Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1833

Search results for: programs of the EU

1833 Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs

Authors: Zeynep Turhan

Abstract:

This review emphasized the effectiveness of men’s participation, and whether non-violent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of IPV prevention programs affect their involvement. Additionally, the review aimed to identify the barriers of non-engagement as well as the most effective approaches to end and prevent violence-against-women (VAW). The main goals of this assessment were to investigate 1) how NV men engage in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, 2) what are the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs 3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encourage NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review recommended expanding these programs to reach more macro settings such as workplace, faith-based and other community-based organizations. Additionally, secondary and territory prevention programs need to expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.

Keywords: engagement, non-violent men, prevention programs

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1832 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: school, suicide, prevention, programs

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1831 An International Analysis of Career Development and Management Programs for High-Performance Athletes: A Perspective of Organizational Support

Authors: H. J. Hong

Abstract:

Sporting organizations are arguably responsible for encouraging high-performance athletes to balance their life and identity during their sporting career; sporting organizations can establish the motivational climate for high-performance athletes using athlete career development and management programs. The purpose of this article to provide an overview of career development and management programs in 20 countries and to examine the following seven features of the programs: (1) Which government-funded sporting organizations provide career development and management programs? (2) Which athletes are eligible to access the programs? (3) What are the aims and objectives of the programs? (4) What are the activities and content of the programs? (5) Who is responsible for the delivery of the programs within organizations (e.g., advisors, coordinators, service providers, counsellors, etc.)? (6) Do the sporting organizations have training and development programs for support services providers? and (7) Do the sporting organizations assess the programs in terms of the programs’ impact on high-performance athletes’ career development and management skills? Web-based data collection was conducted first. The author contacted the sporting organizations to clarify information as required by requesting further information via emails, international calls, video calls on Skype, and by visiting the sporting organizations and meeting with the practitioners (Fiji, Ireland, Korea, Scotland, Singapore, and Spain). By selecting comparable career development and management programs, the present study reviews programs across the world, identifying similarities, differences, and difficulties, so that sporting organizations and practitioners may enhance the quality of their programs. Since international comparisons of career development and management programs remain scarce, the findings deepen the knowledge of high-performance athletes’ career development, management, and transitions in the areas of organizational support programs.

Keywords: athletes' career development and management, athletes' psychological preparation, organizational support, sport career transition

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1830 Simulation Programs to Education of Crisis Management Members

Authors: Jiri Barta

Abstract:

This paper deals with a simulation programs and technologies using in the educational process for members of the crisis management. Risk analysis, simulation, preparation and planning are among the main activities of workers of crisis management. Made correctly simulation of emergency defines the extent of the danger. On this basis, it is possible to effectively prepare and plan measures to minimize damage. The paper is focused on simulation programs that are trained at the University of Defence. Implementation of the outputs from simulation programs in decision-making processes of crisis staffs is one of the main tasks of the research project.

Keywords: crisis management, continuity, critical infrastructure, dangerous substance, education, flood, simulation programs

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1829 Assessment of Investment Programs in Agriculture in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the analysis of the current situation of agricultural development in Georgia. The investment environment that supports development of the agricultural sector is evaluated and the key priorities are identified. The analysis of the projects already implemented with state and EU support, as well as those that are being currently implemented is presented. The policy and the programs supporting development of agricultural sector are analyzed. Based on an analysis of the evaluations of experts and the primary accounting documents, the outcomes of investment programs, their advantages and disadvantages, are studied. Through identifying investment programs in the agricultural sector of Georgia, corresponding conclusions are made, based on which some recommendations are developed.

Keywords: agriculture, investments, investment programs, projects

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1828 The Relationship Between Policy Design and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana

Authors: Joseph Kwame Sarfo-Adu

Abstract:

Social protection programs have been rolled out by successive governments in the quest of bridging the inequality gap in Ghana. Despite notable positive impacts of these programs across the country, there still remains worrying experience of the exclusion of the poor and vulnerable especially in rural Ghana Notwithstanding the rhetoric of participation within the discussion of social protection programs, less attention has been given to the design of these programs. In view of this, the study seeks to address how social protection programs are designed to address the needs of the poor. This study focused on five selected social protection programs in Ghana because they are programs with nationwide coverage. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to analyze our data with the use of the Nvivo 12 version. We found out that there is a strong link between policy design and poverty alleviation. Our findings revealed that a well-designed program can significantly alleviate poverty, a poorly designed program can create more damage.

Keywords: social protection, poverty alleviation, policy design, effective outcome

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1827 Evaluation of the Nursing Management Course in Undergraduate Nursing Programs of State Universities in Turkey

Authors: Oznur Ispir, Oya Celebi Cakiroglu, Esengul Elibol, Emine Ceribas, Gizem Acikgoz, Hande Yesilbas, Merve Tarhan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course in the undergraduate nursing programs of the state universities in Turkey and to assess the current content of the course. Design of the study is descriptive. Population of the study consists of seventy-eight undergraduate nursing programs in the state universities in Turkey. The questionnaire/survey prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data were obtained by screening the content of the websites of nursing education programs between March and May 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The research performed within the study indicated that 58% of the undergraduate nursing programs from which the data were derived were included in the school of health, 81% of the academic staff graduated from the undergraduate nursing programs, 40% worked as a lecturer and 37% specialized in a field other than the nursing. The research also implied that the above-mentioned course was included in 98% of the programs from which it was possible to obtain data. The full name of the course was 'Nursing Management' in 95% of the programs and 98% stated that the course was compulsory. Theory and application hours were 3.13 and 2.91, respectively. Moreover, the content of the course was not shared in 65% of the programs reviewed. This study demonstrated that the experience and expertise of the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course was not sufficient in the management area, and the schedule and content of the course were not sufficient although many nursing education programs provided the course. Comparison between the curricula of the course revealed significant differences.

Keywords: nursing, nursing management, nursing management course, undergraduate program

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1826 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: children, adolescents, suicide, positive

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1825 Teacher Professional Development Programs on K-12 Engineering Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Canan Mesutoglu, Evrim Baran

Abstract:

Teachers have a prominent role in facilitating the place of engineering in K-12 classrooms. This study addresses the need to understand how teacher professional development programs focusing on K-12 engineering education can be designed and delivered more effectively. A systematic review of the literature on such programs can offer possible ideas and recommendations. The purpose of this study is to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed articles published on K-12 engineering education teacher professional development programs. The methodology that guided the study was comprised of four phases: search, selection, coding, and synthesis. The search phase included articles published in the time period between 2000 and 2016. With a comprehensive search in databases, inclusion criteria were applied. This was followed by evaluation of the quality of articles with a checklist, and finally analysis of the results. The results revealed two categories of themes. These were 1) five themes related to the overarching agenda of the PD programs, and 2) five themes related to the instructional techniques of the PD programs. Finally, core elements were generated to guide the design and delivery of teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education. The results aimed to provide a conceptual basis for future research and practice on teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education.

Keywords: core elements, K-12 engineering education, systematic literature review, teacher professional development programs

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1824 Knowledge Management to Develop the Graduate Study Programs

Authors: Chuen-arom Janthimachai-amorn, Chirawadee Harnrittha

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the factors facilitating the knowledge management to develop the graduate study programs to achieve success and to identify the approaches in developing the graduate study programs in the Rajbhat Suansunantha University. The 10 respondents were the administrators, the faculty, and the personnel of its Graduate School. The research methodology was based on Pla-too Model of the Knowledge Management Institute (KMI) by allocating the knowledge indicators, the knowledge creation and search, knowledge systematization, knowledge processing and filtering, knowledge access, knowledge sharing and exchanges and learning. The results revealed that major success factors were knowledge indicators, evident knowledge management planning, knowledge exchange and strong solidarity of the team and systematic and tenacious access of knowledge. The approaches allowing the researchers to critically develop the graduate study programs were the environmental data analyses, the local needs and general situations, data analyses of the previous programs, cost analyses of the resources, and the identification of the structure and the purposes to develop the new programs.

Keywords: program development, knowledge management, graduate study programs, Rajbhat Suansunantha University

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1823 The Increase of Adolescent Obesity Rates after the COVID-19 Pandemic and Possible Obesity Prevention Programs for Implementation

Authors: Tatiana Pratt, Benyamin Hanasabzadeh, Panayiota Courelli

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the largest global public health issues of this current century. COVID-19 puts people diagnosed with obesity at higher risk of not only contracting the virus but also being hospitalized and dying, making this a vital time to implement obesity prevention programs. However, COVID-19 is predicted to rapidly increase the obesity rate in the United States due to the mandatory sedentary lifestyle the pandemic demands; this is especially harmful to adolescent-aged children because it creates lifelong unhealthy habits and behaviors. Adolescent obesity prevention programs have been rigorously implemented throughout the last century to help diminish the ever-increasing adolescent obesity rate. Since the pandemic kept adolescents inside and away from in-person school, many programs have now become ineffective due to their in-person participation. Examples of in-person participation programs include school lunch programs, OSNAP and New Moves. Therefore, online programs or remote intervention measures are now more essential. This leads to programs such as Time2bHealthy, HEALTH[e]TEEN, and SWITCH should be looked at with more vitality. Adolescents have intertwined their lives with technology and screen usage. Therefore, online and remote prevention programs will continue to play a large role in the post-pandemic era. This literature review will be reviewing past and current adolescent obesity prevention programs and their effectiveness with the new remote, sedentary lifestyle adolescents. Furthermore, it will suggest new ways to more productively decrease adolescent obesity rates by analyzing the harmful factors that COVID-19 introduced into their lifestyles.

Keywords: adolescent, obesity, overweight, COVID-19, preventative care, public health, public policy, obesity prevention programs, online programs

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1822 Professionalism Developments Programs in Faculty Members of Medical Universities

Authors: Tayebeh Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Soleiman Ahmadi, Leila Afshar

Abstract:

Introduction: In recent years, the importance of the progress of faculty members in teaching professionalism has increased and many empowerment programs have been carried out in this regard. This study was conducted by reviewing studies and faculty developments programs that have been conducted with the aim of reviewing and promoting professionalism in medical universities. Methodology: In this narrative review, Databases that were selected included: PubMed, Springer, Index, Emerald, Google scholar, Eric, Copernicus, Web of sciences, Science Direct, and articles published in medical education journals, including: medical teacher, medical education and Finally, 36 articles were included in the study. Results: Faculty members have multiple roles in universities, and their progress leads to the improvement of the culture within the organization, the creation of support and the desire to implement programs, we must provide opportunities to achieve these advances. Achieving these goals will be possible by implementing empowerment programs that are done from appropriate training strategies and with various training methods. Conclusion: Examining successful faculty developments programs in world-renowned universities will help us to extract the highlights and experiences of these programs and use their experiences to improve our empowerment programs. Identify appropriate learning opportunities and outcomes in our other universities It will avoid reworking and wasting resources. Using the principles of adult learning and a variety of appropriate learning methods and strategies will lead to the improvement of professionalism developments programs.

Keywords: professionalism, faculty members, professional ethics, developments programs

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1821 Enabling Exporting in Cameroon Using Export Promotion Programs

Authors: Morfaw Bernice Njinju

Abstract:

The contribution of exporting and small businesses to an economy cannot be overemphasized. However, small firms in developing economies are characterized by resource deficiencies, which hinders their exporting abilities. As a result, export promotion programs are designed by the government as external resources that small firms can access to overcome export barriers and improve their exporting. Nevertheless, doubts still exist as to whether firms are aware of these programs and the extent to which they are utilizing it. To analyse the level of awareness and usage of these programs, the questionnaire was developed from the review of the literature. A pilot study was conducted to determine the ease of completing the questionnaire by respondent before incorporating feedback to produce the final questionnaire. Data were collected from 200 small businesses in Cameroon in the manufacturing and agricultural sector through random sampling and analysed using regression analysis. The results indicated that different programs had different levels of awareness than others. Programs to provide training to improve product quality was found to have the highest level of awareness while those providing findings had low levels of awareness. Despite these different levels of awareness, usage was very low, as firms do not want to open up to government scrutiny of their business. Implications to policy, practice, and direction for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: export promotion programs, exporting, small businesses, Cameroon

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1820 Integrated Approach of Quality Function Deployment, Sensitivity Analysis and Multi-Objective Linear Programming for Business and Supply Chain Programs Selection

Authors: T. T. Tham

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to propose an integrated approach to determine the most suitable programs, based on Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Sensitivity Analysis (SA) and Multi-Objective Linear Programming model (MOLP). Firstly, QFD is used to determine business requirements and transform them into business and supply chain programs. From the QFD, technical scores of all programs are obtained. All programs are then evaluated through five criteria (productivity, quality, cost, technical score, and feasibility). Sets of weight of these criteria are built using Sensitivity Analysis. Multi-Objective Linear Programming model is applied to select suitable programs according to multiple conflicting objectives under a budget constraint. A case study from the Sai Gon-Mien Tay Beer Company is given to illustrate the proposed methodology. The outcome of the study provides a comprehensive picture for companies to select suitable programs to obtain the optimal solution according to their preference.

Keywords: business program, multi-objective linear programming model, quality function deployment, sensitivity analysis, supply chain management

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1819 Identifying Self-Disclosure in Indonesian Reality Show: A Comprehensive Study

Authors: Dwi Ashari

Abstract:

This study attempts to disclose people’s privacy in Indonesian media. Many television (henceforth: TV) programs have shown the exposure of people’s privacy. People, not only celebrities, who appear in TV program often, share their life to the participants to get very intimate self-disclosure with them. Indonesia, as one of the countries with highest population, has many people who watch television everyday. This can be the major factor for some TV stations to create a program to get people’s attention to gain more profit. This study examines some factors of Indonesia TV programs that share the people’s privacy. The relation of privacy in Indonesia TV programs will be related to the concept of self-disclosure and intimacy between the people who share and watch the programs.

Keywords: Indonesia, media, privacy, self-disclosure

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1818 Machine Learning Based Gender Identification of Authors of Entry Programs

Authors: Go Woon Kwak, Siyoung Jun, Soyun Maeng, Haeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Entry is an education platform used in South Korea, created to help students learn to program, in which they can learn to code while playing. Using the online version of the entry, teachers can easily assign programming homework to the student and the students can make programs simply by linking programming blocks. However, the programs may be made by others, so that the authors of the programs should be identified. In this paper, as the first step toward author identification of entry programs, we present an artificial neural network based classification approach to identify genders of authors of a program written in an entry. A neural network has been trained from labeled training data that we have collected. Our result in progress, although preliminary, shows that the proposed approach could be feasible to be applied to the online version of entry for gender identification of authors. As future work, we will first use a machine learning technique for age identification of entry programs, which would be the second step toward the author identification.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, author identification, deep neural network, gender identification, machine learning

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1817 The Use of Simulation Programs of Leakage of Harmful Substances for Crisis Management

Authors: Jiří Barta

Abstract:

The paper deals with simulation programs of spread of harmful substances. Air pollution has a direct impact on the quality of human life and environmental protection is currently a very hot topic. Therefore, the paper focuses on the simulation of release of harmful substances. The first part of article deals with perspectives and possibilities of implementation outputs of simulations programs into the system which is education and of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. The last part shows the practical testing and evaluation of simulation programs. Of the tested simulations software been selected Symos97. The tool offers advanced features for setting leakage. Gradually allows the user to model the terrain, location, and method of escape of harmful substances.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, Symos97, Spread, Simulation Software, Harmful Substances

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1816 The Effects of Dual-Enrollment Programs on Students’ Post-Secondary Academic Performance

Authors: Cody Kirby, Kaustav Misra, Arundhati Bagchi Misra, Sharon P. Cox

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the relationship that dual-enrollment programs have on academic performance and retention. Both performance and retention are significant issues in higher education. The first, performance, is a goal of higher education, having an impact on students’ lives. The second, retention, is key to the viability of any college or university. This paper uses survey research methodology to examine factors that lead to positive student academic performance, which leads to retention, specifically in dual-enrollment programs. The data show several characteristics that lead to a positive impact on GPA. These include the following; age, Caucasian race, full-time status, students in STEM programs, and finally dual enrollment participation.

Keywords: dual enrollment, early college, retention, undergraduate education

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1815 The Benefits of Full Day Kindergarten versus Half Day Kindergarten: Review of Literature

Authors: Majedah Fawzy Abu Alrub

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of full-day vs. half-day kindergarten. Research suggests that there is a common trend among full-day kindergarten programs. Academic, social, and emotional benefits are evident, as well as preferential trends among the parents and teachers. The review began by identifying 20 references of literature on full-day kindergarten published in the last two decades (1997-2017). Of these, 20 passed an initial screening designed to identify research reports that examined academic, social, and emotional outcomes of full-day kindergarten programs as compared with half-day programs. Studies indicated that children who attend full-day kindergarten are positively related to high performance through their schools. There is much evidence to support a full-day program for children. Results indicated that full-day programs have obvious benefits for children; however, they may not be the best program for all children.

Keywords: preschool, full-day kindergarten, academic benefits, social and emotional benefits

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1814 Gains and Pitfalls of Participating on International Staff Exchange Programs: Individual Experiences of Academic Staff of Makerere University, Uganda

Authors: David Onen

Abstract:

Staff exchanges amongst different work organizations are a growing international phenomenon. In higher education in particular, it is not only the staff participating on international exchange programs, but their students as well. The practice of exchanging staff is premised on the belief that participating members of staff would not only get the chance to network with colleagues from partner institutions but also gain the opportunity for knowledge sharing and skills development. As a result, it would not only benefit the participating individual staff but their institutions too. However, in practice, staff exchange programs everywhere are not all ‘a bed of roses’. In fact, some of the programs seem to be laden with unapparent source of trouble or danger for the participating staff. This paper is a report on an on-going study investigating the experiences of members of academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda who have ever participated on international staff exchange programs. The study is aimed at documenting individual experiences in order to stimulate, not only a debate, but practical ways of enriching the experiences of staff who engage on well-meant international staff exchange programs. The study has employed an exploratory survey research design in which self-administered questionnaire and interview guide are being used to collect data from university academic staff respondents selected through snow-ball and purposive sampling techniques. Data have been analysed with the use of appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics as well as content analysis techniques. Preliminary study findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (95.5%) were, to a large extent, fully satisfied with their participation on the staff exchange programs. Many attested to gaining new experience (97%), networking (75%), gaining new knowledge (94%), acquiring new skills (88%), and therefore bringing to their institutions something ‘new’ and ‘beneficial’. However, a reasonably large percentage (57%) of the participants too expressed dissatisfaction in the institutional support that Makerere University gave them during their participation on the exchange programs. Some respondents reported about the ‘unfriendly welcome’ they received upon returning ‘home’ because colleagues detested how they were chosen to participate on such programs. The researcher thus concluded that international staff exchange programs are truly beneficial to both the participating staff and their institutions though with pitfalls. The researcher thus recommended for mutual and preferably equal engagement of the participating institutions on staff exchange programs if such programs are to benefit both the participating staff and institutions. Besides, exchange programs require clear terms of cooperation including on how staff are selected, facilitated and what are expected of the sending and host institutions as well as the concerned staff.

Keywords: gains, exchange programs, higher education, pitfalls

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1813 A Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention for People with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen, Phuong Thu Dinh

Abstract:

People with intellectual disability are at high risk for sexual abuse. The reasons may originate from their communication skills deficits, lack of skills and knowledge to protect themselves from sexual abuse, or limited access to sexual abuse prevention programs. This article aims to present a systematic review about strategies for preventing sexual abuse for young people with intellectual disability. A range of articles in 10 years from 2009 to 2018 are searched by using online database. 5 papers are included for the final review. The results of this comprehensive literature review showed that there are two main strategies used: programs designed for people with intellectual, including evaluation on sex education programs; and sexual education program for parents of children with intellectual disability. However, none of the papers were conducted in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, cautions should be taken when it comes to interpret these findings. The findings of studies showed that participants increased their awareness and skills for protecting themselves from sexual abuse after participating in the programs. It is also recommended that more effective evidence-based programs should be developed.

Keywords: intellectual disability, prevention, sexual abuse, sexual education program

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1812 A Content Analysis of ‘Junk Food’ Content in Children’s TV Programs: A Comparison of UK Broadcast TV and Video-On-Demand Services

Authors: Alexander B. Barker, Megan Parkin, Shreesh Sinha, Emma Wilson, Rachael L. Murray

Abstract:

Objectives: Exposure to HFSS imagery is associated with consumption of foods high in fat, sugar, or salt (HFSS), and subsequently obesity, among young people. We report and compare the results of two content analyses, one of two popular terrestrial children’s television channels in the UK and the other of a selection of children’s programs available on video-on-demand (VOD) streaming sites. Design: Content analysis of three days’ worth of programs (including advertisements) on two popular children’s television channels broadcast on UK television (CBeebies and Milkshake) as well as a sample of 40 highest-rated children’s programs available on the VOD platforms, Netflix and Amazon Prime, using 1-minute interval coding. Setting: United Kingdom, Participants: None. Results: HFSS content was seen in 181 broadcasts (36%) and in 417 intervals (13%) on terrestrial television, ‘Milkshake’ had a significantly higher proportion of programs/adverts which contained HFSS content than ‘CBeebies’. In VOD platforms, HFSS content was seen in 82 episodes (72% of the total number of episodes), across 459 intervals (19% of the total number of intervals), with no significant difference in the proportion of programs containing HFSS content between Netflix and Amazon Prime. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HFSS content is common in both popular UK children’s television channels and children's programs on VOD services. Since previous research has shown that HFSS content in the media has an effect on HFSS consumption, children’s television programs broadcast either on TV or VOD services are likely having an effect on HFSS consumption in children and legislative opportunities to prevent this exposure are being missed.

Keywords: public health, epidemiology, obesity, content analysis

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1811 Ripple Effect Analysis of Government Investment for Research and Development by the Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Hwayeon Song

Abstract:

The long-term purpose of research and development (R&D) programs is to strengthen national competitiveness by developing new knowledge and technologies. Thus, it is important to determine a proper budget for government programs to maintain the vigor of R&D when the total funding is tight due to the national deficit. In this regard, a ripple effect analysis for the budgetary changes in R&D programs is necessary as well as an investigation of the current status. This study proposes a new approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for both tasks. It particularly focuses on R&D programs related to Construction and Transportation (C&T) technology in Korea. First, key factors in C&T technology are explored to draw impact indicators in three areas: economy, society, and science and technology (S&T). Simultaneously, ANN is employed to evaluate the relationship between data variables. From this process, four major components in R&D including research personnel, expenses, management, and equipment are assessed. Then the ripple effect analysis is performed to see the changes in the hypothetical future by modifying current data. Any research findings can offer an alternative strategy about R&D programs as well as a new analysis tool.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, construction and transportation technology, Government Research and Development, Ripple Effect

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1810 Exploring the Unintended Consequences of Loyalty programs in the Gambling Sector

Authors: Violet Justine Mtonga, Cecilia Diaz

Abstract:

this paper explores the prevalence of loyalty programs in the UK gambling industry and their association with unintended consequences and harm amongst program members. The use of loyalty programs within the UK gambling industry has risen significantly with over 40 million cards in circulation. Some research suggests that as of 2013-2014, nearly 95% of UK consumers have at least one loyalty card with 78% being members of two or more programs, and the average household possesses ‘22 loyalty programs’, nearly half of which tend to be used actively. The core design of loyalty programs is to create a relational ‘win-win’ approach where value is jointly created between the parties involved through repetitive engagement. However, main concern about the diffusion of gambling organisations’ loyalty programs amongst consumers, might be the use by the organisations within the gambling industry to over influence customer engagement and potentially cause unintended harm. To help understand the complex phenomena of the diffusions and adaptation of the use of loyalty programs in the gambling industry, and the potential unintended outcomes, this study is theoretically underpinned by the social exchange theory of relationships entrenched in the processes of social exchanges of resources, rewards, and costs for long-term interactions and mutual benefits. Qualitative data were collected via in-depth interviews from 14 customers and 12 employees within the UK land-based gambling firms. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic and clustering analysis to help reveal and discover the emerging themes regarding the use of loyalty cards for gambling companies and exploration of subgroups within the sample. The study’s results indicate that there are different unintended consequences and harm of loyalty program engagement and usage such as maladaptive gambling behaviours, risk of compulsiveness, and loyalty programs promoting gambling from home. Furthermore, there is a strong indication of a rite of passage among loyalty program members. There is also strong evidence to support other unfavorable behaviors such as amplified gambling habits and risk-taking practices. Additionally, in pursuit of rewards, loyalty program incentives effectuate overconsumption and heighten expenditure. Overall, the primary findings of this study show that loyalty programs in the gambling industry should be designed with an ethical perspective and practice.

Keywords: gambling, loyalty programs, social exchange theory, unintended harm

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1809 Reductions of Control Flow Graphs

Authors: Robert Gold

Abstract:

Control flow graphs are a well-known representation of the sequential control flow structure of programs with a multitude of applications. Not only single functions but also sets of functions or complete programs can be modelled by control flow graphs. In this case the size of the graphs can grow considerably and thus makes it difficult for software engineers to analyse the control flow. Graph reductions are helpful in this situation. In this paper we define reductions to subsets of nodes. Since executions of programs are represented by paths through the control flow graphs, paths should be preserved. Furthermore, the composition of reductions makes a stepwise analysis approach possible.

Keywords: control flow graph, graph reduction, software engineering, software applications

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1808 Self-Government Health Policy Programs as a Form of Implementation of Public Health Tasks in Poland

Authors: T. Holecki, J. Wozniak-Holecka, K. Sobczyk

Abstract:

Development, implementation, and evaluation of the effects of health policy programs, resulting from the identified health needs and health status of residents, is the own task of all local government units in Poland. This is due to the obligation to provide access to healthcare services to all residents and the implementation of tasks in the field of health promotion based on specific legal acts. Until the end of 2016 local governments financed health policy programs only with their own funds. Currently, there are additional resources available from the public health insurance subsidising up to 80% of health policy programs costs in cities with a population under 5 thousand people and up to 40% in bigger cities. Changes in legal provisions do not translate automatically to increased involvement of local government units in the implementation of public health tasks. The main objective of the study was to assess the actual impact of the new legal regulation on financing local health policy programs on the engagement of local administration in this area of public health activity. To achieve this aim, we analyzed difference in the number of local governments developing and implementing health policy programs before and after the new law came into force. The aim of the study was also to estimate the level of expenditures incurred by self-government units and the National Health Fund to cover the costs of health policy programs. In the first stage of the project, legal acts concerning the subject of research and financial data published by the National Health Fund were analyzed. The material for the second, main stage of the study was the detailed financial data obtained from the National Health Fund and data obtained from local government units. The results present the situation in Poland in territorial terms, divided into 16 voivodships.

Keywords: health care system, health policy programs, local self-governments, public health

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1807 Evaluation of Public Library Adult Programs: Use of Servqual and Nippa Assessment Standards

Authors: Anna Ching-Yu Wong

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the quality and effectiveness of the adult programs provided by the public library using the ServQUAL Method and the National Library Public Programs Assessment guidelines (NIPPA, June 2019). ServQUAl covers several variables, namely: tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. NIPPA guidelines focus on program characteristics, particularly on the outcomes – the level of satisfaction from program participants. The reached populations were adults who participated in library adult programs at a small-town public library in Kansas. This study was designed as quantitative evaluative research which analyzed the quality and effectiveness of the library adult programs by analyzing the role of each factor based on ServQUAL and the NIPPA's library program assessment guidelines. Data were collected from November 2019 to January 2020 using a questionnaire with a Likert Scale. The data obtained were analyzed in a descriptive quantitative manner. The impact of this research can provide information about the quality and effectiveness of existing programs and can be used as input to develop strategies for developing future adult programs. Overall the result of ServQUAL measurement is in very good quality, but still, areas need improvement and emphasis in each variable: Tangible Variables still need improvement in indicators of the temperature and space of the meeting room. Reliability Variable still needs improvement in the timely delivery of the programs. Responsiveness Variable still needs improvement in terms of the ability of the presenters to convey trust and confidence from participants. Assurance Variables still need improvement in the indicator of knowledge and skills of program presenters. Empathy Variable still needs improvement in terms of the presenters' willingness to provide extra assistance. The result of program outcomes measurement based on NIPPA guidelines is very positive. Over 96% of participants indicated that the programs were informative and fun. They learned new knowledge and new skills and would recommend the programs to their friends and families. They believed that together, the library and participants build stronger and healthier communities.

Keywords: ServQual model, ServQual in public libraries, library program assessment, NIPPA library programs assessment

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1806 IEP Curriculum to Include For-Credit University English Classes

Authors: Cheyne Kirkpatrick

Abstract:

In an attempt to make the university intensive English program more worthwhile for students, many English language programs are redesigning curriculum to offer for-credit English for Academic Purposes classes, sometimes marketed as “bridge” courses. These programs are designed to be accredited to national language standards, provide communicative language learning, and give students the opportunity to simultaneously earn university language credit while becoming proficient in academic English. This presentation will discuss the curriculum design of one such program in the United States at a large private university that created its own for-credit “bridge” program. The planning, development, piloting, teaching, and challenges of designing this type of curriculum will be presented along with the aspects of accreditation, communicative language learning, and integration within various university programs. Attendees will learn about how such programs are created and what types of objectives and outcomes are included in American EAP classes.

Keywords: IEP, AEP, Curriculum, CEFR, University Credit, Bridge

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1805 A Measurement Instrument to Determine Curricula Competency of Licensure Track Graduate Psychotherapy Programs in the United States

Authors: Laith F. Gulli, Nicole M. Mallory

Abstract:

We developed a novel measurement instrument to assess Knowledge of Educational Programs in Professional Psychotherapy Programs (KEP-PPP or KEP-Triple P) within the United States. The instrument was designed by a Panel of Experts (PoE) that consisted of Licensed Psychotherapists and Medical Care Providers. Licensure track psychotherapy programs are listed in the databases of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE); American Psychological Association (APA); Council on Social Work Education (CSWE); and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP). A complete list of psychotherapy programs can be obtained from these professional databases, selecting search fields of (All Programs) in (All States). Each program has a Web link that electronically and directly connects to the institutional program, which can be researched using the KEP-Triple P. The 29-item KEP Triple P was designed to consist of six categorical fields; Institutional Type: Degree: Educational Delivery: Accreditation: Coursework Competency: and Special Program Considerations. The KEP-Triple P was designed to determine whether a specific course(s) is offered in licensure track psychotherapy programs. The KEP-Triple P is designed to be modified to assess any part or the entire curriculum of licensure graduate programs. We utilized the KEP-Triple P instrument to study whether a graduate course in Addictions was offered in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) programs. Marriage and Family Therapists are likely to commonly encounter patients with Addiction(s) due to the broad treatment scope providing psychotherapy services to individuals, couples and families of all age groups. Our study of 124 MFT programs which concluded at the end of 2016 found that we were able to assess 61 % of programs (N = 76) since 27 % (N = 34) of programs were inaccessible due to broken Web links. From the total of all MFT programs 11 % (N = 14) did not have a published curriculum on their Institutional Web site. From the sample study, we found that 66 % (N = 50) of curricula did not offer a course in Addiction Treatment and that 34 % (N =26) of curricula did require a mandatory course in Addiction Treatment. From our study sample, we determined that 15 % (N = 11) of MFT doctorate programs did not require an Addictions Treatment course and that 1 % (N = 1) did require such a course. We found that 99 % of our study sample offered a Campus based program and 1 % offered a hybrid program with both online and residential components. From the total sample studied, we determined that 84 % of programs would be able to obtain reaccreditation within a five-year period. We recommend that MFT programs initiate procedures to revise curricula to include a required course in Addiction Treatment prior to their next accreditation cycle, to improve the escalating addiction crisis in the United States. This disparity in MFT curricula raises serious ethical and legal consideration for national and Federal stakeholders as well as for patients seeking a competently trained psychotherapist.

Keywords: addiction, competency, curriculum, psychotherapy

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1804 Programs in Nigerian Higher Institutions and Graduates Unemployment

Authors: Evuarherhe Veronica Abolo

Abstract:

The study investigated the programs in Nigerian higher institutions and how they influence unemployment of graduates in the country. The study employed the survey design. The population of the study includes two universities, two polytechnics and two colleges of education in Lagos State. A total of 350 participants, which include graduates and students were sampled for the study. A structured interview schedule and direct observation were used to collect data on the three research questions drawn for the study. The data were analyzed using rating of the structured interview in tables and percentages. The results of the study revealed that Nigerian graduates are not only unemployed but can hardly meet the requirements of available job vacancies due to the stereotype nature in scope, content and methods of the programs in the institutions. Recommendations such as collaboration of companies (end- users) and institutions in the training of students, restructuring of the content and methodology of programs and providing soft loans and other facilities to the young graduates were proffered to reduce the rate of graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria.

Keywords: higher institution, graduate unemployment, soft loan, unemployment

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