analytics to store and analyze data to optimize organizational performance, maintain anytime-visibility of report status, user accountability, scheduling, management, and foster governmental transparency. • Maintain Compliance Reporting through highly defined, detailed and automated reports—enabling all stakeholders to share critical insights with internal colleagues, regulatory agencies, and national and international partners.

Keywords: ghost gear, ALDFG, DFG, abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear, data, technology

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