Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1869

Search results for: bacterial infection

1869 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

Abstract:

One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1868 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik

Abstract:

Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1867 Role of Autophagic Lysosome Reformation for Cell Viability in an in vitro Infection Model

Authors: Muhammad Awais Afzal, Lorena Tuchscherr De Hauschopp, Christian Hübner

Abstract:

Introduction: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathway, which can be induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stressors in living systems to adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. In the context of inflammatory stress, autophagy contributes to the elimination of invading pathogens, the regulation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, and regulation of inflammasome activity as well as tissue damage repair. Lysosomes can be recycled from autolysosomes by the process of autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which depends on the presence of several proteins including Spatacsin. Thus ALR contributes to the replenishment of lysosomes that are available for fusion with autophagosomes in situations of increased autophagic turnover, e.g., during bacterial infections, inflammatory stress or sepsis. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether ALR plays a role for cell survival in an in-vitro bacterial infection model. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from wild-type mice and Spatacsin (Spg11-/-) knockout mice. Wild-type MEFs and Spg11-/- MEFs were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (multiplication of infection (MOI) used was 10). After 8 and 16 hours of infection, cell viability was assessed on BD flow cytometer through propidium iodide intake. Bacterial intake by cells was also calculated by plating cell lysates on blood agar plates. Results: in-vitro infection of MEFs with Staphylococcus aureus showed a marked decrease of cell viability in ALR deficient Spatacsin knockout (Spg11-/-) MEFs after 16 hours of infection as compared to wild-type MEFs (n=3 independent experiments; p < 0.0001) although no difference was observed for bacterial intake by both genotypes. Conclusion: Suggesting that ALR is important for the defense of invading pathogens e.g. S. aureus, we observed a marked increase of cell death in an in-vitro infection model in cells with compromised ALR.

Keywords: autophagy, autophagic lysosome reformation, bacterial infections, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1866 Optimization the Multiplicity of Infection for Large Produce of Lytic Bacteriophage pAh6-C

Authors: Sang Guen Kim, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Saekil Yun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

Emerging of the super bacteria, bacteriophages are considered to be as an alternative to antibiotics. As the demand of phage increased, economical and large production of phage is becoming one of the critical points. For the therapeutic use, what is important is to eradicate the pathogenic bacteria as fast as possible, so higher concentration of phages is generally needed for effective therapeutic function. On the contrary, for the maximum production, bacteria work as a phage producing factory. As a microbial cell factory, bacteria is needed to last longer producing the phages without eradication. Consequently, killing the bacteria fast has a negative effect on large production. In this study, Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was manipulated based on initial bacterial inoculation and used phage pAh-6C which has therapeutic effect against Aeromonas hydrophila. 1, 5 and 10 percent of overnight bacterial culture was inoculated and each bacterial culture was co-cultured with the phage of which MOI of 0.01, 0.0001, and 0.000001 respectively. Simply changing the initial MOI as well as bacterial inoculation concentration has regulated the production quantity of the phage without any other changes to culture conditions. It is anticipated that this result can be used as a foundational data for mass production of lytic bacteriophages which can be used as the therapeutic bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacteriophage, multiplicity of infection, optimization, Aeromonas hydrophila

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1865 Parallel among Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients: A Case Study

Authors: Khaled Khleifat

Abstract:

This study detects the bacterial species that responsible for UTI in both diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients, Jordan. 116 urine samples were investigated in order to determine UTI-causing bacteria. These samples distributed unequally between diabetic male (12) and diabetic female (25) and also non-diabetic male (13) and non-diabetic female (66). The results represent that E.coli is responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients (15.5% and 29.3% respectively) with large proportion (44.8%). This study showed that not all bacterial species that isolated from the non-diabetic sample could be isolated from diabetic samples. E. coli (15.5%), P. aeruginosa (4.3%), K. pneumonia (1.7%), P. mirabilis (2.6%), S. marcescens (0.9%), S. aureus (1.7%), S. pyogenes (1.7%), E. faecalis (0.9%), S. epidermidis (1.7%) and S. saprophyticus (0.9%). But E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, C. freundii, A. baumannii and B. subtilis are five bacterial species that can’t isolate from all diabetic samples. This study shows that for the treatment of UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, Chloramphenicol (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and Vancomycin (30 μg) are more favorable than other antibiotics. In the same time, Cephalothin (30μg) is not recommended.

Keywords: urinary tract infections, diabetes mellitus, bacterial species, infections

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1864 Rapid Detection of the Etiology of Infection as Bacterial or Viral Using Infrared Spectroscopy of White Blood Cells

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Guy Beck, Joseph Kapelushnik, Adam H. Agbaria, Itshak Lapidot, Shaul Mordechai, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

Infectious diseases cause a significant burden on the public health and the economic stability of societies all over the world for several centuries. A reliable detection of the causative agent of infection is not possible based on clinical features, since some of these infections have similar symptoms, including fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Moreover, physicians usually encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on symptoms. Therefore, there is an ongoing need for sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for identification of the etiology of the infection. This intricate issue perplex doctors and researchers since it has serious repercussions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the mid-infrared spectroscopic method for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial and viral infections based on simple peripheral blood samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is considered a successful diagnostic method in the biological and medical fields. Many studies confirmed the great potential of the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and machine learning as a powerful diagnostic tool in medicine since it is a very sensitive method, which can detect and monitor the molecular and biochemical changes in biological samples. We believed that this method would play a major role in improving the health situation, raising the level of health in the community, and reducing the economic burdens in the health sector resulting from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. We collected peripheral blood samples from young 364 patients, of which 93 were controls, 126 had bacterial infections, and 145 had viral infections, with ages lower than18 years old, limited to those who were diagnosed with fever-producing illness. Our preliminary results showed that it is possible to determine the infectious agent with high success rates of 82% for sensitivity and 80% for specificity, based on the WBC data.

Keywords: infectious diseases, (FTIR) spectroscopy, viral infections, bacterial infections.

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1863 Potential of Marine Strains of Pseudoalteromonas to Reduce Mortality from Infection by Vibrio Harveyi in European Sea Bass

Authors: Rahmani A., Parizadeh L., Baud M., François Y., Fleury Y., Danion M., Morin T.

Abstract:

The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is one of the most produced marine species in Europe. It is subject to multiple infectious hazards during its production cycle in hatcheries and then at sea, with dissemination and mortality often increased due to high population density. The larval stage is also particularly fragile and characterized by relatively low survival rates. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of different bacterial strains isolated from sessile aquatic organisms and belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas against Vibrio harveyi, a major bacterial pathogen of European sea bass. Juvenile sea bass (200 per condition) were impregnated fortnightly for 2 months for 4 hours in static hyperoxygenated seawater containing a mixture of two strains described for their antibacterial properties (Abc); one strain with antibiofilm properties (Abf); a strain of the same genus but with no identified probiotic effect (Noe); and without bacterial strain (control). At the end of this impregnation phase, the animals were infected by IP injection with a dose of 4.6x10E8 PFU of V. harveyi and mortality was monitored for 15 days post-infection. Immunological analyzes were carried out during the impregnation and after the infection. The probiotic strains were detected at different times at the end of the 4 hours period of impregnation in gills and mucus but did not appear to persist in large quantities in these organs. No statistical difference in mortality was observed between the control and Adf groups after infection with V. harveyi. The Noe group and the Abc one showed improved survival of 10 and 25%, respectively, compared to the control groups. No significant difference in blood formulations, leukocyte mortality, or phacocytose activity was observed between the different groups. This work highlights the particularly interesting probiotic potential of marine bacteria naturally present in marine organisms. Additional analyzes have been carried out to characterize the active molecules produced by these strains of interest and work is in progress to investigate in depth the potential effects on the immune system and to improve their formulation to be able to consider larger-scale tests.

Keywords: microbiology, probiotics, aquaculture, sea bass, Pseudoalteromonas

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1862 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin

Abstract:

This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: HBV infection, HBV vaccine, children, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1861 The Administration of Infection Diseases During the Pandemic COVID-19 and the Role of the Differential Diagnosis with Biomarkers VB10

Authors: Sofia Papadimitriou

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The differential diagnosis between acute viral and bacterial infections is an important cost-effectiveness parameter at the stage of the treatment process in order to achieve the maximum benefits in therapeutic intervention by combining the minimum cost to ensure the proper use of antibiotics.The discovery of sensitive and robust molecular diagnostic tests in response to the role of the host in infections has enhanced the accurate diagnosis and differentiation of infections. METHOD: The study used a sample of six independent blood samples (total=756) which are associated with human proteins-proteins, each of which at the transcription stage expresses a different response in the host network between viral and bacterial infections.Τhe individual blood samples are subjected to a sequence of computer filters that identify a gene panel corresponding to an autonomous diagnostic score. The data set and the correspondence of the gene panel to the diagnostic patents a new Bangalore -Viral Bacterial (BL-VB). FINDING: We use a biomarker based on the blood of 10 genes(Panel-VB) that are an important prognostic value for the detection of viruses from bacterial infections with a weighted average AUROC of 0.97(95% CL:0.96-0.99) in eleven independent samples (sets n=898). We discovered a base with a patient score (VB 10 ) according to the table, which is a significant diagnostic value with a weighted average of AUROC 0.94(95% CL: 0.91-0.98) in 2996 patient samples from 56 public sets of data from 19 different countries. We also studied VB 10 in a new cohort of South India (BL-VB,n=56) and found 97% accuracy in confirmed cases of viral and bacterial infections. We found that VB 10 (a)accurately identifies the type of infection even in unspecified cases negative to the culture (b) shows its clinical condition recovery and (c) applies to all age groups, covering a wide range of acute bacterial and viral infectious, including non-specific pathogens. We applied our VB 10 rating to publicly available COVID 19 data and found that our rating diagnosed viral infection in patient samples. RESULTS: Τhe results of the study showed the diagnostic power of the biomarker VB 10 as a diagnostic test for the accurate diagnosis of acute infections in recovery conditions. We look forward to helping you make clinical decisions about prescribing antibiotics and integrating them into your policies management of antibiotic stewardship efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we are developing a new property of the RNA-based biomarker and a new blood test to differentiate between viral and bacterial infections to assist a physician in designing the optimal treatment regimen to contribute to the proper use of antibiotics and reduce the burden on antimicrobial resistance, AMR.

Keywords: acute infections, antimicrobial resistance, biomarker, blood transcriptome, systems biology, classifier diagnostic score

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
1860 Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Yu-Chieh Huang, Pei-Shih Chen, Tao-Hsin Tung

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.

Keywords: cranberry, effectiveness, prevention, urinary tract infect

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1859 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1858 Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Farm Animals by Coprological Examination

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

Abstract:

In the present study 442 fecal samples from cattle, buffaloes, and sheep for contamination with helminthes. Samples were examined from 171 cattle, 128 buffaloes, and 143 sheep. The testing, during the period from May 2014 to April 2015, showed that 81 out of 171cattle were positive for helminthes infection (47.3%), with the rate of infection higher in females (55%) than in males (40%). In buffaloes, 41 of 128 tested were positive, a 32% rate of infection. Again, the infection rate was higher in females (47%) than in males (22%). In sheep, the rate of infection was highest of all three species. The results showed that, the infection rate among cattle were 50.3 % and Trichostrongyle species were the predominant parasites among both cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate was much higher in females than males. Regarding seasonal dynamics the highest infection rates with helminthes reported was in spring season.

Keywords: helminthes, prevalence, ruminants, trichostrongyle

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1857 Incidence of Breast Cancer and Enterococcus Infection: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: Matthew Cardeiro, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Dianela Prado Escobar, Catalina Molnar, Omar M. Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction: Enterococci comprise the natural flora of nearly all animals and are ubiquitous in food manufacturing and probiotics. However, its role in the microbiome remains controversial. The gut microbiome has shown to play an important role in immunology and cancer. Further, recent data has suggested a relationship between gut microbiota and breast cancer. These studies have shown that the gut microbiome of patients with breast cancer differs from that of healthy patients. Research regarding enterococcus infection and its sequala is limited, and further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between infection and cancer. Enterococcus may prevent the development of breast cancer (BC) through complex immunologic and microbiotic adaptations following an enterococcus infection. This study investigated the effect of enterococcus infection and the incidence of BC. Methods: A retrospective study (January 2010- December 2019) was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using a Humans Health Insurance Database. International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and National Drug Codes were used to identify BC diagnosis and enterococcus infection. Patients were matched for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), antibiotic treatment, and region of residence. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and odds ratio were implemented to assess the significance and estimate relative risk. Results: 671 out of 28,518 (2.35%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and 1,459 out of 28,518 (5.12%) patients without enterococcus infection subsequently developed BC, and the difference was statistically significant (p<2.2x10⁻¹⁶). Logistic regression also indicated enterococcus infection was associated with a decreased incidence of BC (RR=0.60, 95% CI [0.57, 0.63]). Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 398 out of 11,523 (3.34%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 624 out of 11,523 (5.41%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed BC. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16) with a relative risk of 0.57 (95% CI [0.54, 0.60]). Conclusion & Discussion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between enterococcus infection and a decrease incidence of breast cancer. Further exploration is needed to identify and understand not only the role of enterococcus in the microbiome but also the protective mechanism(s) and impact enterococcus infection may have on breast cancer development. Ultimately, further research is needed in order to understand the complex and intricate relationship between the microbiome, immunology, bacterial infections, and carcinogenesis.

Keywords: breast cancer, enterococcus, immunology, infection, microbiome

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
1856 Impact of Tuberculosis Co-infection on Cytokine Expression in HIV-Infected Individuals

Authors: M. Nosik, I. Rymanova, N. Adamovich, S. Sevostyanihin, K. Ryzhov, Y. Kuimova, A. Kravtchenko, N. Sergeeva, A. Sobkin

Abstract:

HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) infections each speed the other's progress. HIV-infection increases the risk of TB disease. At the same time, TB infection is associated with clinical progression of HIV-infection. HIV+TB co-infected patients are also at higher risk of acquiring new opportunistic infections. An important feature of disease progression and clinical outcome is the innate and acquired immune responses. HIV and TB, however, have a spectrum of dysfunctions of the immune response. As cytokines play a crucial role in the immunopathology of both infections, it is important to study immune interactions in patients with dual infection HIV+TB. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and immunoregulating cytokines IL-4, IL-10 were evaluated in 75 patients with dual infection HIV+TB, 58 patients with HIV monoinfection and 50 patients with TB monoinfection who were previously naïve for HAART. The decreased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in patients with dual infection HIV+TB in comparison with patients who had only HIV or TB which means the profound suppression of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Thus, those cytokines could possibly serve as immunological markers of progression of HIV-infection in patients with TB.

Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), HIV associated with TB, Th1/ Th2 cytokine expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1855 Percentage of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Dyspeptic Patients in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Alshunaibir

Abstract:

Infection with Helicobacter pylori is common worldwide but few studies focus on the prevalence and spread of the infection in Saudi Arabia. This study was undertaken to observe the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients suffering from gastrointestinal sign and symptoms in one of the largest hospitals in the capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was undertaken for this study with nearly 6000 samples collected and examined for patients suffering from (dyspeptic) symptoms ranging in their age from 5 to 75 years. Results: The prevalence of helicobacter infection was 67% increasing with age. Female shows higher percentage of H. pylori infection than male. Conclusions: The percentage rate was higher in female than male. This study shows a high percentage of helicobacter infection in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, percentage, dyspeptic, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1854 Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to Intravascular cannulae

Authors: Ghadah Abusalim, Suliman Alharbi, Hesham Khalil, Milton Wainwright, Mohammad A. Khiyami

Abstract:

The use of implantable foreign devices in medicine has recently increased dramatically. Intravascular cannulae and catheters are used to administer fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, and blood products in order to monitor hemodynamic status and also to provide hemodialysis. The early and late failure of inserted or implanted devices is largely the result of bacterial infection and may lead to the disruption of integration between the device and the tissues which surround it. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are widely considered to be the most common organisms causing device-related infection. Our study showed that S. aureus and S. epidermidis adhered to intravascular cannulae made up of PTFE, SPTFE and vialon. Adhesion of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to intravascular cannulae varied significantly depending upon the type of material used and the presence of coating materials. Both bacteria adhered less to PTFE followed by Vialon and SPTFE and the adhesion capacity of S. aureus and S. epidermidis increased over time. Coating intravascular cannulae with human serum albumin inhibited the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to these cannulae, and pretreatment of cannulae with fibronectin inhibited the adhesion of S. epidermidis but increased the adhesion of S. aureus to all types of cannulae. Pretreatment of cannulae surface with potassium chloride or calcium chloride increased the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to cannulae, suggesting a role for electrostatic forces in the mechanism of such adhesion. This study will hopefully clarify the mechanism of adhesion and provide possible means of preventing such adhesion either by the use of better material coatings or by interfering with the process of adhesion by targeting bacterial structures responsible for it. Currently we recommend the use of PTFE cannulae as they exhibit a lower bacterial adhesion capacity compared to the other tested cannulae.

Keywords: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, adhesion, cannulae, PTFE, Vialon

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1853 A Study on the Microbilogical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

The study was done to determine the microbiological profile and changing pattern of the pathogens causing UTI in the ICU patients. All the patients admitted to the ICU with urinary catheter insertion for more than 48hours were included in the study. Urine samples were collected in a sterile container with aseptic precaution using disposable syringe and was processed as per standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Disc Diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from ICU patients, out of which 30% showed significant bacterial growth and 7% showed growth of candida spp. Prevalence of UTI was more in female (73%) than male (27.%). Gram-negative bacilli 26(86.67%) were more common in our study followed by gram-positive cocci 4(13.33%). The most common uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 14 (46.67%), followed by Klebsiella spp 7(23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(13.33%), Acinetobacter spp 3(10%), Enterococcus faecalis 1(3.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(3.33%). Most of the Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to amikacin (80%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), where as all gram-positive organisms were sensitive to Vancomycin. A large number ESBL producers were also observed in this study. The study finding showed that E.coli is the predominant pathogen and has increasing resistance pattern to the commonly used antibiotics. The study proposes that the adherence to antibiotic policy is the key ingredients for successful outcome in ICU patients and also emphasizes that repeated evaluation of microbial characteristics and continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1852 The Biology of Persister Cells and Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Zikora K. G. Anyaegbunam, Annabel A. Nnawuihe, Ngozi J. Anyaegbunam, Emmanuel A. Eze

Abstract:

The discovery and production of new antibiotics is unavoidable in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria. However, this is only part of the problem; we have never really had medications that could completely eradicate an infection. All pathogens create a limited number of dormant persister cells that are resistant to antibiotic treatment. When the concentration of antibiotics decreases, surviving persisters repopulate the population, resulting in a recurrent chronic infection. Bacterial populations have an alternative survival strategy to withstand harsh conditions or antibiotic exposure, in addition to the well-known methods of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Persister cells are a limited subset of transiently antibiotic-tolerant phenotypic variations capable of surviving high-dose antibiotic therapy. Persisters that flip back to a normal phenotype can restart growth when antibiotic pressure drops, assuring the bacterial population's survival. Persister cells have been found in every major pathogen, and they play a role in antibiotic tolerance in biofilms as well as the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Persister cells has been implicated to play a role in the establishment of antibiotic resistance, according to growing research. Thusthe need to basically elucidate the biology of persisters and how they are linked to antibiotic resistance, and as well it's link to diseases.

Keywords: persister cells, phenotypic variations, repopulation, mobile genetic transfers, antibiotic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1851 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Saifuddin, Shahjada Selim

Abstract:

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Diabetes Mellitus, E. coli, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1850 Clinical Presentation and Immune Response to Intramammary Infection of Holstein-Friesian Heifers with Isolates from Two Staphylococcus aureus Lineages

Authors: Dagmara A. Niedziela, Mark P. Murphy, Orla M. Keane, Finola C. Leonard

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in Ireland. Mastitis caused by S. aureus is often chronic and tends to recur after antibiotic treatment. This may be due to several virulence factors, including attributes that enable the bacterium to internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells, where it may evade antibiotic treatment, or evade the host immune response. Four bovine-adapted lineages (CC71, CC97, CC151 and ST136) were identified among a collection of Irish S. aureus mastitis isolates. Genotypic variation of mastitis-causing strains may contribute to different presentations of the disease, including differences in milk somatic cell count (SCC), the main method of mastitis detection. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of bacterial strain and lineage on host immune response, by employing cell culture methods in vitro as well as an in vivo infection model. Twelve bovine adapted S. aureus strains were examined for internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and their ability to induce an immune response from bMEC (using qPCR and ELISA). In vitro studies found differences in a variety of virulence traits between the lineages. Strains from lineages CC97 and CC71 internalized more efficiently into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) than CC151 and ST136. CC97 strains also induced immune genes in bMEC more strongly than strains from the other 3 lineages. One strain each of CC151 and CC97 that differed in their ability to cause an immune response in bMEC were selected on the basis of the above in vitro experiments. Fourteen first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were purchased from 2 farms on the basis of low SCC (less than 50 000 cells/ml) and infection free status. Seven cows were infected with 1.73 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC97 strain (Group 1) and another seven with 5.83 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC151 strain (Group 2). The contralateral quarter of each cow was inoculated with PBS (vehicle). Clinical signs of infection (temperature, milk and udder appearance, milk yield) were monitored for 30 days. Blood and milk samples were taken to determine bacterial counts in milk, SCC, white blood cell populations and cytokines. Differences in disease presentation in vivo between groups were observed, with two animals from Group 2 developing clinical mastitis and requiring antibiotic treatment, while one animal from Group 1 did not develop an infection for the duration of the study. Fever (temperature > 39.5⁰C) was observed in 3 animals from Group 2 and in none from Group 1. Significant differences in SCC and bacterial load between groups were observed in the initial stages of infection (week 1). Data is also being collected on cytokines and chemokines secreted during the course of infection. The results of this study suggest that a strain from lineage CC151 may cause more severe clinical mastitis, while a strain from lineage CC97 may cause mild, subclinical mastitis. Diversity between strains of S. aureus may therefore influence the clinical presentation of mastitis, which in turn may influence disease detection and treatment needs.

Keywords: Bovine mastitis, host immune response, host-pathogen interactions, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
1849 Bioflocculation Using the Purified Wild Strain of P. aeruginosa Culture in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Mohammad Hajjartabar, Tahereh Kermani Ranjbar

Abstract:

P. aeruginosa EF2 was isolated and identified from human infection sources before in our previous study. The present study was performed to determine the characteristics and activity role of bioflocculant produced by the bacterium in flocculation of the wastewater active sludge treatment. The bacterium was inoculated and then was grown in an orbital shaker at 250 rpm for 5 days at 35 °C under TSB and peptone water media. After incubation period, culture broths of the bacterial strain was collected and washed. The concentration of the bacteria was adjusted. For the extraction of the bacterial bioflocculant, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C to remove bacterial cells. Supernatant was decanted and pellet containing bioflocculant was dried at 105 °C to a constant weight according to APHA, 2005. The chemical composition of the extracted bioflocculant from the bacterial sample was then analyzed. Wastewater active sludge sample obtained from aeration tank from one of wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, was first mixed thoroughly. After addition of bioflocculant, improvements in floc density were observed with an increase in bioflocculant. The results of this study strongly suggested that the extracted bioflucculant played a significant role in flocculation of the wastewater sample. The use of wild bacteria and nutrient regulation techniques instead of genetic manipulation opens wide investigation area in the future to improve wastewater treatment processes. Also this may put a new path in front of us to attain and improve the more effective bioflocculant using the purified microbial culture in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, P. aeruginosa, sludge treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1848 Parental Diet Effects on Offspring Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Bactrocera tryoni

Authors: Hue Dinh, Binh Nguyen, Vivian Mendez, Phillip W. Taylor, Fleur Ponton

Abstract:

Better understanding of how parental diet affects offspring traits is an important ecological and evolutionary question. In this study, we explored how maternal diet influences offspring physiology and resistance to infection using Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly) as a system model. Female Q-flies were fed one of six single diets varying in their yeast-to-sugar ratio yielding six protein-to-carbohydrate ratios. As controls, we used females that were given a choice between yeast and sugar. Males were reared on a choice diet and allowed to mate with females 14 days post-emergence. Results showed that while maternal diet does not influence offspring developmental time, it has a strong effect on larval body weight. Mother fed either high-protein or high-sugar diet produced larger progeny. By challenging offspring with the bacterium Serratia marcescens, we found that female offspring from mothers fed high-sugar diet survived better the infection compared to those from mothers fed low-sugar diet. In contrast, male offspring produced by mother fed high-protein diet showed better resistance to the infection compared to those produced by mother fed low-protein diet. These results suggested sex-dependent transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition on offspring physiology and immunity.

Keywords: bacterial infection, Bactrocera tryoni, maternal diet, offspring, Serretia marcescens

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1847 Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran

Authors: Z. Asadgol, A. Nadali, H. Arfaeinia, M. Khalifeh Gholi, R. Fateh, M. Fahiminia

Abstract:

The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.

Keywords: bacterial, fungal, negative air ions (NAIs), indoor air, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1846 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Arredondo Valdés Roberto, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Castro Del Angel Epifanio

Abstract:

The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1845 Plasmodium falciparum and Scistosoma haematobium Co-infection in School Aged Children in Jinduut, Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Dakul, T. M. Akindigh, B. J. Dogonyaro, O. J. Abba, K. T. Tangtur, N. Sambo, J. A. E. Okopi, J. A. Yohanna, G. E. Imade, G. S. Mwansat, S. Oguche

Abstract:

Malaria and urinary Schistosomaisis are both endemic in Nigeria and pose a serious health challenge in rural areas where co-infections are common. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of co-infection and the impact of concurrent infection on haemoglobin concentration, Eosinophil and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (MRDT) kits and the presence of visible haematuria respectively and confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 110 children examined, 13 (11.8%) had concurrent infection with Schistosoma haematobium falciparum, 46(41.8%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection while 16(14.5%) had Schistosoma haematobium infection. A strong association between co-infection and the ages of 10-15 years with a 36.4% prevalence of anaemia was observed. Malaria was significantly associated with anaemia than with concurrent infections or schistomiasis alone. Co-infection with both pathogens and a high prevalence of anaemia was observed in Jinduut community. Although the causes of anaemia are multi-factorial, further investigation into the extent to which malaria and urinary schistosomiasis contribute to anaemia is needed. Also, integrated control efforts must be strengthened to mitigate the impact of concurrent infection in this group of vulnerable members in the community. The results can be applied to other communities during control.

Keywords: co-Infection, plasmodium falciparum and scistosoma haematobium, Jinduut, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1844 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek A. Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh

Abstract:

Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety-four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months. Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: bone infection, hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, sheep-raising areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1843 Molecular Profiles of Microbial Etiologic Agents Forming Biofilm in Urinary Tract Infections of Pregnant Women by RTPCR Assay

Authors: B. Nageshwar Rao

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents the most commonly acquired bacterial infection worldwide, with substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. The objective of the study is to characterize the microbial profiles of uropathogenic in the obstetric population by RTPCR. Study design: An observational cross-sectional study was performed at a single tertiary health care hospital among 50 pregnant women with UTIs, including asymptomatic and symptomatic patients attending the outpatient department and inpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.Methods: Serotyping and genes detection of various uropathogens were studied using RTPCR. Pulse filed gel electrophoresis methods were used to determine the various genetic profiles. Results: The present study shows that CsgD protein, involved in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli, VIM1, IMP1 genes for Klebsiella were identified by using the RTPCR method. Our results showed that the prevalence of VIM1 and IMP1 genes and CsgD protein in E.coli showed a significant relationship between strong biofilm formation, and this may be due to the prevalence of specific genes. Finally, the genetic identification of RTPCR results for both bacteria was correlated with each other and concluded that the above uropathogens were common isolates in producing Biofilm in the pregnant woman suffering from urinary tract infection in our hospital observational study.

Keywords: biofilms, Klebsiella, E.coli, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1842 Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Mastitis Milk of Cow and Buffalo in Udaipur, India

Authors: Hardik Goswami, Gayatri Swarnakar

Abstract:

-Mastitis disease has been known as one of the most costly diseases of dairy cattle and observed as an inflammatory disease of cow and buffalo udder. Mastitis badly affected animal health, quality of milk and economics of milk production along with cause’s great economic loss. Bacteria have been representing the most common etiological agents of mastitis. The antibiotic sensitivity test was important to attain accurate treatment of mastitis. The aim of present research work was to explore prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates recovered from cow and buffalo clinical mastitis milk sample. During the period of April 2010 to April 2014, total 1487 clinical mastitis milk samples of cow and buffalo were tested to check the prevalence of mastitis causing bacterial isolates. Milk samples were collected aseptically from the udder at the time of morning milking. The most prevalent bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (24.34%) followed by coliform bacteria (15.87%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (13.85%), non-coliform bacteria (13.05%), mixed infection (12.51%), Streptococcus spp. (10.96%). Out of 1487, 140 (9.42%) mastitis milk samples showed no growth on culture media. Identification of bacteria made on the basis of Standard Microbial features and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In vitro Antibiotic susceptibility test of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity to Gentamicin (74.6%), Ciprofloxacin (62.1%) and Amikacin (59.4%). The lower susceptibility was shown to Amoxicillin (21.6%), Erythromycin (26.4%) and Ceftizoxime (29.9%). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed Gentamicin are the possible effective antibiotic against the major prevalent mastitis pathogens. Present research work would be helpful in increase production, quality and quantity of milk, increase annual income of dairy owners and improve health of cow and buffaloes.

Keywords: antibiotic, buffalo, cow, mastitis, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1841 Observation on Microbiological Profile of Type2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is commonly encountered metabolic disorder in clinical practice. An estimated 25 percent of DM patients develop foot problems. Foot ulceration and infection are one of the major causes of morbidity, hospitalization or even amputation. Objective: To isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and to observe its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 9 months at the Department of Microbiology, GD Hospital & Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 75 DFU patients were recruited in the study. Specimens for microbiological studies obtained from ulcer base were examined as gram stained smear and was cultured aerobically on Nutrient agar, Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Result: In this study out of 75cases, 73% (55/75) were male and 27% (20/75) were females with mean (SD) age of 51.11(±10) years. Out of 75 pus cultures, 63(84%) showed growth of microorganism making total of 81 bacterial isolates with 71.42% of monomicrobial infection and 28.57% of polymicrobial infection. Out of 81 isolates 53(65.43%) were gram negative and 21(25.92%) were gram positive. E.coli was relatively common isolate 21(26%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 15(18.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia 14(17.28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (14.81%), Proteus spp. 3 (3.70%), and Enterococcus faecalis 6 (7.40%). 75% of Gram-negative microorganism were extended Beta-lactamase enzyme (ESBL) producer and around 20 % of Klebsiella and Proteus spp. were carbapenemase enzyme producer. Among Gram positive, around 50% of S.aureus was MRSA, sensitive only to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin & Linezolid. Conclusion: More prevalence of monomicrobial gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive bacteria in DFU was observed. This study emphasizes that Beta-Lactam group of antibiotics should not be the empirical treatment of choice for Gram-negative isolates; instead alternatives like Carbapenems, Amikacin could be a better option. On the other hand, Vancomycin and Linezolid are preferred for most of the infection with gram-positive aerobes. Continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for empiric therapy.

Keywords: antibiotic resistant, antimicrobial susceptibility, diabetic foot ulcer, surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1840 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de coco

Procedia PDF Downloads 164