Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Recep Kesli

30 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Özgül Çetinkaya, Adem Aslan

Abstract:

Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: Microarray, bacteremia, blood culture, Vitek-2

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29 Evaluation of the Benefit of Anti-Endomysial IgA and Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase IgA Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Coeliac Disease in a University Hospital, 2010-2016

Authors: Recep Kesli, Onur Türkyılmaz, Hayriye Tokay, Kasım Demir

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Objective: Coeliac disease (CD) is a primary small intestine disorder caused by high sensitivity to gluten which is present in the crops, characterized by inflammation in the small intestine mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine and to compare the sensitivity and specificity values of anti-endomysial IgA (EMA IgA) (IFA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (anti-tTG IgA) (ELISA) antibodies in the diagnosis of patients suspected with the CD. Methods: One thousand two hundred seventy three patients, who have applied to gastroenterology and pediatric disease polyclinics of Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Research and Practice Hospital were included into the study between 23.09.2010 and 30.05.2016. Sera samples were investigated by immunofluorescence method for EMA positiveness (Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany). In order to determine quantitative value of Anti-tTG IgA (EIA) (Orgentec Mainz, Germany) fully automated ELISA device (Alisei, Seac, Firenze, Italy) were used. Results: Out of 1273 patients, 160 were diagnosed with coeliac disease according to ESPGHAN 2012 diagnosis criteria. Out of 160 CD patients, 120 were female, 40 were male. The EMA specificity and sensitivity were calculated as 98% and 80% respectively. Specificity and sensitivity of Anti-tTG IgA were determined as 99% and 96% respectively. Conclusion: The specificity of EMA for CD was excellent because all EMA-positive patients (n = 144) were diagnosed with CD. The presence of human anti-tTG IgA was found as a reliable marker for diagnosis and follow-up the CD. Diagnosis of CD should be established on both the clinical and serologic profiles together.

Keywords: coeliac disease, anti-endomysial antibody, anti-tTG IgA, immunofluorescence assay (IFA)

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28 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, intensive care unit, antibiotic resistance rates, Pseudomonas spp

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27 Prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as Causative Agents of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis in Men and Determination of Anti-Bacterial Resistance Rates

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz

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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as the causative agents in men with non-gonococcal urethtritis, and anti-bacterial resistance rates. Methods: The Study was carried out in the two Medical Microbiology Laboratories belonging to: Konya Education and Research Hospital and ANS Practice and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, between January 2012 and December 2015. Urethral samples were obtained from patients by using a swab. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected by using Mycoplasma IST-2 kit (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Neisseria gonorrhoea was excluded by Gram staining and culture methods. Results: Of all the one hundred and eighty-eight male patients with urethritis, forty M. hominis and forty two U. urealyticum were detected. Resistance rates of M. hominis strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 5 %, 65 %, 25 %, 5 %, 80 %, 20 %, 20 %, 20 %, 5 %, respectively. Resistance rates of U. urealyticum strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 4.7 %, 66.6 %, 23.8 %, 4.75 %, 81 %, 19 %, 19 %, 4.7 % respectively. No resistance was detected against to josamycin, for both the strains. Conclusions: It was concluded that; ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin had the weakest; josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline had the strongest in vitro anti-bacterial activity, for treatment of the NGU. So josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline should be preferred as the first choice of anti-bacterial agents, for treatment of the patients with non-gonococcal male urethritis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Mycoplasma hominis, non-gonococcal urethritis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

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26 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, VITEK 2

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25 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Huseyin Bilgin, Recep Kesli, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek

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Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Antibiotic, blood culture, Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus

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24 Comparative Evaluation of Seropositivity and Patterns Distribution Rates of the Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Four Different Autoimmune Collagen Tissue Diseases

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Autoimmune collagen diseases occur with the immune reactions against the body’s own cell or tissues which cause inflammation and damage the tissues and organs. In this study, it was aimed to compare seropositivity rates and patterns of the anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in the diagnosis of four different autoimmune collagen tissue diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis-RA, Systemic Lupus Erythematous-SLE, Scleroderma-SSc and Sjogren Syndrome-SS) with each other. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients applied to different clinics in Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Practice and Research Hospital between 11.07.2014 and 14.07.2015 that thought the different collagen disease such as RA, SLE, SSc and SS have participated in the study retrospectively. All the data obtained from the patients participated in the study were evaluated according to the included criteria. The historical archives belonging to the patients have been screened, assessed in terms of ANA positivity. The obtained data was analysed by using the descriptive statistics; chi-squared, Fischer's exact test. The evaluations were performed by SPSS 20.0 version and p < 0.05 level was considered as significant. Results: Distribution rates of the totally one hundred eighty-eight patients according to the diagnosis were found as follows: 82 (43.6%) were RA, 38 (20.2%) were SLE, 22 (11.7%) were SSc, and 46 (24.5%) were SS. Distribution of ANA positivity rates according to the collagen tissue diseases were found as follows; for RA were 54 (65,9 %), for SLE were 36 (94,7 %), for SSc were 18 (81,8 %), and for SS were 43 (93,5 %). Rheumatoid arthritis should be evaluated and classified as a different class among all the other investigated three autoimmune illnesses. ANA positivity rates were found as differently higher (91.5 %) in the SLE, SSc, and SS, from the RA (65.9 %). Differences at ANA positivity rates for RA and the other three diseases were found as statistically significant (p=0.015). Conclusions: Systemic autoimmune illnesses show broad spectrum. ANA positivity was found as an important predictor marker in the diagnosis of the rheumatologic illnesses. ANA positivity should be evaluated as more valuable and sensitive a predictor diagnostic marker in the laboratory findings of the SLE, SSc, and SS according to RA.

Keywords: scleroderma, Rheumatoid Arthritis, antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus Erythemotosus

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23 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Proteus Mirabilis Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Gülşah Aşık, Onur Türkyılmaz

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Objective: Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens in human and it causes urinary tract and nosocomial infections. P. mirabilis is susceptible to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. It was aimed to investigate the resistance status to antimicrobial agents of Proteus mirabilis strains produced from samples sent to Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory from different clinics and polyclinics during the period of 24 months. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 30 Proteus were isolated from clinical samples of patients were hospitalized in intensive care units and in various departments of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hempshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Of the total 30 Proteus strains isolated from clinical samples, 19 from urine, 7 from wound, 4 from tracheal aspiration materials were isolated. Antimicrobial resistant for these strains were determined to 24,3% for meropenem, 26.2% for imipenem, 20.2% for amikacin 10.5% for cefepim, 33.3% for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% for ceftazidime, 20% for ceftriaxone, 15.2% for gentamicin and 26.6% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Conclusion: In the present study, the highest number of clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated from urine (63,3%), followed by the others (36,6%). The distribution of samples P. mirabilis strains to the clinics were as fallows; 16,8% intensive care unit (ICU), 29,9% polyclinics, 53,3% hospital service units The most effective antibiotic on the total of strains were found to be cefepim, the least effective antibiotics on the total of strains were found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, intensive care unit, proteus mirabilis, Proteus spp

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22 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Gülşah Aşık

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Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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21 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Unit Patients in a University Practice and Research Hospital

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial microorganism. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is problematic because this microorganism is usually resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. We aimed to evaluate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia in respect to sampling sites and antimicrobial resistant. Method: During a two years period (October 2013 and September 2015) eighteen samples collected from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients hospitalized in Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’toile, France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Eighteen S. maltophilia strains were identified as the causative agents of different infections. The main type of infection was lower respiratory tract infection (83,4 %); three patients (16,6 %) had bloodstream infection. While, none of the 18 S. maltophilia strains were found to be resistant against to trimethoprim sulfametaxasole (TMP-SXT) and levofloxacine, eight strains 66.6 % were found to be resistant against ceftazidim. Conclusion: The isolation of S.maltophilia starains resistant to TMP-SXT is vital. In order to prevent or minimize infections due to S. maltophilia such precuations should be utilized: Avoidance of inappropriate antibiotic use, prolonged implementation of foreign devices, reinforcement of hand hygiene practices and the application of appropriate infection control practices. Microbiology laboratories also may play important roles in controlling S. maltophilia infections by monitoring the prevalence, continuously, the provision of local antibiotic resistance paterns data and the performance of synergistic studies also may help to guide appropirate antimicrobial therapy choices.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, stenotrophomonas maltophilia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Stenotrophomonas spp

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20 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii, intensive care unit, multi drug resistance

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19 A Comparative Study: Comparison of Two Different Fluorescent Stains -Auramine and Rhodamine- with Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen, Kinyoun Staining, and Culture in the Determination of Acid Resistant Bacilli

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Hayriye Tokay, İsmail Ceyhan

Abstract:

Objective: In many countries, tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most important diseases. Tuberculosis is among top 10 causes of death worldwide. The early diagnosis of active tuberculosis still depends on the presence of acid resistant bacilli (ARB) in stained smears. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic performances of Erlich Ziehl Neelsen (EZN), Kinyoun and two different fluorescent stains. Methods: The specimens were obtained from the patients who applied to Chest Diseases Departments of Ankara Atatürk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, and Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital. The study was carried out in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University. All the non-sterile specimens were homogenized and decontaminated according to the EUCAST instructions. Samples were inoculated onto the Löwenstein-Jensen agars (bio-Merieux Marcy l'Etoile, France) and then incubated at 37˚C, for 40 days. Four smears were prepared from each specimen. Slides were stained with commercial EZN (BD, Sparks, USA), Kinyoun (SALUBRIS Istanbul, Turkey), Auramine (SALUBRIS Istanbul, Turkey) and Rhodamine (SALUBRIS Istanbul, Turkey) kit. While EZN and Kinyoun stainings were examined by light microscope, Auramine and Rhodamine slides were examined by fluorescence microscopy. Results: A total of 158 respiratory system samples (sputum, broncho alveolar lavage fluid…etc) were enrolled into the study. A hundred and two of the samples that processed were found as culture positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values were detected as 100%, 67.5%, 73.5%, and 100% for EZN, 100%, 70.9%, 77.4%, and 100% for Kinyoun, 100%,77.8%, 84.3%, 100% for Auramine, and 100%, 80% , 86.3%, and 100% for Rhodamine respectively. Conclusions: According to our study auramine and rhodamine staining methods showed the best diagnostic performance among the four investigated staining methods. In conclusion, the fluorochrome staining method may be accepted as the most reliable, rapid and useful method for diagnosis of the mycobacterial infections truly.

Keywords: acid resistant bacilli (ARB), auramine, Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen (EZN), Kinyoun, Rhodamine

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18 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez

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Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: Gastroenteritis, RT-PCR, rotavirus, Genotyping

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17 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Serratia marcescens and Providencia Spp. from Various Clinical Specimens by Using Both the Conventional and Automated (VITEK2) Methods

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Gülşah Aşık, Onur Türkyılmaz

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Objective: Serratia species are identified as aerobic, motile Gram negative rods. The species Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) causes both opportunistic and nosocomial infections. The genus Providencia is Gram-negative bacilli and includes urease-producing that is responsible for a wide range of human infections. Although most Providencia infections involve the urinary tract, they are also associated with gastroenteritis, wound infections, and bacteremia. The aim of this study was evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains which had been isolated from various clinical materials obtained from different patients who belongs to intensive care units (ICU) and inpatient clinics. Methods: A total of 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains isolated from various clinical samples admitted to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University between October 2013 and September 2015 were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and VITEK 2 system (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) was used additionally. Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: The distribution of clinical samples were as follows: upper and lower respiratory tract samples 26, 74.2 % wound specimen 6, 17.1 % blood cultures 3, 8.5%. Of the 35 S. marcescens and Providencia spp. strains; 28, 80% were isolated from clinical samples sent from ICU. The resistance rates of S. marcescens strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 8.5 %, 22.8 %, 11.4 %, 2.8 %, 17.1 %, 40 %, 28.5 % and 5.7 % respectively. Resistance rates of Providencia spp. strains against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and amikacin were found to be 10.2 %, 33,3 %, 18.7 %, 8.7 %, 13.2 %, 38.6 %, 26.7%, and 11.8 % respectively. Conclusion: S. marcescens is usually resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cephamycins, nitrofurantoin, and colistin. The most effective antibiotic on the total of S. marcescens strains was found to be gentamicin 2.8 %, of the totally tested strains the highest resistance rate found against to ceftazidime 40 %. The lowest and highest resistance rates were found against gentamiycin and ceftazidime with the rates of 8.7 % and 38.6 % for Providencia spp.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, intensive care unit, Serratia marcescens, Providencia spp

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16 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Huseyin Bilgin, Recep Kesli, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: Culture, Antimicrobial resistance, Histology, H. pylori, RUT

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15 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Huseyin Bilgin, Recep Kesli, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection

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14 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay

Abstract:

Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, ESBL, VITEK 2, gram negative rods

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13 Turkey at the End of the Second Decade of the 21st Century: A Secular or Religious Country?

Authors: Francesco Pisano

Abstract:

Islam has been an important topic in Turkey’s institutional identity. Since the dawn of the Turkish Republic, at the end of the First World War, the new Turkish leadership was urged to deal with the religious heritage of the Sultanate. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey’s first President, led the country in a process of internal change, substantially modifying not merely the democratic stance of it, but also the way politics was addressing the Muslim faith. Islam was banned from the public sector of the society and was drastically marginalized to the mere private sphere of citizens’ lives. Headscarves were banned from institutional buildings together with any other religious practice, while the country was proceeding down a path of secularism and Westernization. This issue is demonstrated by the fact that even a new elected Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, was initially barred from taking the institutional position, because of allegations that he had read a religious text while campaigning. Over the years, thanks to this initial internal shift, Turkey has often been seen by Western partners as one of the few countries that had managed to find a perfect balance between a democratic stance and an Islamic inherent nature. In the early 2000s, this led many academics to believe that Ankara could eventually have become the next European capital. Since then, the internal and external landscape of Turkey has drastically changed. Today, religion has returned to be an important point of reference for Turkish politics, considering also the failure of the European negotiations and the always more unstable external environment of the country. This paper wants to address this issue, looking at the important role religion has covered in the Turkish society and the way it has been politicized since the early years of the Republic. It will evolve from a more theoretical debate on secularism and the path of political westernization of Turkey under Ataturk’s rule to a more practical analysis of today’s situation, passing through the failure of Ankara’s accession into the EU and the current tense political relation with its traditional NATO allies. The final objective of this research, therefore, is not to offer a meticulous opinion on Turkey’s current international stance. This issue will be left entirely to the personal consideration of the reader. Rather, it will supplement the existing literature with a comprehensive and more structured analysis on the role Islam has played on Turkish politics since the early 1920s up until the political domestic revolution of the early 2000s, after the first electoral win of the Justice and Development Party (AKP).

Keywords: Democracy, Islam, Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

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12 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Mustafa Kara, Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir

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Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, foaming, waste glass, foam glass

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11 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim

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Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: treatment, CBCT, radicular cyst, jaws

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10 A Functional Analysis of a Political Leader in Terms of Marketing

Authors: Aşina Gülerarslan, M. Faik Özdengül

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The new economic, social and political world order has led to the emergence of a wide range of persuasion strategies and practices based on an ever expanding marketing axis that involves organizations, ideas and persons as well as products and services. It is seen that since the 1990's, a wide variety of competitive marketing ideas have been offered systematically to target audiences in the field of politics as in other fields. When the components of marketing are taken into consideration, all kinds of communication efforts involving “political leaders”, who are conceptualized as products in terms of political marketing, serve a process of social persuasion, which cannot be restricted to election periods only, and a manageable “image”. In this context, image, which is concerned with how the political product is perceived, involves not only the political discourses shared with the public but also all kinds of biographical information about the leader, the leader’s specific way of living and routines and his/her attitudes and behaviors in their private lives, and all these are regarded as components of the “product image”. While on the one hand the leader’s verbal or supra-verbal references serve the way the “spirit of the product” is perceived –just as in brand positioning- they also show their self-esteem levels, in other words how they perceive themselves on the other hand. Indeed, their self-esteem levels are evaluated in three fundamental categories in the “Functional Analysis”, namely parent, child and adult, and it is revealed that the words, tone of voice and body language a person uses makes it easy to understand at what self-esteem level that person is. In this context, words, tone of voice and body language, which provide important clues as to the “self” of the person, are also an indication of how political leaders evaluate both “themselves” and “the mass/audience” in the communication they establish with their audiences. When the matter is taken from the perspective of Turkey, the levels of self-esteem in the relationships that the political leaders establish with the masses are also important in revealing how our society is seen from the perspective of a specific leader. Since the leader is a part of the marketing strategy of a political party as a product, this evaluation is significant in terms of the forms of relationships between political institutions in our country with the society. In this study, the self-esteem level in the documentary entitled “Master’s Story”, where Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s life history is told, is analyzed in the context of words, tone of voice and body language. Within the scope of the study, at what level of self-esteem Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was in the “Master’s Story”, a documentary broadcast on Beyaz TV, was investigated using the content analysis method. First, based on the Functional Analysis Literature, a transactional approach scale was created regarding parent, adult and child self-esteem levels. On the basis of this scale, the prime minister’s self-esteem level was determined in three basic groups, namely “tone of voice”, “the words he used” and “body language”. Descriptive analyses were made to the data within the framework of these criteria and at what self-esteem level the prime minister spoke throughout the documentary was revealed.

Keywords: political marketing, leader image, level of self-esteem, transactional approach

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9 Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method

Authors: Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Onur Okur, Recep Calin

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Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, vacumm infiltration method, aluminum metal matrix, mechanical feature

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8 The Effect of Multimedia Use on Students’ Academic Achievement and Course-Oriented Self-Efficacy

Authors: Hasan Coruk, Recep Cakir

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This study aimed at investigating the effect of multimedia containing ‘the structure and properties of matter’ unit on students’ academic achievement level and self-efficacy relating to science and technology course. The study used an experimental design with pre-test and post-test groups. The data collection tools were ‘Science and Technology Course Achievement Test’ and ‘Science and Technology Self-Efficacy Scale’. The sample of the study consisted of 8th grade students at a primary school in Tokat Province. The study was carried out with 42 students from two classes, 21 (8 males, 13 females) from experimental group and 21 (13 males and 8 females) from control group. The data were analyzed in SPSS.18 software. The findings of the study indicated that the use of multimedia increased the students’ academic achievement in science and technology course in comparison with traditional teaching methods. It was also determined that there was not a significant difference in students’ course-oriented self-efficacy levels regarding the two methods. Necessary and feasible suggestions were put forward for whom it concerns.

Keywords: Science and Technology, Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, multimedia learning, the structure-properties of matter

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7 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Recep Karadag, Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Emine Torgan

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Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dyeing, natural dye, Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, silk fabric

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6 Post-Islamism, Turkish Referendum and the Anatolian Middle Class

Authors: Firmanda Taufiq

Abstract:

Turkey as a country with great political power and political dynamics that occurred in Turkey shows symptoms that make this country interesting enough to be studied. In addition, there is also Post-Islamism phenomenon that causes fluctuations and changes in Turkish politics. In this regard, Turkey carved out history by holding a referendum that changed the state system from a parliamentary system with a presidential system. This change has major implications in the life of Turkish society and politics. The condition is not only influenced by the government of Recep Tayyib Erdogan alone, but actually there is also anxiety middle class Turkish (Middle Class Anatolia). So there was a Turkish referendum held on 16 April 2017. This research using descriptive-analysis method to analyzing problems of research, that's how the post-Islamism situation in Turkey and Anatolian Middle Class impact to Turkish referendum. Actually, the political process that took place in Turkey is inseparable from Post-Islamism which became an important part in the change and transition of government system. The AKP Party as the basis of the Erdogan government movement became an important actor in the political and policy dynamics produced by the Erdogan government. It is then why the Turkish referendum took place.

Keywords: Post-Islamism, AKP, Turkish politic, middle class Anatolia

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5 Analysis of Crisis Management Systems of United Kingdom and Turkey

Authors: Recep Sait Arpat, Hakan Güreşci

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Emergency, disaster and crisis management terms are generally perceived as the same processes. This conflict effects the approach and delegating policy of the political order. Crisis management starts in the aftermath of the mismanagement of disaster and emergency. In the light of the information stated above in this article Turkey and United Kingdom(UK)’s crisis management systems are analyzed. This article’s main aim is to clarify the main points of the emergency management system of United Kingdom and Turkey’s disaster management system by comparing them. To do this: A prototype model of the political decision making processes of the countries is drawn, decision making mechanisms and the planning functions are compared. As a result it’s found that emergency management policy in Turkey is reactive whereas it’s proactive in UK; as the delegating policy Turkey’s system is similar to UK; levels of emergency situations are similar but not the same; the differences are stemming from the civil order and nongovernmental organizations effectiveness; UK has a detailed government engagement model to emergencies, which shapes the doctrine of the approach to emergencies, and it’s successful in gathering and controlling the whole state’s efforts; crisis management is a sub-phase of UK emergency management whereas it’s accepted as a outmoded management perception and the focal point of crisis management perception in UK is security crisis and natural disasters while in Turkey it is natural disasters. In every anlysis proposals are given to Turkey.

Keywords: Turkey, Crisis Management, Disaster Management, Emergency Management, united kingdom

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4 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan

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Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

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3 Paradigmatic Approach University Management from the Perspective of Strategic Management: A Research in the Marmara Region in Turkey

Authors: Recep Yücel, Cihat Kartal, Mustafa Kara

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On the basis of strategic management, it is believed in the necessity of a number of innovations in the postmodern management approach in the management of universities in our country. In this sense, some of these requirements are the integration of public and private universities, international integration, R & D status and increasing young population will create a dynamic structure. According to the postmodern management approach, universities, in our country despite being governed by the classical approach autonomous universities; academically are thought solid, to be non-hierarchical and creative. In fact, studies that require a multidisciplinary academic environment, universities and there is a close cooperation between formal and non-formal sub-units. Moreover, terms of postmodern management approaches, the requirements specified in the direction of solving the problem of an increasing number of universities in our country is considered to be more difficult. Therefore, considering the psychological impact on the academic personnel the university organizational structure, the study are trying to aim to propose an appropriate model of university organization. In this context, the study sought to answer the question how to have an impact innovation and international integration on the academic achievement of the classical organizational structure. Finally, in the study, due to the adoption of the classical organizational structure of the university, integration is considered to be difficult, academic cooperation between universities at the international level and maintaining it. In addition, it was understood that block the efforts of this organization structure, academic motivation, development and innovation. In this study under these purposes; on the basis of the existing organization and management structure of the universities in the Marmara Region in Turkey, a study was conducted with qualitative research methods. The data have been analyzed using content analysis and assessment was based on the results obtained.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Multidisciplinary Studies, University, postmodern management approaches

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2 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag

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Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: Sustainability, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Natural Dyes

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1 Effects of Learner-Content Interaction Activities on the Context of Verbal Learning Outcomes in Interactive Courses

Authors: Ozlem Kaya, Alper Tolga Kumtepe, Erdem Erdogdu, M. Recep Okur, Eda Kaypak, Serap Ugur, Deniz Dincer, Hakan Yildirim

Abstract:

Interaction is one of the most important components of open and distance learning. According to Moore, who proposed one of the keystones on interaction types, there are three basic types of interaction: learner-teacher, learner-content, and learner-learner. From these interaction types, learner-content interaction, without doubt, can be identified as the most fundamental one on which all education is based. Efficacy, efficiency, and attraction of open and distance learning systems can be achieved by the practice of effective learner-content interaction. With the development of new technologies, interactive e-learning materials have been commonly used as a resource in open and distance learning, along with the printed books. The intellectual engagement of the learners with the content that is course materials may also affect their satisfaction for the open and distance learning practices in general. Learner satisfaction holds an important place in open and distance learning since it will eventually contribute to the achievement of learning outcomes. Using the learner-content interaction activities in course materials, Anadolu University, by its Open Education system, tries to involve learners in deep and meaningful learning practices. Especially, during the e-learning material design and production processes, identifying appropriate learner-content interaction activities within the context of learning outcomes holds a big importance. Considering the lack of studies adopting this approach, as well as its being a study on the use of e-learning materials in Open Education system, this research holds a big value in open and distance learning literature. In this respect, the present study aimed to investigate a) which learner-content interaction activities included in interactive courses are the most effective in learners’ achievement of verbal information learning outcomes and b) to what extent distance learners are satisfied with these learner-content interaction activities. For this study, the quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The 120 participants of the study were from Anadolu University Open Education Faculty students living in Eskişehir. The students were divided into 6 groups randomly. While 5 of these groups received different learner-content interaction activities as a part of the experiment, the other group served as the control group. The data were collected mainly through two instruments: pre-test and post-test. In addition to those tests, learners’ perceived learning was assessed with an item at the end of the program. The data collected from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by ANOVA, and in the light of the findings of this approximately 24-month study, suggestions for the further design of e-learning materials within the context of learner-content interaction activities will be provided at the conference. The current study is planned to be an antecedent for the following studies that will examine the effects of activities on other learning domains.

Keywords: Distance Education, Interaction, interactivity, online courses

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