Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: ICP-MS

6 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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5 Applications of Copper Sensitive Fluorescent Dye to the Studies of the Role of Copper in Cisplatin Resistance in Human Cancer

Authors: Sumayah Mohammed Asiri A., Aviva Levina B., Elizabeth New C., Peter Lay D.


Pt compounds have been among the most successful anticancer drugs in the last 40 years, but the development of resistance to them is an increasing problem. Cellular homeostasis of an essential metal, Cu, is known to be involved in Pt resistance, but mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. We used a novel ratiometric Cu(I)-sensitive fluorescent probeInCCu1 dye to detect Cu(I) in the mitochondria. Total Cu and labile Cu pool measured using AAS and InCCu1 dye in A2780 cells and their corresponding resistant cells A2780-cis.R cells treated with Cu and cisplatin. The main difference between both cell lines in the presence and absence of Cu(II) is that resistant cells have lower total Cu content but higher labile Cu levels than cisplatin-sensitive cells. This means that resistant cells can metabolize and export excess Cu more efficiently. Furthermore, InCCu1 has emerged not only as an indicator of labile cellular Cu levels in the mitochondria but as a potentially versatile multi-organelle probe.

Keywords: AAS and ICPMS, A2780 and its resistant cells, ratiometric fluorescent sensors, inCCu1, and total and labile Cu

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4 Waters Colloidal Phase Extraction and Preconcentration: Method Comparison

Authors: Emmanuelle Maria, Pierre Crançon, Gaëtane Lespes


Colloids are ubiquitous in the environment and are known to play a major role in enhancing the transport of trace elements, thus being an important vector for contaminants dispersion. Colloids study and characterization are necessary to improve our understanding of the fate of pollutants in the environment. However, in stream water and groundwater, colloids are often very poorly concentrated. It is therefore necessary to pre-concentrate colloids in order to get enough material for analysis, while preserving their initial structure. Many techniques are used to extract and/or pre-concentrate the colloidal phase from bulk aqueous phase, but yet there is neither reference method nor estimation of the impact of these different techniques on the colloids structure, as well as the bias introduced by the separation method. In the present work, we have tested and compared several methods of colloidal phase extraction/pre-concentration, and their impact on colloids properties, particularly their size distribution and their elementary composition. Ultrafiltration methods (frontal, tangential and centrifugal) have been considered since they are widely used for the extraction of colloids in natural waters. To compare these methods, a ‘synthetic groundwater’ was used as a reference. The size distribution (obtained by Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF)) and the chemical composition of the colloidal phase (obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Total Organic Carbon analysis (TOC)) were chosen as comparison factors. In this way, it is possible to estimate the pre-concentration impact on the colloidal phase preservation. It appears that some of these methods preserve in a more efficient manner the colloidal phase composition while others are easier/faster to use. The choice of the extraction/pre-concentration method is therefore a compromise between efficiency (including speed and ease of use) and impact on the structural and chemical composition of the colloidal phase. In perspective, the use of these methods should enhance the consideration of colloidal phase in the transport of pollutants in environmental assessment studies and forensics.

Keywords: chemical composition, colloids, extraction, preconcentration methods, size distribution

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3 Radiation Skin Decontamination Formulation

Authors: Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rakesh Kumar Sharma


Radio-nuclides decontamination is an important task because any extra second of deposition leads to deleterious health effects. We had developed and characterise nanoemulsion of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens using phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and evaluate its decontamination efficacy (DE). The solubility of the drug was determined in various oils and surfactants. Nanoemulsion developed with an HLB value of 11 and different ratios of the surfactants 10% (7:3, w/w), oil (20%, w/w), and double distilled water (70%) were selected. Formulation was characterised by multi-photon spectroscopy and parameters like viscosity, droplet size distribution, zeta potential and stability were optimised. In vitro and Ex vivo decontamination efficacy (DE) was evaluated against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131, and Thallium-201 as radio-contaminants applied over skin of Sprague-Dawley rat and human tissue equivalent model. Contaminants were removed using formulation soaked in cotton swabs at different time intervals and whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using SPECT gamma camera before and after decontamination attempt. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significant (p <0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens was compared with placebo and recorded to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for 99mTc, 131I and 201Tl respectively. Ex-vivo complexation study of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion with surrogate nuclides of radioactive thallium and Iodine, were performed on rat skin mounted on Franz diffusion cell using high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). More than 90% complexation of the formulation with these nuclides was observed. Results demonstrate that the prepared nanoemulsion formulation was found efficacious for the decontamination of radionuclides from a large contaminated population.

Keywords: p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens, skin decontamination, radiological emergencies, nanoemulsion, iodine-131, thallium-201

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2 Uranium Migration Process: A Multi-Technique Investigation Strategy for a Better Understanding of the Role of Colloids

Authors: Emmanuelle Maria, Pierre Crançon, Gaëtane Lespes


The knowledge of uranium migration processes within underground environments is a major issue in the environmental risk assessment associated with nuclear activities. This process is identified as strongly controlled by adsorption mechanisms, thus leading to strongly delayed migration paths. Colloidal ligands are likely to significantly increase the mobility of uranium in natural environments. The ability of colloids to mobilize and transport uranium depends on their origin, their nature, their structure, their stability and their reactivity with uranium. Thus, the colloidal mobilization and transport properties are often described as site-specific. In this work, the colloidal phases of two leachates obtained from two different horizons of the same podzolic soil were characterized with a speciation approach. For this purpose, a multi-technique strategy was used, based on Field-Flow Fractionation coupled to Ultraviolet, Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (AF4-UV-MALS-ICPMS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Electrospray Ionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (ESI-Orbitrap), and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS-EEM). Thus, elemental composition, size distribution, microscopic structure, colloidal stability and possible organic and/or inorganic content of colloids were determined, as well as their association with uranium. The leachates exhibit differences in their physical and chemical characteristics, mainly in the nature of organic matter constituents. The multi-technique investigation strategy used provides original data about colloidal phase structure and composition, offering a new vision of the way the uranium can be mobilized and transported in the considered soil. This information is a real significant contribution opening the way to our understanding and predicting of the colloidal transport.

Keywords: colloids, migration, multi-technique, speciation, transport, uranium

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1 Simultaneous Detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², and Pb⁺² Heavy Metal Ions by Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyvinyl Chloride Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Authors: Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, K. Sruthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya


Heavy metal ions are toxic to humans and all living species when exposed in large quantities or for long durations. Though Fe acts as a nutrient, when intake is in large quantities, it becomes toxic. These toxic heavy metal ions, when consumed through water, will cause many disorders and are harmful to all flora and fauna through biomagnification. Specifically, humans are prone to innumerable diseases ranging from skin to gastrointestinal, neurological, etc. In higher quantities, they even cause cancer in humans. Detection of these toxic heavy metal ions in water is thus important. Traditionally, the detection of heavy metal ions in water has been done by techniques like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Though these methods offer accurate quantitative analysis, they require expensive equipment and cannot be used for on-site measurements. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry is a good alternative as the equipment is affordable, and measurements can be made at the river basins or lakes. In the current study, Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) was used to detect the heavy metal ions in water. Literature reports various electrodes on which deposition of heavy metal ions was carried out like Bismuth, Polymers, etc. The working electrode used in this study is a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Ag/AgCl reference electrode and Platinum counter electrode were used. Biologic Potentiostat SP 300 was used for conducting the experiments. Through this work of simultaneous detection, four heavy metal ions were successfully detected at a time. The influence of modifying GCE with PVC was studied in comparison with unmodified GCE. The simultaneous detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², Pb⁺² heavy metal ions was done using PVC modified GCE by drop casting 1 wt.% of PVC dissolved in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF) solvent onto GCE. The concentration of all heavy metal ions was 0.2 mg/L, as shown in the figure. The scan rate was 0.1 V/s. Detection parameters like pH, scan rate, temperature, time of deposition, etc., were optimized. It was clearly understood that PVC helped in increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of detection as the current values are higher for PVC-modified GCE compared to unmodified GCE. The peaks were well defined when PVC-modified GCE was used.

Keywords: cadmium, cobalt, electrochemical sensing, glassy carbon electrodes, heavy metal Ions, Iron, lead, polyvinyl chloride, potentiostat, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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