Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2662

Search results for: square wave voltammetry

2662 Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone by Square Wave Voltammetry Using a Zn Layered Hydroxide-Ferulate Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode

Authors: Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Illyas M. Isa


In this paper, a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) paste electrode modified by a Zn layered hydroxide-ferulate (ZLH-F) was used for detection of hydroquinone (HQ). The morphology and characteristic of the ZLH-F/MWCNT were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under optimal conditions, the SWV response showed linear plot for HQ concentration in the range of 1.0×10⁻⁵ M – 1.0×10⁻³ M. The detection limit was found to be 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and correlation coefficient of 0.9957. The glucose, fructose, sucrose, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, lysine, NO₃⁻, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ did not interfere the HQ response. This modified electrode can be used to determine HQ content in wastewater and cosmetic cream with range of recovery 97.8% - 103.0%.

Keywords: 1, 4-dihydroxybenzene, hydroquinone, multiwall carbon nanotubes, square wave voltammetry

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2661 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper (II) at the Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) MWCNT Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim


A highly selective and sensitive electrode for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was proposed. The electrode was made of the paste of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) at 100:5 (w/w). Under optimal conditions the electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu (II) and limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M Cu (II). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) of response to 1.0 × 10–6 M Cu(II) was 0.036. The interferences of cations such as Ni(II), Mg(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) are negligible except from Pb (II). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favorable. Result of analysis of Cu(II) in several water samples agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed electrode was then recommended as an alternative to spectroscopic technique in analyzing Cu (II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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2660 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim


A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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2659 Optimized Parameters for Simultaneous Detection of Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺ and CO²⁺ Ions in Water Using Square Wave Voltammetry on the Unmodified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Authors: K. Sruthi, Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, Swathi Gosh Acharyya


Water is the most crucial element for sustaining life on earth. Increasing water pollution directly or indirectly leads to harmful effects on human life. Most of the heavy metal ions are harmful in their cationic form. These heavy metal ions are released by various activities like disposing of batteries, industrial wastes, automobile emissions, and soil contamination. Ions like (Pb, Co, Cd) are carcinogenic and show many harmful effects when consumed more than certain limits proposed by WHO. The simultaneous detection of the heavy metal ions (Pb, Co, Cd), which are highly toxic, is reported in this study. There are many analytical methods for quantifying, but electrochemical techniques are given high priority because of their sensitivity and ability to detect and recognize lower concentrations. Square wave voltammetry was preferred in electrochemical methods due to the absence of background currents which is interference. Square wave voltammetry was performed on GCE for the quantitative detection of ions. Three electrode system consisting of a glassy carbon electrode as the working electrode (3 mm diameter), Ag/Agcl electrode as the reference electrode, and a platinum wire as the counter electrode was chosen for experimentation. The mechanism of detection was done by optimizing the experimental parameters, namely pH, scan rate, and temperature. Under the optimized conditions, square wave voltammetry was performed for simultaneous detection. Scan rates were varied from 5 mV/s to 100 mV/s and found that at 25 mV/s all the three ions were detected simultaneously with proper peaks at particular stripping potential. The variation of pH from 3 to 8 was done where the optimized pH was taken as pH 5 which holds good for three ions. There was a decreasing trend at starting because of hydrogen gas evolution, and after pH 5 again there was a decreasing trend that is because of hydroxide formation on the surface of the working electrode (GCE). The temperature variation from 25˚C to 45˚C was done where the optimum temperature concerning three ions was taken as 35˚C. Deposition and stripping potentials were given as +1.5 V and -1.5 V, and the resting time of 150 seconds was given. Three ions were detected at stripping potentials of Cd²⁺ at -0.84 V, Pb²⁺ at -0.54 V, and Co²⁺ at -0.44 V. The parameters of detection were optimized on a glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of the ions at lower concentrations by square wave voltammetry.

Keywords: cadmium, cobalt, lead, glassy carbon electrode, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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2658 Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Chromium(III), Arsenic(III), and Mercury (II) In Water Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

Authors: V. Sai Geethika, Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, Swati Ghosh Acharyya


This study involves a single element and simultaneous electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions through square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. A glassy carbon electrode was used to detect and quantify heavy metals such as As(III), Hg(II), Cr(VI) ions in water. Under optimized conditions, peak separation was obtained by varying concentrations, scan rates, and temperatures. As (III), Hg (II), Cr (III) were simultaneously detected with GCE. Several analytical methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), were used previously to detect heavy metal ions, which are authentic but are not good enough for online monitoring due to the bulkiness of the equipment. The study provides a good alternative that is simple, more efficient, and low-cost, involving a portable potentiostat. Heavy metals having different oxidation states can be detected by anodic stripping voltammetry. This method can be easily integrated with electronics. Square wave Anodic stripping voltammetry is used with a potential range of -2.5 V – 2.5 V for single ion detection by a three-electrode cell consisting of silver/silver chloride(Ag/AgCl) as reference and platinum (Pt) counter and glassy carbon (GCE) working electrodes. All three ions are optimized by varying the parameters like concentration, scan rate, pH, temperature, and all these optimized parameters were used for studying the effects of simultaneous detection. The procedure involves preparing an electrolyte using deionized water, cleaning the surface of GCE, depositing the ions by applying the redox potentials obtained from cyclic voltammetry (CV), and then detecting by applying oxidizing potential, i.e., stripping voltage. So this includes ASV techniques such as open-circuit voltage (OCV), chronoamperometry (CA), and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Firstly, the concentration of the ions varied from 50 ppb to 5000 ppb, and an optimum concentration was determined where the three ions were detected. A concentration of 400 ppb was used while varying the temperatures in the range of 25°C – 45°C. Optimum peak intensity was obtained at a temperature of 30°C with a low scan rate of 0.005 V-s⁻¹. All the parameters were optimized, and several effects have been noticed while three ions As(II), Cr(III), Hg(II) were detected alone and simultaneously.

Keywords: Arsenic(III), Chromium(III), glassy carbon electrode, Mercury (II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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2657 Carbon-Nanodots Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Electroanalysis of Selenium in Water

Authors: Azeez O. Idris, Benjamin O. Orimolade, Potlako J. Mafa, Alex T. Kuvarega, Usisipho Feleni, Bhekie B. Mamba


We report a simple and cheaper method for the electrochemical detection of Se(IV) using carbon nanodots (CNDTs) prepared from oat. The carbon nanodots were synthesised by green and facile approach and characterised using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The CNDT was used to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the quantification of Se(IV) in water. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanodots led to an increase in the electroactive surface area of the electrode, which enhances the redox current peak of [Fe(CN)₆]₃₋/₄‒ in comparison to the bare GCE. Using the square wave voltammetry, the detection limit and quantification limit of 0.05 and 0.167 ppb were obtained under the optimised parameters using deposition potential of -200 mV, 0.1 M HNO₃ electrolyte, electrodeposition time of 60 s, and pH 1. The results further revealed that the GCE-CNDT was not susceptible to many interfering cations except Cu(II) and Pb(II), and Fe(II). The sensor fabrication involves a one-step electrode modification and was used to detect Se(IV) in a real water sample, and the result obtained is in agreement with the inductively coupled plasma technique. Overall, the electrode offers a cheap, fast, and sensitive way of detecting selenium in environmental matrices.

Keywords: carbon nanodots, square wave voltammetry, nanomaterials, selenium, sensor

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2656 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra


A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutin

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2655 Electrochemical Sensing of L-Histidine Based on Fullerene-C60 Mediated Gold Nanocomposite

Authors: Sanjeeb Sutradhar, Archita Patnaik


Histidine is one of the twenty-two naturally occurring essential amino acids exhibiting two conformations, L-histidine and D-histidine. D-Histidine is biologically inert, while L-histidine is bioactive because of its conversion to neurotransmitter or neuromodulator histamine in both brain as well as central nervous system. The deficiency of L-histidine causes serious diseases like Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and the failure of normal erythropoiesis development. Gold nanocomposites are attractive materials due to their excellent biocompatibility and are easy to adsorb on the electrode surface. In the present investigation, hydrophobic fullerene-C60 was functionalized with homocysteine via nucleophilic addition reaction to make it hydrophilic and to successively make the nanocomposite with in-situ prepared gold nanoparticles with ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The electronic structure calculations of the [email protected] nanocomposite showed a drastic reduction of HOMO-LUMO gap compared to the corresponding molecules of interest, indicating enhanced electron transportability to the electrode surface. In addition, the electrostatic potential map of the nanocomposite showed the charge was distributed over either end of the nanocomposite, evidencing faster direct electron transfer from nanocomposite to the electrode surface. This nanocomposite showed catalytic activity; the nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode showed a tenfold higher kₑt, the electron transfer rate constant than the bare glassy carbon electrode. Significant improvement in its sensing behavior by square wave voltammetry was noted.

Keywords: fullerene-C60, gold nanocomposites, L-Histidine, square wave voltammetry

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2654 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad


A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

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2653 Simultaneous Detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², and Pb⁺² Heavy Metal Ions by Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyvinyl Chloride Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Authors: Sai Snehitha Yadavalli, K. Sruthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya


Heavy metal ions are toxic to humans and all living species when exposed in large quantities or for long durations. Though Fe acts as a nutrient, when intake is in large quantities, it becomes toxic. These toxic heavy metal ions, when consumed through water, will cause many disorders and are harmful to all flora and fauna through biomagnification. Specifically, humans are prone to innumerable diseases ranging from skin to gastrointestinal, neurological, etc. In higher quantities, they even cause cancer in humans. Detection of these toxic heavy metal ions in water is thus important. Traditionally, the detection of heavy metal ions in water has been done by techniques like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Though these methods offer accurate quantitative analysis, they require expensive equipment and cannot be used for on-site measurements. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry is a good alternative as the equipment is affordable, and measurements can be made at the river basins or lakes. In the current study, Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) was used to detect the heavy metal ions in water. Literature reports various electrodes on which deposition of heavy metal ions was carried out like Bismuth, Polymers, etc. The working electrode used in this study is a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Ag/AgCl reference electrode and Platinum counter electrode were used. Biologic Potentiostat SP 300 was used for conducting the experiments. Through this work of simultaneous detection, four heavy metal ions were successfully detected at a time. The influence of modifying GCE with PVC was studied in comparison with unmodified GCE. The simultaneous detection of Cd⁺², Fe⁺², Co⁺², Pb⁺² heavy metal ions was done using PVC modified GCE by drop casting 1 wt.% of PVC dissolved in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF) solvent onto GCE. The concentration of all heavy metal ions was 0.2 mg/L, as shown in the figure. The scan rate was 0.1 V/s. Detection parameters like pH, scan rate, temperature, time of deposition, etc., were optimized. It was clearly understood that PVC helped in increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of detection as the current values are higher for PVC-modified GCE compared to unmodified GCE. The peaks were well defined when PVC-modified GCE was used.

Keywords: cadmium, cobalt, electrochemical sensing, glassy carbon electrodes, heavy metal Ions, Iron, lead, polyvinyl chloride, potentiostat, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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2652 Fe-BTC Based Electrochemical Sensor for Anti-Psychotic and Anti-Migraine Drugs: Aripiprazole and Rizatriptan

Authors: Sachin Saxena, Manju Srivastava


The present study describes a stable, highly sensitive and selective analytical sensor. Fe-BTC was synthesized at room temperature using the noble Iron-trimesate system. The high surface area of as synthesized Fe-BTC proved MOFs as ideal modifiers for glassy carbon electrode. The characterization techniques such as TGA, XRD, FT-IR, BET (BET surface area= 1125 m2/gm) analysis explained the electrocatalytic behaviour of Fe-BTC towards these two drugs. The material formed is cost effective and exhibit higher catalytic behaviour towards analyte systems. The synergism between synthesized Fe-BTC and electroanalytical techniques helped in developing a highly sensitive analytical method for studying the redox fate of ARP and RZ, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide system proved Fe-BTC/GCE with an increase in 132% enhancement in peak current value as compared to that of GCE. The response characteristics of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) revealed that the ARP and RZ could be effectively accumulated at Fe-BTC/GCE. On the basis of the electrochemical measurements, electrode dynamics parameters have been evaluated. Present study opens up new field of applications of MOFs modified GCE for drug sensing.

Keywords: MOFs, anti-psychotic, electrochemical sensor, anti-migraine drugs

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2651 Tunable in Phase, out of Phase and T/4 Square-Wave Pulses in Delay-Coupled Optoelectronic Oscillators

Authors: Jade Martínez-Llinàs, Pere Colet


By exploring the possible dynamical regimes in a prototypical model for mutually delay-coupled OEOs, here it is shown that two mutually coupled non-identical OEOs, besides in- and out-of-phase square-waves, can generate stable square-wave pulses synchronized at a quarter of the period (T/4) in a broad parameter region. The key point to obtain T/4 solutions is that the two OEO operate with mixed feedback, namely with negative feedback in one and positive in the other. Furthermore, the coexistence of multiple solutions provides a large degree of flexibility for tuning the frequency in the GHz range without changing any parameter. As a result the two coupled OEOs system is good candidate to be implemented for information encoding as a high-capacity memory device.

Keywords: nonlinear optics, optoelectronic oscillators, square waves, synchronization

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2650 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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2649 Electrochemical Detection of the Chemotherapy Agent Methotrexate in vitro from Physiological Fluids Using Functionalized Carbon Nanotube past Electrodes

Authors: Shekher Kummari, V. Sunil Kumar, K. Vengatajalabathy Gobi


A simple, cost-effective, reusable and reagent-free electrochemical biosensor is developed with functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode (f-CNTPE) for the sensitive and selective determination of the important chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate (MTX), which is widely used for the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. The electrochemical response of the fabricated electrode towards the detection of MTX is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). CV studies have shown that f-CNTPE electrode system exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of MTX in phosphate buffer (0.2 M) compared with a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE). The oxidation peak current is enhanced by nearly two times in magnitude. Applying the DPV method under optimized conditions, a linear calibration plot is achieved over a wide range of concentration from 4.0×10⁻⁷ M to 5.5×10⁻⁶ M with the detection limit 1.6×10⁻⁷ M. further, by applying the SWV method a parabolic calibration plot was achieved starting from a very low concentration of 1.0×10⁻⁸ M, and the sensor could detect as low as 2.9×10⁻⁹ M MTX in 10 s and 10 nM were detected in steady state current-time analysis. The f-CNTPE shows very good selectivity towards the specific recognition of MTX in the presence of important biological interference. The electrochemical biosensor detects MTX in-vitro directly from pharmaceutical sample, undiluted urine and human blood serum samples at a concentration range 5.0×10⁻⁷ M with good recovery limits.

Keywords: amperometry, electrochemical detection, human blood serum, methotrexate, MWCNT, SWV

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2648 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood


This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, VCSELs, optical power generation, power consumption, square wave modulation

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2647 Electrochemical/Electro-Catalytic Applications of Novel Alcohol Substituted Metallophthalocyanines

Authors: Ipek Gunay, Efe B. Orman, Metin Ozer, Bekir Salih, Ali R. Ozkaya


Phthalocyanines with macrocyclic ring containing at least three heteroatoms have nine or more membered structures. Metal-free phthalocyanines react with metal salts to obtain chelate complexes. This is one of the most important features of metal-free phthalocyanine as ligand structure. Although phthalocyanines have very similar properties with porphyrins, they have some advantages such as lower cost, easy to prepare, and chemical and thermal stability. It’s known that Pc compounds have shown one-electron metal-and/or ligand-based reversible or quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation processes. The redox properties of phthalocyanines are critically related to the desirable properties of these compounds in their technological applications. Thus, Pc complexes have also been receiving increasing interest in the area of fuel cells due to their high electrocatalytic activity in dioxygen reduction and fuel cell applications. In this study, novel phthalocyanine complexes coordinated with Fe(II) and Co (II) to be used as catalyst were synthesized. Aiming this goal, a new nitrile ligand was synthesized starting from 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-nitrophthalonitrile in the presence of K2CO3 as catalyst. After the isolation of the new type of nitrile and metal complexes, the characterization of mentioned compounds was achieved by IR, H-NMR and UV-vis methods. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of Pc complexes was identified by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Furthermore, the catalytic performances of Pc complexes for oxygen reduction were tested by dynamic voltammetry measurements, carried out by the combined system of rotating ring-disk electrode and potentiostat, in a medium similar to fuel-cell working conditions.

Keywords: phthalocyanine, electrocatalysis, electrochemistry, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry

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2646 Determination of Bisphenol A and Uric Acid by Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Magnesium Layered Hydroxide 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Propionic Acid Nanocomposite

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Maryam Musfirah Che Sobry, Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Nurashikin Abd Azis


A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that has been modified with magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite was proposed for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A by square wave voltammetry. The results obtained denote that MLH-MPP nanocomposites enhance the sensitivity of the voltammetry detection responses. The best performance is shown by the modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (CNTPE) with the composition of single-walled carbon nanotube: magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite at 100:15 (% w/w). The linear range where the sensor works well is within the concentration 1.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 and 3.0 10-7 – 1.0 10-4 for uric acid and bisphenol A respectively with the limit of detection of 1.0 10-7 M for both organics. The interferences of uric acid and bisphenol A with other organic were studied and most of them did not interfere. The results shown for each experimental parameter on the proposed CNTPE showed that it has high sensitivity, good selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. Therefore, the modified CNTPE can be used for the determination of uric acid and bisphenol A in real samples such as blood, plastic bottles and foods.

Keywords: bisphenol A, magnesium layered hydroxide 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid nanocomposite, Nanocomposite, uric acid

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2645 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman


The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutans, pharmaceuticals

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2644 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma


A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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2643 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan


This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

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2642 A Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Model Optimized by Genetic Algorithm for Significant Wave Height Prediction

Authors: Luis C. Parra


The significant wave height prediction is an issue of great interest in the field of coastal activities because of the non-linear behavior of the wave height and its complexity of prediction. This study aims to present a machine learning model to forecast the significant wave height of the oceanographic wave measuring buoys anchored at Mooloolaba of the Queensland Government Data. Modeling was performed by a multilayer perceptron neural network-genetic algorithm (GA-MLP), considering Relu(x) as the activation function of the MLPNN. The GA is in charge of optimized the MLPNN hyperparameters (learning rate, hidden layers, neurons, and activation functions) and wrapper feature selection for the window width size. Results are assessed using Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The GAMLPNN algorithm was performed with a population size of thirty individuals for eight generations for the prediction optimization of 5 steps forward, obtaining a performance evaluation of 0.00104 MSE, 0.03222 RMSE, 0.02338 MAE, and 0.71163% of MAPE. The results of the analysis suggest that the MLPNNGA model is effective in predicting significant wave height in a one-step forecast with distant time windows, presenting 0.00014 MSE, 0.01180 RMSE, 0.00912 MAE, and 0.52500% of MAPE with 0.99940 of correlation factor. The GA-MLP algorithm was compared with the ARIMA forecasting model, presenting better performance criteria in all performance criteria, validating the potential of this algorithm.

Keywords: significant wave height, machine learning optimization, multilayer perceptron neural networks, evolutionary algorithms

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2641 Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles, Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Parvin Samadi Pakchin, Reza Saber, Hossein Ghanbari, Yadollah Omidi


Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality among the gynecological malignancies, and it remains the one of the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Tumor markers are biochemical molecules in blood or tissues which can indicates cancers occurrence in the human body. So, the sensitive and specific detection of cancer markers typically recruited for diagnosing and evaluating cancers. Recently extensive research efforts are underway to achieve a simple, inexpensive and accurate device for detection of cancer biomarkers. Compared with conventional immunoassay techniques, electrochemical immunosensors are of great interest, because they are specific, simple, inexpensive, easy to handling and miniaturization. Moreover, in the past decade nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors. In this study, a signal-off electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CA125 antigen has been developed using chitosan-gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNP) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Toluidine blue (TB) is used as redox probe which is immobilized on the electrode surface. CS-AuNP is synthesized by a simple one step method that HAuCl4 is reduced by NH2 groups of chitosan. The CS-AuNP-MWCNT modified electrode has shown excellent electrochemical performance compared with bare Au electrode. MWCNTs and AuNPs increased electrochemical conductivity and accelerate electrons transfer between solution and electrode surface while excessive amine groups on chitosan lead to the effective loading of the biological material (CA125 antibody) and TB on the electrode surface. The electrochemical, immobilization and sensing properties CS-AuNP-MWCNT-TB modified electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with Fe(CN)63−/4−as an electrochemical redox indicator.

Keywords: signal-off electrochemical biosensor, CA125, ovarian cancer, chitosan-gold nanoparticles

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2640 Ray Tracing Modified 3D Image Method Simulation of Picocellular Propagation Channel Environment

Authors: Fathi Alwafie


In this paper we present the simulation of the propagation characteristics of the picocellular propagation channel environment. The first aim has been to find a correct description of the environment for received wave. The result of the first investigations is that the environment of the indoor wave significantly changes as we change the electric parameters of material constructions. A modified 3D ray tracing image method tool has been utilized for the coverage prediction. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the indoor wave on the wide-band characteristics of the channel: Root Mean Square (RMS) delay spread characteristics and mean excess delay, is also investigated.

Keywords: propagation, ray tracing, network, mobile computing

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2639 Non Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of Glucose Using Manganese Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Anju Joshi, C. N. Tharamani


Diabetes is one of the leading cause of death at present and remains an important concern as the prevalence of the disease is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose the accurate levels of glucose for developing an efficient therapeutic for diabetes. Due to the availability of convenient and compact self-testing, continuous monitoring of glucose is feasible nowadays. Enzyme based electrochemical sensing of glucose is quite popular because of its high selectivity but suffers from drawbacks like complicated purification and immobilization procedures, denaturation, high cost, and low sensitivity due to indirect electron transfer. Hence, designing a robust enzyme free platform using transition metal oxides remains crucial for the efficient and sensitive determination of glucose. In the present work, manganese doped nickel oxide nanoparticles (Mn-NiO) has been synthesized onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a simple microwave assisted approach for non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The morphology and structure of the synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). We demonstrate that the synthesized nanostructures show enormous potential for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose with high sensitivity and selectivity. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry studies suggest superior sensitivity and selectivity of Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes towards the non-enzymatic determination of glucose. A linear response between the peak current and the concentration of glucose has been found to be in the concentration range of 0.01 μM- 10000 μM which suggests the potential efficacy of Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes for sensitive determination of glucose.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose, Mn-NiO decorated carbon nanotubes, non-enzymatic

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2638 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery


The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

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2637 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi


In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: energy absorber, square tube, bending, rigidity

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2636 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

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2635 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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2634 Electro-oxidation of Catechol in the Presence of Nicotinamide at Different pH

Authors: M. A. Motin, M. A. Aziz, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide as nucleophiles has been studied in aqueous solution with various pH values and different concentration of nicotinamide using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of catechol in buffer solution (3.00 < pH < 9.00) shows one anodic and corresponding cathodic peak which relates to the transformation of catechol to corresponding o-benzoquinone and vice versa within a quasi reversible two electron transfer process. Cyclic voltammogram of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide in buffer solution of pH 7, show one anodic peak in the first cycle of potential and on the reverse scan the corresponding cathodic peak slowly decreases and new peak is observed at less positive potential. In the second cycle of potential a new anodic peak is observed at less positive potential. This indicates that nicotinamide attached with catechol and formed adduct after first cycle of oxidation. The effect of pH of catechol in presence of nicotinamide was studied by varying pH from 3 to 11. The substitution reaction of catechol with nicotimamide is facilitated at pH 7. In buffer solution of higher pH (>9), the CV shows different pattern. The effect of concentration of nicotinamide was studied by 2mM to 100 mM. The maximum substitution reaction has been found for 50 mM of nicotinamide and of pH 7. The proportionality of the first scan anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate suggests that the peak current of the species at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process. The current functions (1/v-1/2) of the anodic peak decreased with the increasing of scan rate demonstrated that the behavior of the substitution reaction is of ECE type.

Keywords: redox interaction, catechol, nicotinamide, substituion reaction, pH effect

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2633 Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area

Authors: Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, Ramdane Bahar, Mohammed Amin Benbouras


Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.

Keywords: empirical models, RMSE, shear wave velocity, standard penetration test

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