Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2972

Search results for: sharp distance sensor

2972 Design and Implementation of Automated Car Anti-Collision System Device Using Distance Sensor

Authors: Mehrab Masayeed Habib, Tasneem Sanjana, Ahmed Amin Rumel


Automated car anti-collision system is a trending technology of science. A car anti-collision system is an automobile safety system. The aim of this paper was to describe designing a car anti-collision system device to reduce the severity of an accident. The purpose of this device is to prevent collision among cars and objects to reduce the accidental death of human. This project gives an overview of secure & smooth journey of car as well as the certainty of human life. This system is controlled by microcontroller PIC. Sharp distance sensor is used to detect any object within the danger range. A crystal oscillator is used to produce the oscillation and generates the clock pulse of the microcontroller. An LCD is used to give information about the safe distance and a buzzer is used as alarm. An actuator is used as automatic break and inside the actuator; there is a motor driver that runs the actuator. For coding ‘microC PRO for PIC’ was used and ’Proteus Design Suite version 8 Software’ was used for simulation.

Keywords: sharp distance sensor, microcontroller, MicroC PRO for PIC, proteus, actuator, automobile anti-collision system

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2971 Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology

Authors: Aishwarya Ravichandra, Kirtana Kirtivasan, Adithi Mahesh, Ashwini S.Savanth


A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user’s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino ATmega2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.

Keywords: Arduino, detector, laser, MIDI, note on, note off, pitch bend, Sharp IR distance sensor

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2970 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani


Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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2969 Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration

Authors: Young Gyu Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Gyoutae Park, Hiesik Kim


In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.

Keywords: gas sensor, leak detector, lower concentration, and calibration

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2968 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini


Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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2967 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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2966 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha


This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

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2965 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal


Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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2964 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji


In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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2963 Experimental Study of Discharge with Sharp-Crested Weirs

Authors: E. Keramaris, V. Kanakoudis


In this study the water flow in an open channel over a sharp-crested weir is investigated experimentally. For this reason a series of laboratory experiments were performed in an open channel with a sharp-crested weir. The maximum head expected over the weir, the total upstream water height and the downstream water height of the impact in the constant bed of the open channel were measured. The discharge was measured using a tank put right after the open channel. In addition, the discharge and the upstream velocity were also calculated using already known equations. The main finding is that the relative error percentage for the majority of the experimental measurements is ± 4%, meaning that the calculation of the discharge with a sharp-crested weir gives very good results compared to the numerical results from known equations.

Keywords: sharp-crested weir, weir height, flow measurement, open channel flow

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2962 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo


The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load

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2961 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa


The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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2960 Implementation of Sensor Fusion Structure of 9-Axis Sensors on the Multipoint Control Unit

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we study the sensor fusion structure on the multipoint control unit (MCU). Sensor fusion using Kalman filter for 9-axis sensors is considered. The 9-axis inertial sensor is the combination of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We implement the sensor fusion structure among the sensor hubs in MCU and measure the execution time, power consumptions, and total energy. Experiments with real data from 9-axis sensor in 20Mhz show that the average power consumptions are 44mW and 48mW on Cortx-M0 and Cortex-M3 MCU, respectively. Execution times are 613.03 us and 305.6 us respectively.

Keywords: 9-axis sensor, Kalman filter, MCU, sensor fusion

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2959 Injection Practices among Private Medical Practitioners of Karachi Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Nighat Nisar, Rehana Khalil


The aim of this study is to assess the practices of sharp injuries and factors leading to it among medical practitioners in slum areas of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted in slum areas of Landhi Town Karachi. All medical practitioners (317) running the private clinics in the areas were asked to participate in the study. Data was collected on self administered pre-tested structured questionnaires. The frequency with percentage and 95% confidence interval was calculated for at least one sharp injury (SI) in the last one year. The factors leading to sharp injuries were assessed using multiple logistic regressions. About 80% of private medical practitioners consented to participate. Among these 87% were males and 13% were female. The mean age was 38±11 years and mean work experience was 12±9 years. The frequency of at least one sharp injury in the last one year was 27%(95% CI: 22.2-32). Almost 47% of Sharp Injuries were caused by needle recapping, less work experience, less than 14 years of schooling, more than 20 patients per day, administering more than 30 injections per day, reuse of syringes and needle recapping after use were significantly associated with sharp injuries. Injection practices were found inadequate among private medical practitioners in slum areas of Karachi, and the frequency of Sharp Injuries was found high in these areas. There is a risk of occupational transmission of blood borne infections among medical practitioners warranting an urgent need for launching awareness and training on standard precautions for private medical practitioners in the slum areas of Karachi.

Keywords: injection practices, private practitioners, sharp injuries, blood borne infections

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2958 Maize Farmers’ Perception of Sharp Practices among Agro-Input Dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa Agricultural Zone, Oyo State

Authors: Ademola A. Ladele, Peace I. Aburime


Fake and substandard agricultural inputs pose a serious stumbling block to farm productivity and subsequently improved livelihood. There is, therefore, a need to pave ways for sustainable agriculture and self-sufficiency in food production by proffering solutions to this challenge. Maize farmers' perception of sharp practices among agro-input dealers in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone in Oyo state was therefore investigated. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select registered maize farmers in the Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP). A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the perception of sharp practices and the effects of sharp practices. A total of seventy-five maize farmers were interviewed. A focus group discussion was organized to identify ways of curbing sharp practices to complement the survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Forms of sharp practices indicated were sales of expired fertilizers, expired pesticides, expired herbicides, underweight fertilizers, adulterated fertilizers, adulterated herbicides, packs containing broken seeds, infested seeds, lack of truth in labeling/wrong labels, manipulation of measuring scales, and false declaration of hecterages covered by tractor operators. The majority had unfavorable perception of agro-input dealers on sharp practices. A significant relationship was observed between respondents’ level of education and their perception of sharp practices. There were no significant relationships between respondents’ sex, marital status and religion, and their perception of sharp practices. A significant correlation exists between the forms of sharp practices and the perceived effect on agricultural production. It is concluded that the perceived effect of sharp practices was critical and the endemic culture of sharp practices prevailed in agro-input in Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone. A standard regulatory system that will certify and monitor the quality of inputs should be put in place.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, agro-input dealers, maize farmers, sharp practices

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2957 Distant Speech Recognition Using Laser Doppler Vibrometer

Authors: Yunbin Deng


Most existing applications of automatic speech recognition relies on cooperative subjects at a short distance to a microphone. Standoff speech recognition using microphone arrays can extend the subject to sensor distance somewhat, but it is still limited to only a few feet. As such, most deployed applications of standoff speech recognitions are limited to indoor use at short range. Moreover, these applications require air passway between the subject and the sensor to achieve reasonable signal to noise ratio. This study reports long range (50 feet) automatic speech recognition experiments using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) sensor. This study shows that the LDV sensor modality can extend the speech acquisition standoff distance far beyond microphone arrays to hundreds of feet. In addition, LDV enables 'listening' through the windows for uncooperative subjects. This enables new capabilities in automatic audio and speech intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) for law enforcement, homeland security and counter terrorism applications. The Polytec LDV model OFV-505 is used in this study. To investigate the impact of different vibrating materials, five parallel LDV speech corpora, each consisting of 630 speakers, are collected from the vibrations of a glass window, a metal plate, a plastic box, a wood slate, and a concrete wall. These are the common materials the application could encounter in a daily life. These data were compared with the microphone counterpart to manifest the impact of various materials on the spectrum of the LDV speech signal. State of the art deep neural network modeling approaches is used to conduct continuous speaker independent speech recognition on these LDV speech datasets. Preliminary phoneme recognition results using time-delay neural network, bi-directional long short term memory, and model fusion shows great promise of using LDV for long range speech recognition. To author’s best knowledge, this is the first time an LDV is reported for long distance speech recognition application.

Keywords: covert speech acquisition, distant speech recognition, DSR, laser Doppler vibrometer, LDV, speech intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance, ISR

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2956 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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2955 An Introductory Study on Optimization Algorithm for Movable Sensor Network-Based Odor Source Localization

Authors: Yossiri Ariyakul, Piyakiat Insom, Poonyawat Sangiamkulthavorn, Takamichi Nakamoto


In this paper, the method of optimization algorithm for sensor network comprised of movable sensor nodes which can be used for odor source localization was proposed. A sensor node is composed of an odor sensor, an anemometer, and a wireless communication module. The odor intensity measured from the sensor nodes are sent to the processor to perform the localization based on optimization algorithm by which the odor source localization map is obtained as a result. The map can represent the exact position of the odor source or show the direction toward it remotely. The proposed method was experimentally validated by creating the odor source localization map using three, four, and five sensor nodes in which the accuracy to predict the position of the odor source can be observed.

Keywords: odor sensor, odor source localization, optimization, sensor network

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2954 Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rahul Malhotra


The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.

Keywords: routing protocol, MANET, AODV, On Demand Distance Vector Routing, DSR, Dynamic Source Routing

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2953 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç


The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a Diagnose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor

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2952 Sharp Estimates of Oscillatory Singular Integrals with Rough Kernels

Authors: H. Al-Qassem, L. Cheng, Y. Pan


In this paper, we establish sharp bounds for oscillatory singular integrals with an arbitrary real polynomial phase P. Our kernels are allowed to be rough both on the unit sphere and in the radial direction. We show that the bounds grow no faster than log (deg(P)), which is optimal and was first obtained by Parissis and Papadimitrakis for kernels without any radial roughness. Our results substantially improve many previously known results. Among key ingredients of our methods are an L¹→L² sharp estimate and using extrapolation.

Keywords: oscillatory singular integral, rough kernel, singular integral, orlicz spaces, block spaces, extrapolation, L^{p} boundedness

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2951 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.


The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

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2950 Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Kamalpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar


In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.

Keywords: ERA, fuzzy logic, network model, WSN

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2949 Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment

Authors: Chen Zhang, Bernhard Schwarz-Röhr, Alexander Härting


To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, nonlinear estimation, sea trial, ship motion estimation

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2948 Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack

Authors: Sungsik Jo, Hyeonwoo Kim, Iksu Choi, Hunmo Kim


In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect various of sensor fault mode.

Keywords: smart hybrid powerpack (SHP), electro hydraulic actuator (EHA), permanent sensor fault tolerance, sliding mode observer (SMO), graphic user interface (GUI)

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2947 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

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2946 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy


By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: energy conversion, gas leak, smartphone, explosion, LPG

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2945 SFO-ECRSEP: Sensor Field Optimızation Based Ecrsep For Heterogeneous WSNS

Authors: Gagandeep Singh


The sensor field optimization is a serious issue in WSNs and has been ignored by many researchers. As in numerous real-time sensing fields the sensor nodes on the corners i.e. on the segment boundaries will become lifeless early because no extraordinary safety is presented for them. Accordingly, in this research work the central objective is on the segment based optimization by separating the sensor field between advance and normal segments. The inspiration at the back this sensor field optimization is to extend the time spam when the first sensor node dies. For the reason that in normal sensor nodes which were exist on the borders may become lifeless early because the space among them and the base station is more so they consume more power so at last will become lifeless soon.

Keywords: WSNs, ECRSEP, SEP, field optimization, energy

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2944 An Energy-Balanced Clustering Method on Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Yu-Ting Tsai, Chiun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Chun Chu


In recent years, due to the development of wireless network technology, many researchers have devoted to the study of wireless sensor networks. The applications of wireless sensor network mainly use the sensor nodes to collect the required information, and send the information back to the users. Since the sensed area is difficult to reach, there are many restrictions on the design of the sensor nodes, where the most important restriction is the limited energy of sensor nodes. Because of the limited energy, researchers proposed a number of ways to reduce energy consumption and balance the load of sensor nodes in order to increase the network lifetime. In this paper, we proposed the Energy-Balanced Clustering method with Auxiliary Members on Wireless Sensor Networks(EBCAM)based on the cluster routing. The main purpose is to balance the energy consumption on the sensed area and average the distribution of dead nodes in order to avoid excessive energy consumption because of the increasing in transmission distance. In addition, we use the residual energy and average energy consumption of the nodes within the cluster to choose the cluster heads, use the multi hop transmission method to deliver the data, and dynamically adjust the transmission radius according to the load conditions. Finally, we use the auxiliary cluster members to change the delivering path according to the residual energy of the cluster head in order to its load. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the related algorithms via simulated experiments and then analyze the results. It reveals that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms in the numbers of used rounds and the average energy consumption.

Keywords: auxiliary nodes, cluster, load balance, routing algorithm, wireless sensor network

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2943 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi


In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threats

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