Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 475

Search results for: preference

475 Learning Preference in Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri

Authors: B. Wattanakul, G. Ngamwongwan, S. Ngamkham

Abstract:

Exposure to different learning experiences contributes to changing in learning style. Addressing students’ learning preference could help teachers provide different learning activities that encourage the student to learn effectively. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe learning styles of nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri. Sample: The purposive sample was 463 nursing students who were enrolled in a nursing program at different academic levels. The 16-item VARK questionnaire with 4 multiple choices was administered at one time data collection. Choices have consisted with modalities of Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic measured by VARK. Results: Majority of learning preference of students at different levels was visual and read/write learning preference. Almost 67% of students have a multimodal preference, which is visual learning preference associated with read/write or kinesthetic preference. At different academic levels, multimodalities are greater than single preference. Over 30% of students have one dominant learning preference, including visual preference, read/write preference and kinesthetic preference. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment revealed a significant difference between students based on their academic level (p < 0.001). Learning style of the first-grade nursing students differed from the second-grade nursing students (p < 0.001). While learning style of nursing students in the second-grade has significantly varied from the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grade (p < 0.001), learning preference of the 3rd grade has significantly differed from the 4th grade of nursing students (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Nursing students have varied learning styles based on their different academic levels. Learning preference is not fixed attributes. This should help nursing teachers assess the types of changes in students’ learning preferences while developing teaching plans to optimize students’ learning environment and achieve the needs of the courses and help students develop learning preference to meet the need of the course.

Keywords: learning preference, VARK, learning style, nursing

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474 Attribute Selection for Preference Functions in Engineering Design

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

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Industrial Engineering is a broad multidisciplinary field with intersections and applications in numerous areas. When designing a product, it is important to determine the appropriate attributes of value and the preference function for which the product is optimized. This paper provides some guidelines on appropriate selection of attributes for preference and value functions for engineering design.

Keywords: decision analysis, industrial engineering, direct vs. indirect values, engineering management

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473 Son Preference in Afghanistan and Its Impact on Fertility Outcomes

Authors: Saha Naseri

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Introduction/Objective: Son preference, a preference for sons over daughters, is a practice deeply-rooted in gender inequality that is widespread in many societies and across different religions and cultures. In this study, we are aiming to study the effects of son preference on fertility outcomes (birth interval and current contraceptive use) in Afghanistan, where have been perceived with high rates of son preference. The objectives of the study are to examine the association between the sex of the previous child and the duration of the subsequent birth interval and to evaluate the effect of son preference on current contraceptive use. Methodology: Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (2015) was used to study the impact of son preference on fertility outcomes among married women. The data collected from 28,661 on currently-married women, aged between 15 and 49 years who have at least one child, have used to conduct this quantitative study. Outcomes of interest are birth interval and current contraceptive use. Simple and multiple regression analysis have been conducted to assess the effect of son preference on these fertility outcomes. Results: The present study has highlighted that son preference somehow exists among married women in Afghanistan. It is indicated that the sex of the first birth is significantly associated with the succeeding birth interval. Having a female child as the first baby was associated with a shorter average succeeding birth interval by 1.8 months compared to a baby boy (p-value = 0.000). For the second model, the results identified that women who desire for more sons have 7% higher odds to be current contraceptive user compared to those who have no preference (p-value = 0.03). The latter results do not indicate the son preference. However, one limitation for this result was the timeliness of the questions asked since contraceptive use in the current time was asked along with a question on ‘future’ desired sex composition. Moreover, women may have just given birth and want to reach a certain time span of birth interval before planning for another child, even if it was a boy, which might have affected the results. Conclusion: Overall, this study has demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between son preference and one main fertility behaviors, birth interval. The second fertility outcome, current contraceptive use, was not a good indicator to measure son preference. Based on the finding, recommendations will be made for appropriate interventions addressing gender norms and related fertility decisions.

Keywords: Afghanistan, birth interval, contraceptive, son preference

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472 An Investigation into Nigerian Consumers' Preference for Certain Categories of Foreign Products

Authors: Nnedum Obiajuru Anthony Ugochukwu, Emmanuel Ezechukwu

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This study was designed to investigate into Nigerian consumers’ preference for foreign products. Studies have discovered that Nigerian consumers like their counterparts in most developing countries have an insatiable preference for foreign products especially those from more technologically advanced countries (Okechukwu & Onyema, 1999; Agbonifoh & Elimimian, 1999). This attitude of the Nigerian consumers has resulted in many problems which challenge the industrial sector in Nigeria – lack of patronage resulting to, non-performing firms, endemic unemployment, underdeveloped industries and general lack of industrial growth. The major objective of this study is to investigate the reasons behind such attitude, and the factors that drive consumer preference for foreign products among Nigerian consumers. The study investigated specifically the psychological dimensions (personal values, self-concept, lifestyle and prestige), and demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income and occupation) that impact consumers’ preference for imported products in Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional and used survey method to collect data from one hundred and eighty-six respondents among postgraduate and part-time students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and consumers from Awka metropolis. The results of the study indicated that all the psychological variables used to measure consumer preference for foreign products were largely positive and significant determinants of consumer preference for foreign products. Demographic variables of age, gender, and income were not significant determinants of preference for foreign products. The results of the study, however, showed that level of education and occupation has the significant effect on consumer preference for foreign products.

Keywords: country of origin, xenocentrism, Nigeria, ethnocentrism, foreign products, consumer preference

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471 English Reading Preferences among Primary Pupils

Authors: Jezza Mae T. Francisco, Marianet R. Delos Santos, Crisjame C. Toribio

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This study aims to determine the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension among primary students and the difference in the reading preference and comprehension for English enrichment among primary students. This study employed a Descriptive-Quantitative Correlational Research Design. This study yielded the following findings: (1) It reveals that primary students got fair on their reading comprehension, and (2) It shows that there is no significant relationship between the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension of the students. It is safe to conclude that the students’ reading preference is growing evidently in various milieus. This can inform the English department curriculum planners to consider their students’ text preferences that interest them to maximize engagement within a dynamic interactive learning process.

Keywords: reading preferences, reading comprehension, primary student, English enrichment

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470 Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role Family Planning Programs

Authors: Vincent Otieno, Alfred Agwanda, Anne Khasakhala

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Among the neo-Malthusian adherents, it is believed that rapid population growth strain countries’ capacity and performance. Fertility have however decelerated in most of the countries in the recent past. Scholars have concentrated on wide range of factors associated with fertility majorly at the national scale with some opining that analysis of trends and differentials in the various fertility parameters have been discussed extensively. However, others believe that considerably less attention has been paid to the fertility preference- a pathway through which various variables act on fertility. The Sub-Saharan African countries’ disparities amid almost similarities in policies is a cause of concern to demographers. One would point at the meager synergies that have been focused on the fertility preference as well, especially at the macro scale. Using Bongaarts reformulation of Easterlin and Crimmins (1985) conceptual scheme, the understanding of the current transition based on the fertility preference in general would help to provide explanations to the observed latest dynamics. This study therefore is an attempt to explain the current fertility transition through women’s fertility preference. Results reveal that indeed fertility transition is on course in most of the sub-Saharan countries with huge disparities in fertility preferences and its implementation indices.

Keywords: fertility preference, the degree of implementation index, sub-Saharan Africa, transition

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469 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

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The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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468 Association of Laterality and Sports Specific Rotational Preference with Number of Injuries in Artistic Gymnasts

Authors: Teja Joshi

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Laterality has shown to play a role in performance as well as injuries especially in unilateral sports disciplines. Uniquely, Artistic Gymnastics involves combination of unilateral, bilateral and complex multi-planer elements as well as gymnastics specific rotational preference. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore if any such preferences are associated with number of injuries in artistic gymnasts. To explore the association between lateral preferences, rotational preferences and injuries incidence in artistic gymnastics. Artistic gymnasts above 16 years of age, were invited to participate in an online survey. The survey included consent, lateral preference inventory, injury data collection according to anatomical locations and rotational preference for selected gymnastics elements performed on the floor exercise. SPSS version 24 was used to analyse Non-parametric data using Kruskal-Wallis (K- independent test) test. Multiple regression was performed to identify the predictor for injuries and their side in gymnasts. Total number of injuries per gymnast was associated with handedness (p value-0.049) and no significant association was noted for footdness (p value-0.207), eyedness (p value-0.491) and eardness (p value-0.798). Additionally, rotational preferences did not influence number of injuries (p value-0.521). In multiple regression, eyedness was identified as a predicting factor to determine the number of injuries. Rotational preferences were neither determined as a national strategy nor a product of lateral preference. Dominant hand had higher number of injuries in artistic gymnasts. Rotational preference is independent of laterality, number of injuries and nationality.

Keywords: sports injury, rotational preference, gymnastics, handedness

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467 The Revealed Preference Methods in Economic Valuation of Environmental Goods: A Review

Authors: Sara Sousa

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The environmental goods and services have often been neglected in crucial decisions affecting the environment mainly because the difficulty in estimating their economic value, since we are dealing with non-market goods and, thus, without a price associated. Nevertheless, the inexistence of prices does not necessarily mean these goods have no value. The environment is a key element in today's society that seeks to be as sustainable as possible, where the environmental assets have both use and non-use values. To estimate the use value, researchers may apply the revealed preference methods. This paper provides a theoretical review of the main concepts and methodologies on the economic valuation of the environment, with particular emphasis on the revealed preference techniques. Based on a detailed literature review, this study concludes that, despite some inherent limitations, the revealed preference methodologies – travel cost, hedonic price, and averting behaviour – represent essential tools for the researchers who accept the challenge to estimate the use value of environmental goods and services based on the actual individuals` behaviour. The main purpose of this study is to contribute to an increased theoretical information on the economic valuation of environmental assets, allowing researchers and policymakers to improve future decisions regarding the environment.

Keywords: economic valuation, environmental goods, revealed preference methods, total economic value

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466 The Hospitals Residents Problem with Bounded Length Preference List under Social Stability

Authors: Ashish Shrivastava, C. Pandu Rangan

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In this paper, we consider The Hospitals Residents problem with Social Stability (HRSS), where hospitals and residents can communicate only through the underlying social network. Those residents and hospitals which don not have any social connection between them can not communicate and hence they cannot be a social blocking pair with respect to a socially stable matching in an instance of hospitals residents problem with social stability. In large scale matching like NRMP or Scottish medical matching scheme etc. where set of agents, as well as length of preference lists, are very large, social stability is a useful notion in which members of a blocking pair could block a matching if and only if they know the existence of each other. Thus the notion of social stability in hospitals residents problem allows us to increase the cardinality of the matching without taking care of those blocking pairs which are not socially connected to each other. We know that finding a maximum cardinality socially stable matching, in an instance, of HRSS is NP-hard. This motivates us to solve this problem with bounded length preference lists on one side. In this paper, we have presented a polynomial time algorithm to compute maximum cardinality socially stable matching in a HRSS instance where residents can give at most two length and hospitals can give unbounded length preference list. Preference lists of residents and hospitals will be strict in nature.

Keywords: matching under preference, socially stable matching, the hospital residents problem, the stable marriage problem

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465 The Perspective of Health Care Professionals of Pediatric Palliative Care

Authors: Eunkyo Kang, Jihye Lee, Jiyeon Choo

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Background: Pediatric palliative care has been increasing, and the number of studies has focused on the age at which pediatric patient can be notified their terminal illness, pediatric advanced care planning (ACP) and palliative care. However, there is a lack of research on health professionals’ perception. Aim: We aimed to investigate the perceptions of healthcare professionals about appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, awareness of ACP, and the relationship between ACP knowledge and the preference for palliative care for children. Methods: We administered nationwide questionnaires to 928 physicians from the 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association and 1,241 individuals of the general Korean population. We asked about the age at which the pediatric patients could be notified of their terminal illness, by 4 groups; 4 years old or older, 12 years old or older, 15 years old or older, or not. In addition, we surveyed the questionnaires about the knowledge of ACP of the medical staff, the preference of the pediatric hospice palliative care, aggressive treatment, and life-sustaining treatment preference. Results: In the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness, there were more respondents in the physicians than in the general population who thought that it was possible even at a younger age. Palliative care preference in pediatric patients who were expected to expire within months was higher when health care professionals had knowledge of ACPs compared to those without knowledge. The same results were obtained when deaths were expected within weeks or days. The age of the terminal status notification, the health care professionals who thought to be available at a lower age have a higher preference for palliative care and has less preference for aggressive treatment and life-sustaining treatment. Conclusion: Despite the importance of pediatric palliative care, our study confirmed that there is a difference in the preference of the health care professionals for pediatric palliative care according to the ACP knowledge of the medical staff or the appropriate age disclosing terminal illness. Future research should focus on strategies for inducing changes in perceptions of health care professionals and identifying other obstacles for the pediatric palliative care.

Keywords: pediatric palliative care, disclosing terminal illness, palliative care, advanced care planning

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464 Personality Characteristics Managerial Skills and Career Preference

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

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After liberalization of the economy, technical education has seen rapid growth in India. A large number of institutions are offering various engineering and management programmes. Every year, a number of students complete B. Tech/M. Tech and MBA programmes of different institutes, universities in India and search for jobs in the industry. A large number of companies visit educational institutes for campus placements. These companies are interested in hiring competent managers. Most students show preference for jobs from reputed companies and jobs having high compensation. In this context, this study was conducted to understand career preference of postgraduate students and junior executives. Personality characteristics influence work life as well as personal life. In the last two decades, five factor model of personality has been found to be a valid predictor of job performance and job satisfaction. This approach has received support from studies conducted in different countries. It includes neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Similarly three social needs, namely, achievement, affiliation and power influence motivation and performance in certain job functions. Both approaches have been considered in the study. The objective of the study was first, to analyse the relationship between personality characteristics and career preference of students and executives. Secondly, the study analysed the relationship between personality characteristics and skills of students. Three managerial skills namely, conceptual, human and technical have been considered in the study. The sample size of the study was 266 including postgraduate students and junior executives. Respondents have completed BE/B. Tech/MBA programme. Three dimensions of career preference namely, identity, variety and security and three managerial skills were considered as dependent variables. The results indicated that neuroticism was not related to any dimension of career preference. Extraversion was not related to identity, variety and security. It was positively related to three skills. Openness to experience was positively related to skills. Conscientiousness was positively related to variety. It was positively related to three skills. Similarly, the relationship between social needs and career preference was examined using correlation. The results indicated that need for achievement was positively related to variety, identity and security. Need for achievement was positively related to managerial skills Need for affiliation was positively related to three dimensions of career preference as well as managerial skills Need for power was positively related to three dimensions of career preference and managerial skills Social needs appear to be stronger predictor of career preference and managerial skills than big five traits. Findings have implications for selection process in industry.

Keywords: big five traits, career preference, personality, social needs

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463 Gender Difference and Conflict Management Strategy Preference among Managers in Public Organizations in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: D. I. Akintayo, C. O. Aje

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This study investigated the moderating influence of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference on managers` efficiency in managing industrial conflict in work organizations in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference to managerial efficiency towards ensuring sustainable industrial peace and harmonious labour-management relations at workplaces in Nigeria. Descriptive ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of 185 respondents were selected for the study using purposive stratified sampling technique. A set of questionnaire titled ‘Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory’ (ROCI) and Managerial Conflict Efficiency Scale (MCES) were adopted for the study. The three generated hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that: A significant relationship exists between gender difference and conflict management preference of the managers(r = 0.644; P < 0.05). I t was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female managers’ conflict management strategy preference (t (181) = 11.08; P > 0.05).The finding reveals that there is no significant difference between female and male managers’ conflict management efficiency on the basis of conflict management preference of the managers (t (181) = 10.23; P > 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that collective bargaining strategy should be encouraged as conflict resolution strategy in order to guarantee effective management of industrial conflict and harmonious labour-management relations. Also, both male and female managers should be empowered to be appointed to managerial positions and should avoid the use of coercion, competition, aggressiveness and pro-task in the course of managing industrial conflict. Rather, persuasion, compromising, relational, lobbying and participatory approaches should be employed during collective bargaining process in order to foster effective management of conflict at workplaces.

Keywords: conflict management, gender difference, managerial studies, public organization and managers, strategy preference

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462 Choice of Landscape Elements for Residents' Quality of Life Living in Apartment Housing: Case Study of Bhopal, India

Authors: Ankita Srivastava, Yogesh K. Garg

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Housing provides comforts and well being leading towards the quality of life. Earlier research had established that landscape elements enhance the residents’ quality of life through its significant experiences occur due to their presence in the housing. This paper tries to identify the preference of landscape elements that enhance residents’ quality of life living in the apartment. Hence, landscape elements that can be planned in the open spaces of housing and quality of life components were identified from the secondary data sources. Experts’ were asked to identify the quality of life components with respect to landscape elements. A questionnaire survey of residents’ living in the apartment housing in Bhopal, India was conducted. The statistical analysis of survey data facilitated to explore the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life in the apartment housing. The final ranking compiled from the experts’ opinion, residents’ perception as well as factor analysis results to have an insight of the preference of landscape elements for the quality of life living in the apartment. Preference of landscape elements present in the paper may provide an overview of planning for apartment housing that may be used by architects, planners and developers for enhancing residents’ quality of life.

Keywords: landscape elements, quality of life, residents, housing

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461 Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment

Authors: Maryam Amiri, Leyli Mohammad-Khanli

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Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.

Keywords: user preference, cloud service, trustworthiness, QoS metrics, prediction

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460 Matching on Bipartite Graphs with Applications to School Course Registration Systems

Authors: Zhihan Li

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Nowadays, most universities use the course enrollment system considering students’ registration orders. However, the students’ preference level to certain courses is also one important factor to consider. In this research, the possibility of applying a preference-first system has been discussed and analyzed compared to the order-first system. A bipartite graph is applied to resemble the relationship between students and courses they tend to register. With the graph set up, we apply Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) Algorithm to maximize parings between two sets of nodes, in our case, students and courses. Two models are proposed in this paper: the one considered students’ order first, and the one considered students’ preference first. By comparing and contrasting the two models, we highlight the usability of models which potentially leads to better designs for school course registration systems.

Keywords: bipartite graph, Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) algorithm, graph theory, maximum matching

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459 Semantic Preference across Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study of Adjectives in English

Authors: Valdênia Carvalho e Almeida

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The goal of the present study is to investigate the semantic preference of the most frequent adjectives in research articles through a corpus-based analysis of texts published in journals in Applied Linguistics (AL). The corpus used in this study contains texts published in the period from 2014 to 2018 in the three journals: Language Learning and Technology; English for Academic Purposes, and TESOL Quaterly, totaling more than one million words. A corpus-based analysis was carried out on the corpus to identify the most frequent adjectives that co-occurred in the three journals. By observing the concordance lines of the adjectives and analyzing the words they associated with, the semantic preferences of each adjective were determined. Later, the AL corpus analysis was compared to the investigation of the same adjectives in a corpus of Chemistry. This second part of the study aimed to identify possible differences and similarities between the two corpora in relation to the use of the adjectives in research articles from both areas. The results show that there are some preferences which seem to be closely related not only to the academic genre of the texts but also to the specific domain of the discipline and, to a lesser extent, to the context of research in each journal. This research illustrates a possible contribution of Corpus Linguistics to explore the concept of semantic preference in more detail, considering the complex nature of the phenomenon.

Keywords: applied linguistics, corpus linguistics, chemistry, research article, semantic preference

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458 Nutrition Environments and the Development of Taste Preferences: A Cross-Sectional Study of Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Fareena Alladin

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In the Caribbean, issues of food security, health and taste are intricately linked, seen most clearly in the increasing incidence of lifestyle diseases among children coupled with a taste for high calorie and Westernized diets. In order to fully appreciate this link, the role of nutrition environments must be examined. To this end, the present study incorporates tenets of Bourdieu’s social constructivist theory with the Community Nutrition Environment Model. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between availability of and access to healthy/unhealthy foods within nutrition environments, namely the household and school, and the development of taste preferences for healthy/unhealthy foods among primary school children in a selected educational district in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 400 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years was conducted. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 24. Results indicated that availability of healthy food at home was positively correlated with preference for vegetables, and negatively correlated with preference for salty snacks and fast food. The availability of unhealthy food within the home was found to be negatively correlated with preference for vegetables and positively correlated with preference for salty snacks. Access to unhealthy foods at school had a positive correlation with preference for fast food. These findings highlight the role of the food environment in shaping taste preferences, and point to the need for interrogating the centrality of food security concerns in emerging health concerns of Caribbean countries. Such interrogations are a necessary part of the development of research agendas, and policy formulation and implementation.

Keywords: food security, nutrition environment, taste preference, Trinidad and Tobago

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457 Contemplating Preference Ratings of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices for Supply Chain Performance System Implementation

Authors: Mohit Tyagi, Pradeep Kumar

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The objective of this research work is to identify and analyze the significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices with an aim to improve the supply chain performance of automobile industry located at National Capital Region (NCR) of India. To achieve the objective, 6 CSR practices have been considered and analyzed using expert’s preference rating (EPR) approach. The considered CSR practices are namely, Top management and employee awareness about CSR (P1), Employee involvement in social and environmental problems (P2), Protection of human rights (P3), Waste reduction, energy saving and water conservation (P4), Proper visibility of CSR guidelines (P5) and Broad perception towards CSR initiatives (P6). The outcomes of this research may help mangers in decision making processes and framing polices for SCP implementation under CSR context.

Keywords: supply chain performance, corporate social responsibility, CSR practices, expert’s preference rating approach

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456 Food Preference of Monomorium Destructor

Authors: Ussawit Srisakrapikoop, Art-Ong Pradatsundarasar, Duangkhae Sitthicharoenchai

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Monomorium destructor or Singapore ant is one of the common household pests. It causes nuisance and damage to household. Due to the fact that there are many queens in one colony (polygyny), so this ant can quickly increase its population in a short time in the urban environment. This study has been conducted at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University in the field condition. Ant food preference was conducted for 3 replicates per month by using six food choices including 20% sucrose solution, 20% sucrose agar, pork liver, smashed pork liver, pork fat and lard. The number of ants of each bait choice was counted and the orders of ant accessing baits were also recorded. The results showed that the 20% sucrose agar was the most attractive significantly following by pork liver and pork fat. The ants also most accessed to the pork liver bait choice in the first place. It can be suggested that the ant control by baiting should consist of mixture of carbohydrate, protein and lipid in solid form with suitable ratios.

Keywords: baits, food preference, monomorium destructor, Singapore ant

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455 Choral Singers' Preference for Expressive Priming Techniques

Authors: Shawn Michael Condon

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Current research on teaching expressivity mainly involves instrumentalists. This study focuses on choral singers’ preference of priming techniques based on four methods for teaching expressivity. 112 choral singers answered the survey about their preferred methods for priming expressivity (vocal modelling, using metaphor, tapping into felt emotions, and drawing on past experiences) in three conditions (active, passive, and instructor). Analysis revealed higher preference for drawing on past experience among more experienced singers. The most preferred technique in the passive and instructor roles was vocal modelling, with metaphors and tapping into felt emotions favoured in an active role. Priming techniques are often used in combination with other methods to enhance singing technique or expressivity and are dependent upon the situation, repertoire, and the preferences of the instructor and performer.

Keywords: emotion, expressivity, performance, singing, teaching

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454 Impact of Mixed Prey Population on Predation Potential and Food Preference of a Predaceous Ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata

Authors: Ahmad Pervez

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We investigated predation potential and food preference of different life stages of a predaceous ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleptera: Coccinellidae) using a nutritive food (mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi) and a toxic food (cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae). We gave monotypic prey, L. erysimi, then B. brassicae to all life stages and found that second, third and fourth instars and adult female C. septempunctata daily consumed greater number of former prey. However, the first instar and the adult male equally consumed both the prey. In choice condition, each larva, adult male and female consumed mixed aphid diet separately in three proportions (i.e. low: high, equal: equal and high: low densities of L. erysimi: B. brassicae). We hypothesized that life stages of C. septempunctata will prefer L. erysimi regardless of its proportions. Laboratory experiment supported this hypothesis only at the adult level showing high values of β and C preference indices. However, it rejects this hypothesis at the larval level, as larvae preferred B. brassicae in certain combinations and showed no preference in a few combinations. We infer that mixing of nutritive diet in a toxic diet may possibly overcome the probable nutritive deficiency and/or reduces the toxicity of toxic diet, especially to the larvae of C. septempunctata. Consumption of high proportion of B. brassicae mixed with fewer L. erysimi suggests that mixed diet could be better for the development of immature stages of C. septempunctata.

Keywords: Coccinella septempunctata, predatory potential, prey preference, Lipaphis erysimi, Brevicoryne brassicae

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453 The Impact of Preference-Based Employee Deployment toward Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance: Case Study in Directorate General of State Asset Management, Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia

Authors: Rahmat Irawan, Mundhir Hanifsyam Harahap, Andar Ristabet Hesda

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As a public sector organization in Indonesia, Directorate General of State Asset Management (DGSAM) which is a unit under the Ministry of Finance of The Republic of Indonesia, has many constraints in managing its employees. While private organizations are able to conduct a human resource management as the best practice, DGSAM is limited by many regulations, especially about punishment and lay off policy for under-performance employees. Therefore, since 2015, DGSAM tries to implement a new and uncommon approach considering employees’ preference to encourage the motivation and performance of employees. DGSAM’s employees may propose the job places, and DGSAM considers them in deciding employees deployment. This study tries to determine the impact of preference-based approach toward employees’ satisfaction and organizational performance. This study uses quantitative approaches by regression analysis to measure the impact of deployment toward satisfaction of deployed employees and performance change of related units in DGSAM. The result of this study shows that preference-based approach significantly improves employees’ satisfaction and performance of related units as well. Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that the approach is able to be implemented in the wider scope of the Ministry of Finance of The Republic of Indonesia and whole public sector organization in Indonesia. However, this study only focuses on short term measurement, so it is suggested to do further study to analyze the long-term impact.

Keywords: employee deployment, employee satisfaction, human resource management, organizational performance, preference-based approach

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452 The Fantasy of the Media and the Sexual World of Adolescents: The Relationship between Viewing Sexual Content on Television and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents

Authors: Ifeanyi Adigwe

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The influence of television on adolescents is prevalent and widespread because television is a powerful sex educator for adolescents. This study examined the relationship between viewing sexual content on television and sexual behaviour of adolescents in public senior secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study employed a survey research design with a structured questionnaire as instrument. The multi-stage sampling technique was adopted. Firstly, purposive sampling was adopted in selecting 3 educational districts namely: Agege, Maryland, and Agboju. These educational districts were chosen for convenience and its wide coverage area of public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Secondly, the researcher adopted systematic sampling to select the schools. The schools were listed in alphabetical order in each district and every 10th school were selected, yielding 13 schools altogether. A total of 501 copies of questionnaire were administered to the students and a total 491 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved. Only 453 copies of the questionnaire met the inclusion criteria and were used for analysis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation, Principal components analysis, and regression analysis. Results of correlation analysis showed a positive and significant relationship between adolescent sexual belief and their preference for sexual content in television (r =0.117, N =453, p=0.13), viewing sexual content on television and adolescent sexual behavior, (r =-0.112, N =453, p<0.05), adolescent television preference and their preference for sexual content in television (r =0.328, N =453, p<0.05), adolescent television preference and adolescent’s sexual behavior (r=0.093, N =453, p<0.05). However, a negative but significant relationship exists between adolescent’s sexual knowledge and their sexual behavior (r=-122, N=453, p=0.0009). Pearson’s correlation between adolescents’ sexual knowledge and sexual behavior shows that there is a positive significant but strong relationship between adolescent’s sexual knowledge and their sexual behavior (r=0.967, N=453, p<0.05). The results also show that adolescent’s preference for sexual content in television informs them about their sexuality, development and sexual health. The descriptive and inferential analysis of data revealed that the interaction among adolescent sexual belief, knowledge and adolescents’ preference of sexual in television and its resultant effect on adolescent sexual behavior is apparent because sexual belief and norms about sex of an adolescent can induce his television preference of sexual content on television. The study concludes that exposure to sexual content in television can impact on adolescent sexual behaviour. There is no doubt that the actual outcome of television viewing and adolescent sexual behavior remains controversial because adolescent sexual behavior is multifaceted and multi-dimensional. Since behavior is learned overtime, the frequency of exposure and nature of sexual content viewed overtime induces and hastens sexual activity.

Keywords: adolescent sexual behavior, Nigeria, sexual belief, sexual content, sexual knowledge, television preference

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451 Similarities and Differences in Values of Young Women and Their Parents: The Effect of Value Transmission and Value Change

Authors: J. Fryt, K. Pietras, T. Smolen

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Intergenerational similarities in values may be effect of value transmission within families or socio-cultural trends prevailing at a specific point in time. According to salience hypothesis, salient family values may be transmitted more frequently. On the other hand, many value studies reveal that generational shift from social values (conservation and self-transcendence) to more individualistic values (openness to change and self-enhancement) suggest that value transmission and value change are two different processes. The first aim of our study was to describe similarities and differences in values of young women and their parents. The second aim was to determine which value similarities may be due to transmission within families. Ninety seven Polish women aged 19-25 and both their mothers and fathers filled in the Portrait Value Questionaire. Intergenerational similarities in values between women were found in strong preference for benevolence, universalism and self-direction as well as low preference for power. Similarities between younger women and older men were found in strong preference for universalism and hedonism as well as lower preference for security and tradition. Young women differed from older generation in strong preference for stimulation and achievement as well as low preference for conformity. To identify the origin of intergenerational similarities (whether they are the effect of value transmission within families or not), we used the comparison between correlations of values in family dyads (mother-daughter, father-daughter) and distribution of correlations in random intergenerational dyads (random mother-daughter, random father-daughter) as well as peer dyads (random daughter-daughter). Values representing conservation (security, tradition and conformity) as well as benevolence and power were transmitted in families between women. Achievement, power and security were transmitted between fathers and daughters. Similarities in openness to change (self-direction, stimulation and hedonism) and universalism were not stronger within families than in random intergenerational and peer dyads. Taken together, our findings suggest that despite noticeable generation shift from social to more individualistic values, we can observe transmission of parents’ salient values such as security, tradition, benevolence and achievement.

Keywords: value transmission, value change, intergenerational similarities, differences in values

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450 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

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The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA

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449 The Impact of a Model's Skin Tone and Ethnic Identification on Consumer Decision Making

Authors: Shanika Y. Koreshi

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Sri Lanka housed the lingerie product development and manufacturing subsidiary to renowned brands such as La Senza, Marks & Spencer, H&M, Etam, Lane Bryant, and George. Over the last few years, they have produced local brands such as Amante to cater to the local and regional customers. Past research has identified factors such as quality, price, and design to be vital when marketing lingerie to consumers. However, there has been minimum research that looks into the ethnically targeted market and skin colour within the Asian population. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to identify whether consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the skin tone of the model wearing it. Moreover, the secondary aim was to investigate if the consumer preference for lingerie is influenced by the consumer’s ethnic identification with the skin tone of the model. An experimental design was used to explore the above aims. The participants constituted of 66 females residing in the western province of Sri Lanka and were gathered via convenience sampling. Six computerized images of a real model were used in the study, and her skin tone was digitally manipulated to express three different skin tones (light, tan and dark). Consumer preferences were measured through a ranking order scale that was constructed via a focus group discussion and ethnic identity was measured by the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Friedman test, and chi square test of independence were carried out using SPSS version 20. The results indicated that majority of the consumers ethnically identified and preferred the tan skin over the light and dark skin tones. The findings support the existing literature that states there is a preference among consumers when models have a medium skin tone over a lighter skin tone. The preference for a tan skin tone in a model is consistent with the ethnic identification of the Sri Lankan sample. The study implies that lingerie brands should consider the model's skin tones when marketing the brand to different ethnic backgrounds.

Keywords: consumer preference, ethnic identification, lingerie, skin tone

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
448 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

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Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
447 Quantification and Preference of Facial Asymmetry of the Sub-Saharan Africans' 3D Facial Models

Authors: Anas Ibrahim Yahaya, Christophe Soligo

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A substantial body of literature has reported on facial symmetry and asymmetry and their role in human mate choice. However, major gaps persist, with nearly all data originating from the WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Developed) populations, and results remaining largely equivocal when compared across studies. This study is aimed at quantifying facial asymmetry from the 3D faces of the Hausa of northern Nigeria and also aimed at determining their (Hausa) perceptions and judgements of standardised facial images with different levels of asymmetry using questionnaires. Data were analysed using R-studio software and results indicated that individuals with lower levels of facial asymmetry (near facial symmetry) were perceived as more attractive, more suitable as marriage partners and more caring, whereas individuals with higher levels of facial asymmetry were perceived as more aggressive. The study conclusively asserts that all faces are asymmetric including the most beautiful ones, and the preference of less asymmetric faces was not just dependent on single facial trait, but rather on multiple facial traits; thus the study supports that physical attractiveness is not just an arbitrary social construct, but at least in part a cue to general health and possibly related to environmental context.

Keywords: face, asymmetry, symmetry, Hausa, preference

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446 Exploring Alignability Effects and the Role of Information Structure in Promoting Uptake of Energy Efficient Technologies

Authors: Rebecca Hafner, David Elmes, Daniel Read

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The current research applies decision-making theory to the problem of increasing uptake of energy efficient technologies in the market place, where uptake is currently slower than one might predict following rational choice models. We apply the alignable/non-alignable features effect and explore the impact of varying information structure on the consumers’ preference for standard versus energy efficient technologies. In two studies we present participants with a choice between similar (boiler vs. boiler) vs. dissimilar (boiler vs. heat pump) technologies, described by a list of alignable and non-alignable attributes. In study One there is a preference for alignability when options are similar; an effect mediated by an increased tendency to infer missing information is the same. No effects of alignability on preference are found when options differ. One explanation for this split-shift in attentional focus is a change in construal levels potentially induced by the added consideration of environmental concern. Study two was designed to explore the interplay between alignability and construal level in greater detail. We manipulated construal level via a thought prime task prior to taking part in the same heating systems choice task, and find that there is a general preference for non-alignability, regardless of option type. We draw theoretical and applied implications for the type of information structure best suited for the promotion of energy efficient technologies.

Keywords: alignability effects, decision making, energy-efficient technologies, sustainable behaviour change

Procedia PDF Downloads 252