Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Hande Yesilbas

17 Evaluation of the Nursing Management Course in Undergraduate Nursing Programs of State Universities in Turkey

Authors: Oznur Ispir, Oya Celebi Cakiroglu, Esengul Elibol, Emine Ceribas, Gizem Acikgoz, Hande Yesilbas, Merve Tarhan


This study was conducted to evaluate the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course in the undergraduate nursing programs of the state universities in Turkey and to assess the current content of the course. Design of the study is descriptive. Population of the study consists of seventy-eight undergraduate nursing programs in the state universities in Turkey. The questionnaire/survey prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The data were obtained by screening the content of the websites of nursing education programs between March and May 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The research performed within the study indicated that 58% of the undergraduate nursing programs from which the data were derived were included in the school of health, 81% of the academic staff graduated from the undergraduate nursing programs, 40% worked as a lecturer and 37% specialized in a field other than the nursing. The research also implied that the above-mentioned course was included in 98% of the programs from which it was possible to obtain data. The full name of the course was 'Nursing Management' in 95% of the programs and 98% stated that the course was compulsory. Theory and application hours were 3.13 and 2.91, respectively. Moreover, the content of the course was not shared in 65% of the programs reviewed. This study demonstrated that the experience and expertise of the academic staff teaching the 'Nursing Management' course was not sufficient in the management area, and the schedule and content of the course were not sufficient although many nursing education programs provided the course. Comparison between the curricula of the course revealed significant differences.

Keywords: nursing, nursing management, nursing management course, undergraduate program

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16 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu


Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: conductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysis

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15 Provision of Slope Stability with Barette Piles: A Case Analysis

Authors: Leyla Yesilbas, M. Sukru Ozcoban, M. Ergenekon Selcuk


From past to present, there is a constant need for engineering structures such as high-rise buildings, wide-span bridges, airports and stadiums, business towers due to technological developments and increasing population. Because of the large loads transferred from the superstructure to the ground layers in these types of structures, the bearing strength and seating problems usually occur on the floors. In order to solve these problems, piled foundations are used by passing the weak soil layers and transferring the loads from the superstructure to the solid soil layers. Considering the factors such as the characteristics of the building to be constructed, the purpose and location of the building, the basic cost of the pile should be at normal levels. When these requirements are taken into consideration, a new basic system called 'Barette Foundation' has been developed. In this thesis, an application made to provide slope stability with 'Baret Piles' was investigated. In addition, the ground parameters obtained from the field and laboratory experiments were numerically modeled using a PLAXİS 2D finite element software and barette piles. The effects of barette piles on slope stability were investigated by numerical analysis, and the results of inclinometer measurements in the field were compared with numerical analysis results.

Keywords: barette pile, PLAXİS 2D, slope, soil

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14 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan


Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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13 Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Nermin Hande Avcioglu, Isil Seyis Bilkay


Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.

Keywords: biofilm formation, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, biosystems engineering

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12 Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete by Rectangular Reinforcement

Authors: Mizam Dogan, Hande Gökdemir


In reinforced concrete elements, reinforcement steel bars are placed in concrete both longitudinal and lateral directions. The lateral reinforcement (called as confinement) which is used for confining circular RC elements is in a spiral shape. If the cross section of RC element is rectangular, stirrups should be rectangular too. At very high compressive stresses concrete will reach its limit strain value and therefore concrete outside the lateral reinforcement, which is not confined, will crush and start to spell. At this stage, concrete core of the RC element tries to expand laterally as a reason of high Poisson’s ratio value of concrete. Such a deformation is prevented by the lateral reinforcement which applies lateral passive pressure on concrete. At very high compressive stresses, the strength of reinforced column member rises to four times σ 2. This increase in strength of member is related to the properties of rectangular stirrups. In this paper, effect of stirrup step spacing to column behavior is calculated and presented confined concrete model is proved by numerical solutions.

Keywords: confined concrete, concrete column, stress-strain, stirrup, solid, frame

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11 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone, oxidative stress

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10 Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(N-Ethyl Aniline)/Kaolinite Composite Material by Chemical Polymerization

Authors: Hande Taşdemir, Meral Şahin, Mehmet Saçak


Conductive composite materials obtained by physical or chemical mixing of two or more components having conducting and insulating properties have been increasingly attracted. Kaolinite in kaolin clays is one of silicates with two layers of molecular sheets of (Si2O5)2− and [Al2(OH)4]2+ with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The most abundant hydrophillic kaolinite is extensively used in industrial processes and therefore it is convenient for the preparation of organic/inorganic composites. In this study, conductive poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite was prepared by chemical polymerization of N-ethyl aniline in the presence of kaolinite particles using ammonium persulfate as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite prepared were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as ammonium persulfate, N-ethyl aniline and HCl concentrations. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations up to 0.1 M and 0.2 M, respectively, and decreased at higher concentrations. The maximum yield of polymer in the composite (15.0%) and the highest conductivity value of the composite (5.0×10-5 S/cm) was achieved by polymerization for 2 hours at 20°C in HCl of 0.5 M. The structure, morphological analyses and thermal behaviours of poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD spectroscopy, SEM and TGA techniques.

Keywords: kaolinite, poly(N-ethylaniline), conductive composite, chemical polymerization

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9 Development of a Research Platform to Revitalize People-Forest Relationship Through a Cycle of Architectural Embodiments

Authors: Hande Ünlü, Yu Morishita


The total area of forest land in Japan accounts for 67% of the national land; however, despite this wealth and hundred years history of silviculture, today Japanese forestry faces socio-economic stagnation in forestry. While the growing gap in the people-forest relationship causes the depopulation of many forest villages, this paper introduces a methodology aiming to develop a place-specific approach in revitalizing this relationship. The paper focuses on a case study from Taiki town in the Hokkaido region to analyze the place's specific socio-economic requirements through interviews and workshops with the local experts, researchers, and stakeholders. Based on the analyzed facts, a master outline of design requirements is developed to produce locally sourced architectural embodiments that aim to act as a unifying element between the forests and the people of Taiki town. In parallel, the proposed methodology aims to generate a cycle of research feed and a researcher retreat, a definition given by Memu Earth Lab to the researchers' stay at Memu in Taiki town for a defined period to analyze local resources, for the continuous improvement of the introduced methodology to revitalize the interaction between people and forest through architecture.

Keywords: architecture, Japanese forestry, local timber, people-forest relationship, research platform

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8 The Functional Rehabilitation of Peri-Implant Tissue Defects: A Case Report

Authors: Özgür Öztürk, Cumhur Sipahi, Hande Yeşil


Implant retained restorations commonly consist of a metal-framework veneered with ceramic or composite facings. The increasing and expanding use of indirect resin composites in dentistry is a result of innovations in materials and processing techniques. Of special interest to the implant restorative field is the possibility that composites present significantly lower peak vertical and transverse forces transmitted at the peri-implant level compared to metal-ceramic supra structures in implant-supported restorations. A 43-year-old male patient referred to the department of prosthodontics for an implant retained fixed prosthesis. The clinical and radiographic examination of the patient demonstrated the presence of an implant in the right mandibular first molar tooth region. A considerable amount of marginal bone loss around the implant was detected in radiographic examinations combined with a remarkable peri-implant soft tissue deficiency. To minimize the chewing loads transmitted to the implant-bone interface it was decided to fabricate an indirect composite resin veneered single metal crown over a screw-retained abutment. At the end of the treatment, the functional and aesthetic deficiencies were fully compensated. After a 6 months clinical and radiographic follow-up period the not any additional pathologic invasion was detected in the implant-bone interface and implant retained restoration did not reveal any vehement complication.

Keywords: dental implant, fixed partial dentures, indirect composite resin, peri-implant defects

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7 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı


Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antioxidant capacity, Raphanis raphanistrum L., wild radish

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6 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

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5 Periodontal Soft Tissue Sculpturing and Use of Interim Appliance for Rehabilitation of Anterior Edentulousness: Case Report

Authors: Hande Yesil, Seda Aycan Altan, M. Vehbi Bal, Alper Uyar, O. Cumhur Sipahi


Purpose: Fixed partial dentures (FPDs) must fulfill functional requirements such as phonetics, chewing efficiency and esthetics especially in the anterior region. A convex type tissue surface is usually recommended for pontics of FPDs. That pontic design also provides suitable oral hygiene and ease of cleaning. However, high esthetic requirements and correct emergence profile are not always achievable because of the convex shape of adjacent soft tissues. Therefore, the ovate type pontic which fulfills the high esthetic demands of the patients may be a good alternative to the modified ridge lap pontic design. Clinical Report: A female patient referred with the complaint of anterior upper edentulousness. In the oral examination it was determined that teeth 11, 12, 21, 22 were deficient. A thick and convex gingival tissue that may cause aesthetic problems was also observed.. Periodontal augmentation surgery was performed to ensure proper papillary configuration and gingival contour. An interim removable partial denture (IRPD) which applied pressure to operated gingival tissues was fabricated postoperatively. The IRPD was used for 4 weeks and after completion of tissue sculpting, the permanent FPD with an ovate pontic was fabricated and cemented. After a follow-up period of 6 months, not any esthetical and hygienic problem was detected and the patient was satisfied with her prosthesis. Conclusion: It was concluded that shaping of gingival contours with IRPD and use of a FPD with ovate pontic fulfills all esthetic and hygienic requirements.

Keywords: interim appliance, ovate pontic, tissue sculpturing, fixed partial denture

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4 A Meta-Analysis towards an Integrated Framework for Sustainable Urban Transportation within the Concept of Sustainable Cities

Authors: Hande Aladağ, Gökçe Aydın


The world’s population is increasing continuously and rapidly. Moreover, there are other problems such as the decline of natural energy resources, global warming, and environmental pollution. These facts have made sustainability an important and primary topic from future planning perspective. From this perspective, constituting sustainable cities and communities can be considered as one of the key issues in terms of sustainable development goals. The concept of sustainable cities can be evaluated under three headings such as green/sustainable buildings, self – contained cities and sustainable transportation. This study only concentrates on how to form and support a sustainable urban transportation system to contribute to the sustainable urbanization. Urban transportation system inevitably requires many engineering projects with various sizes. Engineering projects generally have four phases, in the following order: Planning, design, construction, operation. The order is valid but there are feedbacks from every phase to every phase in its upstream. In this regard, engineering projects are iterative processes. Sustainability is an integrated and comprehensive concept thus it should be among the primary concerns in every phase of transportation projects. In the study, a meta-analysis will be performed on the related studies in the literature. It is targeted and planned that, as a result of the findings of this meta-analysis, a framework for the list of principles and actions for sustainable transport will be formed. The meta-analysis will be performed to point out and clarify sustainability approaches in every phase of the related engineering projects, with also paying attention to the iterative nature of the process and relative contribution of the action for the outcomes of the sustainable transportation system. However, the analysis will not be limited to the engineering projects, non-engineering solutions will also be included in the meta-analysis. The most important contribution of this study is a determination of the outcomes of a sustainable urban transportation system in terms of energy efficiency, resource preservation and related social, environmental and economic factors. The study is also important because it will give light to the engineering and management approaches to achieve these outcomes.

Keywords: meta-analysis, sustainability, sustainable cities, sustainable urban transportation, urban transportation

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3 3D-Printing Compressible Macroporous Polymer Using Poly-Pickering-High Internal Phase Emulsions as Micromixer

Authors: Hande Barkan-Ozturk, Angelika Menner, Alexander Bismarck


Microfluidic mixing technology grew rapidly in the past few years due to its many advantages over the macro-scale mixing, especially the ability to use small amounts of internal volume and also very high surface-to-volume ratio. The Reynold number identify whether the mixing is operated by the laminar or turbulence flow. Therefore, mixing with very fast kinetic can be achieved by diminishing the channel dimensions to decrease Reynold number and the laminar flow can be accomplished. Moreover, by using obstacles in the micromixer, the mixing length and the contact area between the species have been increased. Therefore, the channel geometry and its surface property have great importance to reach satisfactory mixing results. Since poly(-merised) High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) have more than 74% porosity and their pores are connected each other with pore throats, which cause high permeability, they are ideal candidate to build a micromixer. The HIPE precursor is commonly produced by using an overhead stirrer to obtain relatively large amount of emulsion in batch process. However, we will demonstrate that a desired amount of emulsion can be prepared continuously with micromixer build from polyHIPE, and such HIPE can subsequently be employed as ink in 3D printing process. In order to produce the micromixer a poly-Pickering(St-co-DVB)HIPE with 80% porosity was prepared with modified silica particles as stabilizer and surfactant Hypermer 2296 to obtain open porous structure and after coating of the surface, the three 1/16' ' PTFE tubes to transfer continuous (CP) and internal phases (IP) and the other is to collect the emulsion were placed. Afterwards, the two phases were injected in the ratio 1:3 CP:IP with syringe dispensers, respectively, and highly viscoelastic H(M)IPE, which can be used as an ink in 3D printing process, was gathered continuously. After the polymerisation of the resultant emulsion, polyH(M)IPE has interconnected porous structure identical to the monolithic polyH(M)IPE indicating that the emulsion can be prepared constantly with poly-Pickering-HIPE as micromixer and it can be used to prepare desired pattern with a 3D printer. Moreover, the morphological properties of the emulsion can be adjustable by changing flow ratio, flow speed and structure of the micromixer.

Keywords: 3D-Printing, emulsification, macroporous polymer, micromixer, polyHIPE

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2 Understanding How to Increase Restorativeness of Interiors: A Qualitative Exploratory Study on Attention Restoration Theory in Relation to Interior Design

Authors: Hande Burcu Deniz


People in the U.S. spend a considerable portion of their time indoors. This makes it crucial to provide environments that support the well-being of people. Restorative environments aim to help people recover their cognitive resources that were spent due to intensive use of directed attention. Spending time in nature and taking a nap are two of the best ways to restore these resources. However, they are not possible to do most of the time. The problem is that many studies have revealed how nature and spending time in natural contexts can help boost restoration, but there are fewer studies conducted to understand how cognitive resources can be restored in interior settings. This study aims to explore the answer to this question: which qualities of interiors increase the restorativeness of an interior setting and how do they mediate restorativeness of an interior. To do this, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. The study was interested in the definition of attention restoration and the experiences of the phenomena. As the themes emerged, they were analyzed to match with Attention Restoration Theory components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility) to examine how interior design elements mediate the restorativeness of an interior. The data was gathered from semi-structured interviews with international residents of Minnesota. The interviewees represent young professionals who work in Minnesota and often experience mental fatigue. Also, they have less emotional connections with places in Minnesota, which enabled data to be based on the physical qualities of a space rather than emotional connections. In the interviews, participants were asked about where they prefer to be when they experience mental fatigue. Next, they were asked to describe the physical qualities of the places they prefer to be with reasons. Four themes were derived from the analysis of interviews. The themes are in order according to their frequency. The first, and most common, the theme was “connection to outside”. The analysis showed that people need to be either physically or visually connected to recover from mental fatigue. Direct connection to nature was reported as preferable, whereas urban settings were the secondary preference along with interiors. The second theme emerged from the analysis was “the presence of the artwork,” which was experienced differently by the interviewees. The third theme was “amenities”. Interviews pointed out that people prefer to have the amenities that support desired activity during recovery from mental fatigue. The last theme was “aesthetics.” Interviewees stated that they prefer places that are pleasing to their eyes. Additionally, they could not get rid of the feeling of being worn out in places that are not well-designed. When we matched the themes with the four art components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility), some of the interior qualities showed overlapping since they were experienced differently by the interviewees. In conclusion, this study showed that interior settings have restorative potential, and they are multidimensional in their experience.

Keywords: attention restoration, fatigue, interior design, qualitative study, restorative environments

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1 Topographic and Thermal Analysis of Plasma Polymer Coated Hybrid Fibers for Composite Applications

Authors: Hande Yavuz, Grégory Girard, Jinbo Bai


Manufacturing of hybrid composites requires particular attention to overcome various critical weaknesses that are originated from poor interfacial compatibility. A large number of parameters have to be considered to optimize the interfacial bond strength either to avoid flaw sensitivity or delamination that occurs in composites. For this reason, surface characterization of reinforcement phase is needed in order to provide necessary data to drive an assessment of fiber-matrix interfacial compatibility prior to fabrication of composite structures. Compared to conventional plasma polymerization processes such as radiofrequency and microwave, dielectric barrier discharge assisted plasma polymerization is a promising process that can be utilized to modify the surface properties of carbon fibers in a continuous manner. Finding the most suitable conditions (e.g., plasma power, plasma duration, precursor proportion) for plasma polymerization of pyrrole in post-discharge region either in the presence or in the absence of p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as well as the characterization of plasma polypyrrole coated fibers are the important aspects of this work. Throughout the current investigation, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to characterize plasma treated hybrid fibers (CNT-grafted Toray T700-12K carbon fibers, referred as T700/CNT). TGA results show the trend in the change of decomposition process of deposited polymer on fibers as a function of temperature up to 900 °C. Within the same period of time, all plasma pyrrole treated samples began to lose weight with relatively fast rate up to 400 °C which suggests the loss of polymeric structures. The weight loss between 300 and 600 °C is attributed to evolution of CO2 due to decomposition of functional groups (e.g. carboxyl compounds). With keeping in mind the surface chemical structure, the higher the amount of carbonyl, alcohols, and ether compounds, the lower the stability of deposited polymer. Thus, the highest weight loss is observed in 1400 W 45 s pyrrole+pTSA.H2O plasma treated sample probably because of the presence of less stable polymer than that of other plasma treated samples. Comparison of the AFM images for untreated and plasma treated samples shows that the surface topography may change on a microscopic scale. The AFM image of 1800 W 45 s treated T700/CNT fiber possesses the most significant increase in roughening compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber. Namely, the fiber surface became rougher with ~3.6 fold that of the T700/CNT fiber. The increase observed in surface roughness compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber may provide more contact points between fiber and matrix due to increased surface area. It is believed to be beneficial for their application as reinforcement in composites.

Keywords: hybrid fibers, surface characterization, surface roughness, thermal stability

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