Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: proteus

57 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Proteus Mirabilis Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens in human and it causes urinary tract and nosocomial infections. P. mirabilis is susceptible to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. It was aimed to investigate the resistance status to antimicrobial agents of Proteus mirabilis strains produced from samples sent to Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory from different clinics and polyclinics during the period of 24 months. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 30 Proteus were isolated from clinical samples of patients were hospitalized in intensive care units and in various departments of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hempshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Of the total 30 Proteus strains isolated from clinical samples, 19 from urine, 7 from wound, 4 from tracheal aspiration materials were isolated. Antimicrobial resistant for these strains were determined to 24,3% for meropenem, 26.2% for imipenem, 20.2% for amikacin 10.5% for cefepim, 33.3% for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% for ceftazidime, 20% for ceftriaxone, 15.2% for gentamicin and 26.6% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Conclusion: In the present study, the highest number of clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated from urine (63,3%), followed by the others (36,6%). The distribution of samples P. mirabilis strains to the clinics were as fallows; 16,8% intensive care unit (ICU), 29,9% polyclinics, 53,3% hospital service units The most effective antibiotic on the total of strains were found to be cefepim, the least effective antibiotics on the total of strains were found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale.

Keywords: proteus mirabilis, antibiotic resistance, intensive care unit, Proteus spp.

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56 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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55 Gut Microbiota and Their Modulating Role in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Hypertensive Rats Fed with Selected Local Wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara T. R., Awyinka O. A.

Abstract:

Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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54 A Novel Microcontroller Based Islanding Protection of Distributed Generation Systems

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh, Majid Pakdel

Abstract:

The customer demand for better power quality and higher reliability has forced the power industry to use distributed generations (DGs) such as wind power and photo voltaic arrays. Islanding is a phenomenon occurs when a power grid becomes electrically isolated from the power system and the distribution system is energized by distributed generators. It is necessary to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after islanding occurrence. Therefore a DG system should have the capability to detect islanding phenomena. In this paper, a novel micro controller based relay for anti-islanding protection of a typical DG system is proposed. The simulation results using Proteus software verify the proper operation and effectiveness of the proposed protective relay.

Keywords: islanding, distributed generation (DG), protective relay, micro controller, proteus software

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53 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita Endemic in Khorasan-Iran

Authors: V. Hakimzadeh, M. Noori, M. maleki

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Mentha piperita essential oil in "in-vitro" condition. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 28 compounds in which the main components were menthol (32%), mentone (13.4), menthyl acetate (12%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%) and neomenthol (4%) representing 69.6 % of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 30.4% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that the MIC values for Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris was respectively 50, 200 and 100 µg/ml and the MBC was determined at 200, 400 and 200 µg/ml respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Mentha piperita essential oil had significant antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition, Mentha piperita

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52 Design and Implementation of Automated Car Anti-Collision System Device Using Distance Sensor

Authors: Mehrab Masayeed Habib, Tasneem Sanjana, Ahmed Amin Rumel

Abstract:

Automated car anti-collision system is a trending technology of science. A car anti-collision system is an automobile safety system. The aim of this paper was to describe designing a car anti-collision system device to reduce the severity of an accident. The purpose of this device is to prevent collision among cars and objects to reduce the accidental death of human. This project gives an overview of secure & smooth journey of car as well as the certainty of human life. This system is controlled by microcontroller PIC. Sharp distance sensor is used to detect any object within the danger range. A crystal oscillator is used to produce the oscillation and generates the clock pulse of the microcontroller. An LCD is used to give information about the safe distance and a buzzer is used as alarm. An actuator is used as automatic break and inside the actuator; there is a motor driver that runs the actuator. For coding ‘microC PRO for PIC’ was used and ’Proteus Design Suite version 8 Software’ was used for simulation.

Keywords: sharp distance sensor, microcontroller, MicroC PRO for PIC, proteus, actuator, automobile anti-collision system

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51 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

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50 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Nagat M. Saeed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganisms, drug sensitivity

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49 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and in vitro Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of the Hydroalcolic Extract from Coronilla varia

Authors: A. A. Dehpour, B. Eslami, S. Rezaie, S. F. Hashemian, F. Shafie, M. Kiaie

Abstract:

The aims of study were investigation on chemical composition essential oil and the effect of extract of Coronilla varia on antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity. The essential oils of Coronilla varia is obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by (GC/MS) for determining their chemical composition and identification of their components. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was determined by disc diffusion method. The effect of hydroalcolic extracts from Cornilla varia investigated on MCF7 cancer cell line by MTT assay. The major components were Caryophyllene Oxide (60.19%), Alphacadinol (4.13%) and Homoadantaneca Robexylic Acid (3.31%). The extracts from Coronilla varia had interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis in the concentration of 700 µg/disc and did not show any activity against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Entrobacter cloacae. The positive control, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cenphalothin had shown zone of inhibition resistant all bacteria. Corohilla varia ethanol extract could inhibit the proliferation of MCF7 cell line in RPMI 1640 medium. IC50 5(mg/ml) was the optimum concentration of extract from Coronilla varia inhibition of cell line growth. The MCF7 cancer cell line and Proteus mirabilis were more sensitive to Coronilla varia ethanol extract.

Keywords: Coronilla varia, essential oil, antibacterial, anticancer, hela cell line

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48 Comparison Study of 70% Ethanol Effect on Direct and Retrival Culture of Contaminated Umblical Cord Tissue for Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ganeshkumar, Ashika, Valavan, Ramesh, Thangam, Chirayu

Abstract:

MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton’s jelly compared to the umbilical cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue is collected at the time of birth; it is processed and stored in liquid nitrogen for future therapeutical purpose. The source of contamination might be either from vaginal tract of mother or from hospital environment or from personal handling during cord tissue sample collection. If the sample were contaminated, decontamination procedure will be done with 70% ethanol (1 minute) in order to avoid sample rejection. Ethanol is effective against a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and fungi and has low toxicity to humans. Among the 1954 samples taken for the study, 24 samples were found to be contaminated with microorganism. The organisms isolated from the positive samples were found to be E. coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis. Among these organisms 70% ethanol successfully eliminated E. coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Proteus mirabilis. 70% ethanol was unsuccessful in eliminating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aueroginosa have the ability to form biofilm that make them resistant to alcohol. Biofilm act as protective layer for bacteria and which protects them from host defense and antibiotic wash. Finally it was found 70% ethanol wash saved 58.3% cord tissue samples from rejection and it is ineffective against 41% of the samples. The contamination rate can be reduced by maintaining proper aseptic techniques during sample collection and processing.

Keywords: umblical cord tissue, decontamination, 70% ethanol effectiveness, contamination

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47 Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Limeum indicum and Euphorbia granulata

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Hina Ashraf

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are considered as rich source of ingredients which can be used in drug development and synthesis. Moreover, these plants play a vital role in the development of human culture of using ayurvedic medicines around the whole world. Among all plants, dessert plants are being proved as effective source of ayurvedic medicines and remedy against many diseases. Considering the fact, two plant species Limium indicum and Euphorbia granulata were taken from Cholistan dessert of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Firstly, phytochemical screening was done by making dry and fresh plant extracts in five different solvents i.e Petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol. Standard confirmation tests for all compounds were applied for analysis. Results revealed the presence of high range of bioactive compounds such as alakaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, oxalic acid, anthocyanin and quinone in both plants. Best results were obtained by methanolic, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts and methanolic, ethanolic and benzene extracts of Limium indicum and Euphorbia granulate respectively. Considering the results, methanolic extracts of both plants were further analysed for antibacterial activity. Plants were analysed against four pathogens including Escherchia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aruginosa using disc diffusion method. Limium indicum showed highly significant activity against all pathogens while Euphorbia granulata showed significant activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris but lesser against Escherchia coli and Pseudomonas aruginosa. MIC of extracts against each positive bacterium was calculated and recorded. Present plants can be considered for making useful drugs but further studies are needed to isolate active agents from plant extracts for drug development.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Euphorbia granulata, Limium indicum, medicinal plants, phytochemical screening

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46 Human Activities Damaging the Ecosystem of Isheri Ogun River, South West Nigeria

Authors: N. B. Ikenweiwe, A. A. Alimi, N. A. Bamidele, O. A. Ewumi, K. Fasina, S. O. Otubusin

Abstract:

A study on the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the lower course of Ogun River, Isheri-Olofin was carried out between January and December 2014 in order to determine the effects of the anthropogenic activities of the Kara abattoir and domestic waste depositions on the quality of the water. Water samples were taken twice each month at three selected stations A, B and C (based on characteristic features or activity levels) along the water course. Samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical and biological parameters the same day in the laboratory while physical parameters were determined in-situ with water parameters kit. Generally, results of Transparency, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrates, TDS and Alkalinity fall below the permissible limits of WHO and FEPA standards for drinking and fish production. Results of phosphates, lead and cadmium were also low but still within the permissible limit. Only Temperature and pH were within limit. Low plankton community, (phytoplankton, zooplankton), which ranges from 3, 5 to 40, 23 were as a result of low levels of DO, transparency and phosphate. The presence of coliform bacteria of public health importance like Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas sp., Shigella sp, Enterobacter aerogenes as well as gram negative bacteria Proteus morganii are mainly indicators of faecal pollution. Fish and other resources obtained from this water stand the risk of being contaminated with these organisms and man is at the receiving end. The results of the physical, chemical and some biological parameters of Isheri, Ogun River, according to this study showed that the live forms of aquatic and fisheries resources there are dwelling under stress as a result of deposition of bones, horns, faecal components, slurry of suspended solids, fat and blood into the water. Government should therefore establish good monitoring system against illegal waste depositions and create education programmes that will enlighten the community on the social, ecological and economic values of the river.

Keywords: damage, ecosystem, human activities, Isheri ogun river

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45 Status of Physical, Chemical and Biological Attributes of Isheri, Ogun River, in Relation to the Surrounding Anthropogenic Activities of Kara Abattoir, South West Nigeria

Authors: N. B. Ikenweiwe, A. A. Alimi, N. A. Bamidele, A. O. Ewumi, J. Dairo, I. A. Akinnubi, S. O. Otubusin

Abstract:

A study on the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the lower course of Ogun River, Isheri-Olofin was carried out between January and December 2014 in order to determine the effects of the anthropogenic activities of the Kara abattoir and domestic waste depositions on the quality of the water. Water samples were taken twice each month at three selected stations A, B and C (based on characteristic features or activity levels) along the water course. Samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical and biological parameters the same day in the laboratory while physical parameters were determined in-situ with water parameters kit. Generally, results of Transparency, Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrates, TDS and Alkalinity fall below the permissible limits of WHO and FEPA standards for drinking and fish production. Results of phosphates, lead and cadmium were also low but still within the permissible limit. Only Temperature and pH were within limit. Low plankton community, (phytoplankton, zooplankton), which ranges from 3, 5 to 40, 23 were as a result of low levels of DO, transparency and phosphate. The presence of coliform bacteria of public health importance like Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas sp., Shigella sp, Enterobacter aerogenes as well as gram negative bacteria Proteus morganii are mainly indicators of faecal pollution. Fish and other resources obtained from this water stand the risk of being contaminated with these organisms and man is at the receiving end. The results of the physical, chemical and some biological parameters of Isheri, Ogun River, according to this study showed that the live forms of aquatic and fisheries resources there are dwelling under stress as a result of deposition of bones, horns, faecal components, slurry of suspended solids, fat and blood into the water. Government should therefore establish good monitoring system against illegal waste depositions and create education programmes that will enlighten the community on the social, ecological and economic values of the river.

Keywords: water parameters, Isheri Ogun river, anthropogenic activities, Kara abattoir

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44 Observation on Microbiological Profile of Type2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is commonly encountered metabolic disorder in clinical practice. An estimated 25 percent of DM patients develop foot problems. Foot ulceration and infection are one of the major causes of morbidity, hospitalization or even amputation. Objective: To isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and to observe its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 9 months at the Department of Microbiology, GD Hospital & Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 75 DFU patients were recruited in the study. Specimens for microbiological studies obtained from ulcer base were examined as gram stained smear and was cultured aerobically on Nutrient agar, Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Result: In this study out of 75cases, 73% (55/75) were male and 27% (20/75) were females with mean (SD) age of 51.11(±10) years. Out of 75 pus cultures, 63(84%) showed growth of microorganism making total of 81 bacterial isolates with 71.42% of monomicrobial infection and 28.57% of polymicrobial infection. Out of 81 isolates 53(65.43%) were gram negative and 21(25.92%) were gram positive. E.coli was relatively common isolate 21(26%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 15(18.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia 14(17.28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (14.81%), Proteus spp. 3 (3.70%), and Enterococcus faecalis 6 (7.40%). 75% of Gram-negative microorganism were extended Beta-lactamase enzyme (ESBL) producer and around 20 % of Klebsiella and Proteus spp. were carbapenemase enzyme producer. Among Gram positive, around 50% of S.aureus was MRSA, sensitive only to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin & Linezolid. Conclusion: More prevalence of monomicrobial gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive bacteria in DFU was observed. This study emphasizes that Beta-Lactam group of antibiotics should not be the empirical treatment of choice for Gram-negative isolates; instead alternatives like Carbapenems, Amikacin could be a better option. On the other hand, Vancomycin and Linezolid are preferred for most of the infection with gram-positive aerobes. Continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for empiric therapy.

Keywords: antibiotic resistant, antimicrobial susceptibility, diabetic foot ulcer, surveillance

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43 A Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Infections

Authors: Zainab Dashti, Leila Vali

Abstract:

Background: The Middle East, in particular Kuwait, contains one of the highest rates of patients with Diabetes in the world. Generally, infections resistant to antibiotics among the diabetic population has been shown to be on the rise. This is the first study in Kuwait to compare the antibiotic resistance profiles and genotypic differences between the resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Material/Methods: In total, 65 isolates were collected from diabetic patients consisting of 34 E. coli, 15 K. pneumoniae and 16 other Enterobacteriaceae species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.). In our control group, a total of 49 isolates consisting of 37 E. coli, 7 K. pneumoniae and 5 other species (including Salmonella spp. Serratia spp and Proteus spp.) were included. Isolates were identified at the species level and antibiotic resistance profiles, including Colistin, were determined using initially the Vitek system followed by double dilution MIC and E-test assays. Multi drug resistance (MDR) was defined as isolates resistant to a minimum of three antibiotics from three different classes. PCR was performed to detect ESBL genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM & blaSHV), flouroquinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS & aac(6’)-lb-cr) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaOXA, blaVIM, blaGIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, & blaNDM) in both groups. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to compare clonal relatedness of both E. coli and K.pneumonaie isolates. Results: Colistin resistance was determined in three isolates with MICs of 32-128 mg/L. A significant difference in resistance to ampicillin (Diabetes 93.8% vs control 72.5%, P value <0.002), augmentin (80% vs 52.5%, p value < 0.003), cefuroxime (69.2% vs 45%, p value < 0.0014), ceftazadime (73.8% vs 42.5%, p value <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (67.6% vs 40%, p value < 0.005) were determined. Also, a significant difference in MDR rates between the two groups (Diabetes 76.9%, control 57.5%, p value <0.036 were found. All antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher prevalence among the diabetic group, except for blaCTX-M, which was higher among the control group. PFGE showed a high rate of diversity between each group of isolates. Conclusions: Our results suggested an alarming rate of antibiotic resistance, in particular Colistin resistance (1.8%) among K. pneumoniea isolated from diabetic patients in Kuwait. MDR among Enterobacteriaceae infections also seems to be a worrying issue among the diabetics of Kuwait. More efforts are required to limit the issue of antibiotic resistance in Kuwait, especially among patients with diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, diabetes, enterobacreriacae, multi antibiotic resistance

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42 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb

Abstract:

Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Proteus mirabilis, multi-drug resistance, silver nanoparticles, resistance, next generation sequencing techniques, genome analysis, bioinformatics, phylogeny, pathogenomics, diabetic foot ulcer, xenobiotics, multidrug resistance efflux, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, resistome, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system, altruism

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41 Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Intestines of Slaughtered Goat and Cattle

Authors: Latifat Afolake Ogunfolabo, Hakeem Babafemi Ogunfolabo

Abstract:

The gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with micro-organism which closely and intensively interacts with the host and ingested feed. Food borne infections are some of the major international challenges that lead to high mortality and also, antimicrobial resistance, which has been classified as a serious threat by World Health Organization. Samples of slaughtered cattle and goats intestines were collected and standard culture methods were used for bacteria isolation and identification. Minimum inhibitory concentration of commonly used antibiotic using modification of the disk diffusion method was carried out on isolates. The samples cultured were all positive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (95% and 90%), Escherichia coli (85%), Salmonella typhi (70% and 60%), Staphylococcus aureus (75%and 100%), Micrococcus luteus (55% and35%), Bacillus macerans (60% and 5%), Bacillus cereus (25% and 20%), Clostridium perfringens (20% and 5%), Micrococcus varians (20% and 5%), Bacillus subtilis (25% and 5%), Streptococcus faecalis (40% and 25%) and Streptococcus faecium (15% and 10%) in goat and cattle respectively. Also, Proteus mirabilis (40%), Micrococcus luteus (35%), Proteus vulgaris (30%), Klebsiella aerogenes(15%) were isolated from cattle. The total coliform (13.55 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.77) and (20.30 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.27) counts were significantly higher than the total bacteria count (8.3 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.41) and (16.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ±0.49) for goat and cattle respectively. Selected Bacteria count of isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus had the highest significant value (6.9 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) and (16.80 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) Escherichia coli (4.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.42) and (7.05 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.64) while the lowest significant value was obtained in Salmonella/Shigella (1.7 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) and (1.5 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) for goat and cattle respectively. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from slaughtered goat and cattle intestine to commonly used antibiotics showed that the highest statistical significant value for zone of inhibition for goat was obtained for Ciprofloxacin (30.00 ± 2.25, 23.75 ± 2.49, 17.17 ± 1.40) followed by Augmentin (28.33 ± 1.22, 21. 83 ± 2.44, 16.67 ± 1.49), Erythromycin (27.75 ±1.48, 20.25 ± 1.29, 16.67 ± 1.26) while the lowest values were obtained for Ofloxacin (27.17 ± 1.89, 21.42 ± 2.19, 16.83 ± 1.26) respectively and values obtained for cattle are Ciprofloxacin (30.64 ± 1.6, 25.79 ± 1.76, 8.07 ± 11.49) followed by Augmentin (28.29 ± 1.33, 22.64 ± 1.82, 17.43 ± 1.55) Ofloxacin (26.57 ± 2.02, 20.79 ± 2.75, 16.21 ± 1.19) while the lowest values were obtained for Erythromycin (26.64 ± 1.49, 20.29 ± 1.49, 16.29 ± 1.33) at different dilution factor (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³) respectively. The isolates from goat and cattle were all susceptible to Augmentin at the three different dilution factors. Some goat isolates are intermediate to Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin at 10⁻² and 10⁻³, while resistance to Ciprofloxacin at 10⁻³ dilution factor. Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin at the dilution factors of 10⁻³ and 10⁻¹ for some cattle isolate and resistance were observed for Ofloxacin and Erythromycin at dilution of 10⁻³. These results indicate the susceptibilities and the antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotic.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, bacteria, cattle, goat, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
40 ZVZCT PWM Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Ismail Aksoy, Haci Bodur, Nihan Altintaş

Abstract:

This paper introduces a boost converter with a new active snubber cell. In this circuit, all of the semiconductor components in the converter softly turns on and turns off with the help of the active snubber cell. Compared to the other converters, the proposed converter has advantages of size, number of components and cost. The main feature of proposed converter is that the extra voltage stresses do not occur on the main switches and main diodes. Also, the current stress on the main switch is acceptable level. Moreover, the proposed converter can operates under light load conditions and wide input line voltage. In this study, the operating principle of the proposed converter is presented and its operation is verified with the Proteus simulation software for a 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: active snubber cell, boost converter, zero current switching, zero voltage switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
39 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih

Abstract:

Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
38 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: cows, urinary, infections, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

Procedia PDF Downloads 650
37 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi

Abstract:

A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
36 Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Three Eryngium L. Species

Authors: R. Mickiene, A. Friese, U. Rosler, A. Maruska, O. Ragazinskiene

Abstract:

This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from three species of Eryngium. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Eryngiumplanum L., Eryngium maritimum L., Eryngium campestre L. grown in Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances, originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was described by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Preliminary results show that the minimal inhibitory concentration range between 8.0 % and 17.0 % for the different Eryngium extracts and bacterial species.The total amounts ofphenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. Identification and evaluation of the phenolic compounds were performed by liquid chromatography. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, Eryngium L. species, essential oils, gas chromatography mass spectrometry

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35 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay

Abstract:

Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, gram negative rods, ESBL, VITEK 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
34 Bacteria Flora in the Gut and Respiratory Organs of Clarias gariepinus in Fresh and Brackish Water Habitats of Ondo State, South/West Nigeria

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Bacteria flora of Clarias gariepinus collected from two natural habitats namely Owena River (freshwater) and Igbokoda lagoon (brackish water) were examined using standard microbiological procedures. Thirteen bacterial species were identified. The result indicated that from the identified bacteria isolated, Vibrio sp, Proteus sp. Shigella sp. and E. coli were present in both habitats (fresh and brackish waters). Others were habitat-selective such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp, Enterococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp. that were found only in freshwater habitat. While Branhamella sp, Streptococcus sp. and Micrococcus sp. were found in brackish water habitat. Bacteria load from Owena river (freshwater) was found to be the highest load recorded at 6.21 x 104cfu. T-test analysis also revealed that there was a marked significant difference between bacterial load in guts of sampled Clarias from fresh water and brackish water habitats.

Keywords: bacteria flora, gut, Clarias gariepinus, Owena river

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
33 A Clinico-Bacteriological Study and Their Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer with Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

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This study was done to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of the isolates and to find out the potential risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant organisms. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major medical, social, economic problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries like India. 25 percent of all diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer at some point in their lives which is highly susceptible to infections and that spreads rapidly, leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and subsequent amputation. Infection with multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) may increase the cost of management and may cause additional morbidity and mortality. Proper management of these infections requires appropriate antibiotic selection based on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Early diagnosis of microbial infections is aimed to institute the appropriate antibacterial therapy initiative to avoid further complications. A total of 200 Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus patients with infection were admitted at GD Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 60 of them who developed ulcer during the year 2013 were included in this study. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were carried out for every subject. Specimens for microbiological studies were obtained from ulcer region. Gram-negative bacilli were tested for extended spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by double disc diffusion method. Staphylococcal isolates were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin by screen agar method and disc diffusion. Potential risk factors for MDRO-positive samples were explored. Gram-negative aerobes were most frequently isolated, followed by gram-positive aerobes. Males were predominant in the study and majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. The presence of neuropathy was observed in 80% cases followed by peripheral vascular disease (73%). Proteus spp. (22) was the most common pathogen isolated, followed by E.coli (17). Staphylococcus aureus was predominant amongst the gram-positive isolates. S.aureus showed a high rate of resistance to antibiotic tested (63.6%). Other gram-positive isolates were found to be highly resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, 40% each. All isolates were found to be sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. ESBL production was noted in Proteus spp and E.coli. Approximately 70 % of the patients were positive for MDRO. MDRO-infected patients had poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11± 2). Infection with MDROs is common in diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with risk factors like inadequate glycemic control, the presence of neuropathy, osteomyelitis, ulcer size and increased the requirement for surgical treatment. There is a need for continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria to provide the basis for empirical therapy and reduce the risk of complications.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, bacterial infection, multidrug-resistant organism, extended spectrum beta-lactamase

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
32 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis on a Few Bacteria and Fungi

Authors: M. Mehani, N. Salhi, T. Valeria, S. Ladjel

Abstract:

Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum). The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determine the fungal activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat) of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Keywords: essential oil, Eucalyptus camendulensis, bacteria and fungi, red river gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
31 Antibacterial Potential from the Crude Extracts of Hemolymph and Hepatopancreas of Portunus segnis and Grapsus albolineatus

Authors: Mona Hajirasouli

Abstract:

Abstract: introduction: Antimicrobial compounds are important in the first line of the host defense system of many animal species. Material and methods: In the present study antibacterial activity of crude and proteins precipitate of hemolymph and crude hepatopancreas extracts from Portunus segnis and Grapsus albolineatus against a range of 6 different bacterial strains evaluated. Amoxicillin as a positive control were also used. Results: Maximum activity (15.9 mm) was recorded in male haemolymph of p.segnis against Entrobacter and minimum activity (7 mm) was recorded against Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter sp. and Proteus mirabilis from different extracts of Grapsus albolineatus. Data were analyzed using independent-t in SPSS version 16, and results indicate that there were not any significant differences between hemolymph and hepatopancreas extracts of 2 species. Discussion: Antimicrobial activity has been reported earlier in the hemolymph of some brachyuran crabs such as: blue crab Callinectes sapidus, mud crab Scylla serrata, Ocypode macrocera and Carcinus maenas. This study shows that hemolymph and hepatopancreas of Portunus segnis and Grapsus albolineatus may potential antibiotics.

Keywords: brachyuran, Portunus segnis, Grapsus albolineatus, hemolymph, hepatopancreas, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
30 Synthesis, Investigation, DFT Study and Biologically Activity of Zirconium (IV) Complexes with Diammie Complexes

Authors: Salem El Ashoor, Fathia M. El-Meheishi, Ibtisam M. Diab

Abstract:

Zirconium diammin and triammin complexes can be possess biological activities, these complexes were synthesized via the reaction equimolar quantity of (1:10-phenanthroline){NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3} (L1) or 4-4-amino phenazone {ONC6H5(NH)CH(NH2} (L2) or diphenyl carbizon {HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)} (L3) with Zirconium Salt {ZrOCl2} in ratio (1:1) to form complexes [{NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3}ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L1], [{(O2NC6H4(NH)(NH2)}ZrOCl2] [ZrOCl2L2] and [{HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L3] respectively. The characterization of these complexes were follow by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Also a variable temperature study of these complexes has been followed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy to follow electronic transform behaviors under temperature control also DFT study calculation was follow these complexes via the information from FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. A coordination number of these complexes of types five and six of the geometry can be suggested. These complexes were found to shown deferent inhibition to the growth of bacterial strains of Bacillus spp & Klebsiella spp & E.coli & proteus spp & pseudomona spp) while all complexes were in deferent's concentration (0.001, 0.2 and 1M) and the result as evidenced from the presence. For better understanding these complexes were examined by using Density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

Keywords: (1:10-phenanthroline) (L1), 4-4-amino phenazone (L2), diphenyl carbizon (L3), DFT study, antibacterial

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29 Enhanced Decolourization and Biodegradation of Textile Azo and Xanthene Dyes by Using Bacterial Isolates

Authors: Gimhani Madhushika Hewayalage, Thilini Ariyadasa, Sanja Gunawardena

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the largest contribution for the industrial export earnings is governed by textile and apparel industry. However, this industry generates huge quantities of effluent consists of unfixed dyes which enhance the effluent colour and toxicity thereby leading towards environmental pollution. Therefore, the effluent should properly be treated prior to the release into the environment. The biological technique has now captured much attention as an environmental-friendly and cost-competitive effluent decolourization method due to the drawbacks of physical and chemical treatment techniques. The present study has focused on identifying dye decolourizing potential of several bacterial isolates obtained from the effluent of the local textile industry. Yellow EXF, Red EXF, Blue EXF, Nova Black WNN and Nylosan-Rhodamine-EB dyes have been selected for the study to represent different chromophore groups such as Azo and Xanthene. The rates of decolorization of each dye have been investigated by employing distinct bacterial isolates. Bacterial isolate which exhibited effective dye decolorizing potential was identified as Proteus mirabilis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The high decolorizing rates of identified bacterial strain indicate its potential applicability in the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters.

Keywords: azo, bacterial, biological, decolourization, xanthene

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
28 Synergistic Interactions between Secondary Metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Authors: Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Ona Ragazinskiene

Abstract:

This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from species Rosmarinus officinalis L. This is a study of synergistic effects between phenolic fraction and essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L. originated from the sector of medicinal plants, Kaunas botanical garden of Vytautas Magnus University Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species. Investigated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were described by determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Preliminary results show that the MIC range between 9.0 % and 12.0 % for the different Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts and bacterial species. The total amounts of phenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. The chemical composition for essential oils analysed by GC/MS. Predominant components were alpha pinene (20%), camphor (10%), 1.8‐cineole (5%), phellandrene (6%), camphene (5%), beta pinene (4%), bornylacetate (4%), limonene (2%), borneol (3%), alpha terpineol (3%), cymene (2%), caryophyllene (15%), verbenone (7%), alpha terpinene (3%), eucalyptol (11%).

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Rosmarinus officinalis L., escherichia coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 302