Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: inclusivity

39 Exploring Individual and Team Approaches in Crafting Workplace Inclusivity for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Employees in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Wahiza Abdul Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul Wahat, Siti Noormi Alias, Mohamad Sazali Shaari

Abstract:

This study prepares the groundwork for the development of a strategic model and instrument for workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in Malaysia. In the past, scholars have discussed inclusivity of workplaces to the extent to which employees feel they are significantly part of the organizational processes. Such processes include access to information, connectedness to colleagues and team members as well as their ability to participate in and influence decision-making processes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore on experiences of employed deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in a few Malaysian organizations. Data were collected from two focus group discussions involving male and female deaf and hard of hearing employees. Three in-depth interviews were also conducted with employer representatives. Generated themes highlighted individual, and team approaches towards crafting workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard of hearing employees in Malaysia. The adaptiveness of deaf and hard-of-hearing employees and social inclusion by colleagues were among the emerged sub-themes. This study allowed the researchers to further develop workplace inclusivity instruments and models for the benefit of deaf and hard of hearing Malaysian employees, as well as their employers.

Keywords: deaf, hard of hearing, workplace inclusivity, disabilities

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38 Inclusivity in Public Spaces through Architecture: A Case of Transgender Community in India

Authors: Sakshi Dhruve, Ar. Sarang Barbarwar

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Public spaces are the locus of activity and interaction in any urban area. Such spaces provide identity to cities, towns or neighborhoods and define the people and culture over there. Inclusiveness is one of the core aspects of public or community spaces. With its humongous population and rapidly expanding urban areas, India needs more inclusivity in public spaces to attain true equitable development. The aim of the paper is to discuss the sensitivity of public spaces in India to the transgender community. The study shows how this community was legally included as ‘Third Gender’ in country’s legislation yet lacks social acceptance and security. It shows the challenges and issues faced by them at public spaces. The community was studied on ethnographic basis to understand their culture, lifestyle, requirements, etc. The findings have indicated towards a social stigma from people and insensitivity in designing of civic spaces. The larger objective of the study is also to provide recommendations on the design aspects and interventions in public places to increase their inclusiveness towards the transgender society.

Keywords: community spaces, ethnographic, stigma, Third Gender community

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37 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

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Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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36 The Impact of the Inclusive Center on Social and Psychological State of Beneficiaries

Authors: Parvina Ismayilova

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Inclusion is like cultural diversity because, in the modern world, it is understood as everything that allows you to immerse yourself in the environment with the opportunity to expand your experience. In a narrow sense, inclusion is more associated with "inclusive education" and "inclusive technologies" - that is, it is a principle that allows people with disabilities to interact with the outside world. Technological progress allows people to unite, ensuring that they are seen and heard.

Keywords: diversity, disability, inclusivity, equality

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
35 Gender, Sexual Diversity and Professional Practice Learning: Promoting the Equality of University Students

Authors: Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Maria Clark, Eleanor Molloy, Nicki Ward

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Background: Significant developments in the protection of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) rights culminated in their inclusion in the Equality Act 2010. This provides legal protection against discrimination including the Public Sector Equality Duty requiring public bodies to consider all individuals when carrying out their day-to-day work. In the UK, whilst the Higher Education sector has made some commitment to eliminating discrimination and addressing LGBTQ inclusivity, there are two particular problems specifically affecting students on professional programmes: -All students will come into contact with LGBTQ patients/clients/students and need to be equipped to respond appropriately to their diverse needs but evidence suggests that this is not always the case. -Many LGBTQ students have specific concerns on professional placements; often ‘going back in the closet’ or feeling uncertain how to respond to questions about their personal lives and being reticent to challenge discrimination against LGBTQ patients/clients/students for fear of reprisal. Study aim: To investigate how best to prepare all students to deal with the issue of gender and sexual diversity and to support LGBTQ students in negotiating (non) disclosure in practice placements. Methods: This multi-method study was conducted in 2017 in the UK. It comprised a student survey, focus group interview with students and a national benchmarking exercise. Findings: Preliminary findings are that there is considerable variation across professional programmes regarding the preparation of students to respond to LGBTQ issues. Similarly, there is considerable difference between the level of preparedness experienced by students irrespective of whether they identify as LGBTQ. Discussion: Nationally there are a number of ‘best practice’ examples that we share in this presentation. These contain important details and guidance about how to better prepare university students for professional practice, and to contribute to eliminating discrimination and addressing LGBTQ inclusivity. Conclusions: The presentation will appeal to delegates who are interested in the equality agenda regarding LGBTQ people. The study findings will be discussed and debated to explore their impact on higher education and learning and to identify ways to integrate best practice into professional curricula across the UK and beyond.

Keywords: diversity, equality, practice, sexuality, students, university

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34 Social Awareness and Praxical Knowledge

Authors: F. Saptouw, L. Reddy

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Tertiary institutions are often faced with a challenge when incorporating social awareness into course content. The information campaigns in the media often alienate the viewers and the knowledge is not readily assimilated into the students’ consciousness. This paper will present a discussion of the results of collaborative teaching projects run by the Michaelis School of fine art and the HIV/AIDS, Inclusivity and Change Unit (HAICU) at the University of Cape Town. In these projects the artistic process is employed to generate ‘praxical knowledge’ in the student body about socially relevant issues like HIV-AIDS, Gender-Based Violence (GBV) and sexual identity, specifically LGBTQI. The combination of lectures, group discussions and the creative process has been a very successful way to disseminate information amongst the student population. Evidence of the project’s success will be provided by referencing interviews, focus groups as well as surveys done with the participants. This paper will conclude by arguing for the positive role of practice-led research in developing a socially conscious public.

Keywords: art, education, HIV-AIDS, practice-led research

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33 Thai Primary School Teachers’ Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism in the General Education Classroom

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

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Inclusive education services for students with Autism remains in its early developmental stages in Thailand. Despite many more children with autism are attending schools since the Thai government introduced the Education Provision for People with Disabilities Act in 2008, the services students with autism and their families receive are generally lacking. This quantitative study used Attitude and Preparedness to Teach Students with Autism Scale (APTSAS) to investigate 110 primary school teachers’ attitude and preparedness to teach students with autism in the general education classroom. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data found that student behaviour was the most significant factor in building teachers’ negative attitudes students with autism. The majority of teachers also indicated that their pre-service education did not prepare them to meet the learning needs of children with autism in particular, those who are non-verbal. The study is significant and provides direction for enhancing teacher education for inclusivity in Thailand.

Keywords: attitude, autism, teachers, Thailand

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32 Gender-Based Violence Public Art Projects: An Analysis of the Value of Including Social Justice Topics in Tertiary Courses

Authors: F. Saptouw

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This paper will examine the value of introducing social justice issues into the tertiary fine art curriculum at a first-year level. The paper will present detail of the conceptual impetus and the logistics related to the execution of a collaborative teaching project. The cohort of students was registered for the Fine Art Foundation course at the Michaelis School of Fine Art at the University of Cape Town. The course is dedicated to the development of critical thinking, communication skills, and varied approaches to knowledge construction within the first-year cohort. A core component of the course is the examination of the representation of gender, identity, politics, and power. These issues are examined within a range of public and private representations like art galleries, museum spaces, and contemporary popular culture. This particular project was a collaborative project with the Office of Inclusivity and Change, and the project leaders were Fabian Saptouw and Gabriel Khan. The paper will conclude by presenting an argument for the importance of such projects within the tertiary environment.

Keywords: art, education, gender-based violence, social responsiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
31 Challenges and Opportunities for University Management Brought by 2016 Presidential Campaign Immigration Policies and Politics within the United States

Authors: Autumn Tooms Cypres

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Throughout the 2016 presidential campaign, Republican nominee Donald Trump, capitalizing on his reputation for blunt and brash comments, created a political brand based on unedited statements and sweeping promises. While he vowed to 'Make America Great Again,' for many, the candidate’s discourse invoked legacies of marginalization and exclusion. As a result, this discussion focuses on Trump’s anti-immigration discourse (one of the primary foci of his campaign platform) and its influence across educational settings. The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate the power of political discourses relative to educational settings and to discuss the resulting everyday leadership challenges and opportunities. Discourse analysis frameworks are used to unpack the socio-political implications of the presidential campaign. In particular, they examine a serious of emails that a university administrator received post-election. The discussion concludes that leaders in education have a critical role to maintaining democratic institutions and ensuring inclusivity and belonging for all educational stakeholders.

Keywords: educational managment, politics, immigration, discourse

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30 Socio-Economic Sustainability for Artists with Cognitive Disability in Creative Space: Case Studies of Supported Studios in Australia

Authors: Jung Hyoung Yoon

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This paper examines ways of building socio-economic sustainability for artists with cognitive disabilities who pursue professional artistic careers in Australia. It investigates two case studies of supported studios in terms of management, inclusivity and accessibility to facilitate professional development and create socio-economic values for artists with cognitive disabilities. This study uses semi-structured interviews with key art directors and staff of supported studios to unfold their experiences on the professional development of artists with cognitive disability at the individual, organizational and societal levels. It also analyses secondary data collection related to management, business strategic plans and marketing. This paper discusses the potentials of socio-economic sustainability for artists with cognitive disabilities through their art practice and careers, as well as the central role of the supported studio in order to achieve such goals for individual artists.

Keywords: artists with cognitive disability, inclusive management, professional development, socio-economic sustainability

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29 Comparative Perceptions on Gender, Leadership, and Diversity

Authors: Saloni Diwakar, Hansika Kapoor

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The study undertook comparative analyses between 130 male and female managers in a power/electric company, relating to prevalent perceptions about gendered leadership, leadership efficacy, perceived organizational support, and diversity and inclusiveness. Results showed no significant difference in POS, leadership aspirations, expression, and self- and other leadership efficacy between male and female managers. However, within-groups analyses revealed that female managers reported a disparity between self and other leadership efficacy (value), to a far greater extent than male managers (value). Additionally, females reported a dip in POS during middle management, as compared to junior management, whereas men reported a steady increase in POS from junior, middle on to senior management. Descriptively, both men and women reported preferring gender neutral leadership traits, as compared to male or female centered traits, and both genders least preferred male centered leadership traits. Compared to women, male managers were found to significantly undervalue diversity and inclusion initiatives. Subjective feedback was elicited to corroborate quantitative output. Also, female participants provided subjective feedback regarding efficacy of existing D&I practices in the organization. Findings and implications are discussed relevant to existing gender inclusion agendas.

Keywords: gendered leadership, diversity, inclusivity, perceived organizational support

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
28 The Significance of Awareness about Gender Diversity for the Future of Work: A Multi-Method Study of Organizational Structures and Policies Considering Trans and Gender Diversity

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

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The future of work becomes less predictable, which requires increasing the adaptability of organizations to social and work changes. Society is transforming regarding gender identity in the sense that more people come forward to identify as trans and gender diverse (TGD). Organizations are ill-equipped to provide a safe and encouraging work environment by lacking inclusive organizational structures. The qualitative multi-method research about TGD inclusivity in the workplace explores the enablers and barriers for TGD individuals to satisfactory engage in the work environment and organizational culture. Furthermore, these TGD insights are analyzed about their organizational implications and awareness from a leadership and management perspective. The semi-structured online interviews with TGD individuals and the photo-elicit open-ended questionnaire addressed to leadership and management in diversity, career development, and human resources have been analyzed with a critical grounded theory approach. Findings demonstrated the significance of TGD voices, the support of leadership and management, as well as the synergy between voices and leadership. Hence, it indicates practical implications such as the revision of exclusive language used in policies, data collection, or communication and reconsideration of organizational decision-making by leaders to include TGD voices.

Keywords: future of work, occupational identity, organisational decision-making, trans and gender diverse identity

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27 Pride and Prejudice in Higher Education: Countering Elitist Perspectives in the Curriculum at Imperial College London

Authors: Mark R. Skopec, Hamdi M. Issa, Henock B. Taddese, Kate Ippolito, Matthew J. Harris

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In peer review, there is a skew toward research from high-income countries, otherwise known as geographic bias. Research from well-known and prestigious institutions is often favored in the peer review process and is more frequently cited in biomedical research. English clinicians have been found to rate research from low-income countries worse compared to the same research presented as if from high-income countries. This entrenched bias, which is rooted in the perceived superiority of academic institutions in high-income countries is damaging in many regards. Crucially, it reinforces colonial roots by strengthening the dominance of knowledge bases in high-income contexts and perpetuates the perceived inferiority of research from low-income settings. We report on the interventions that Imperial College London is conducting to “decolonize” the higher education curriculum – a root and branch review of reading material in the Masters of Public Health course; identification of unconscious bias against low-income country research in faculty and staff; in-depth interviews with faculty members on their experiences and practices with respect to inclusion of low-income country research in their own teaching and learning practice; and exploring issues surrounding entrenched biases and structural impediments for enabling desirable changes. We intend to use these findings to develop frameworks and approaches, including workshops and online resources, to effect sustainable changes to diversify the curriculum at Imperial College London.

Keywords: curriculum design, diversity, geographic bias, higher education, implicit associations, inclusivity

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26 Drama Education: Towards Building Multicultural Adolescent Peer Relationships

Authors: Tahnee West

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Drama education is increasingly understood as a useful tool in promoting positive social change and cultural awareness. The effects of both positive and negative peer relationships are also a researched facet of education systems. Despite this, very little research has been conducted in the intersection of these two areas, even given current, significant public interest surrounding multicultural relationships. This research addresses a problem faced by educators and students: facilitating meaningful multicultural relationships. The research explores the following question in an Australian context: in what ways does Drama education affect peer relationships between culturally diverse students? In doing so, the study explores the various challenges and experiences of a multicultural group of adolescents, in terms of forming and maintaining effective intercultural friendships, while participating in a series of drama workshops. The project presents a starting point for providing educators with strategies for inclusivity and relationship development amongst diverse student populations. Findings show that Drama education can positively affect culturally diverse young people’s peer relationships; interactions between participants and data collected in focus groups throughout the eight-week Drama program show a steady improvement in sense of trust, support, tolerance, empathy, familiarity with other participants, and enjoyment. Data also points to a positive correlation between the Drama activities and improved conflict resolution and communication skills, as well as an improved understanding of the other participants’ cultures. Diversities and commonalities within the group were explored, with similarities encouraging social cohesion, and decreasing cultural ‘cliques’.

Keywords: cultural diversity, drama education, friendship, multicultural, peer relationships

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25 Engaging With Sex, Gender and Sexuality Diversity at Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Shakila Singh

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Dominant discourses constitute heterosexuality as natural, normal and the only legitimate sexuality, and diverse sexual subjectivities as abnormal, unnatural and socially taboo. Similarly, the cisgender subject is reified. There are ongoing debates about the inclusion and suitability of sexuality education in the school curriculum and research show that teachers are not adequately prepared to teach about such issues in the classroom. Not surprising then, that many young people enter these institutions having had limited previous exposure to, or education about, sex, gender and sexuality diversity. This paper discusses the presence of heterosexism and cissexism at multiple layers in higher education institutions, impacting students and staff. Increasing knowledge and awareness of sex, gender and sexuality diversities is also crucial to challenging existing perceptions of sex, gender and sexuality diversities that marginalise and subordinate a large proportion of students and staff. There is a persistent disjuncture between dominant discourses that generally position higher education institutions as socially progressive, open environments and the discourses that legitimate the ascendency of heterosexual and cisgender identities. This paper argues that such disjuncture must be addressed by providing inclusive physical and emotional spaces if universities are to affirm every individual and produce graduates across all disciplines with the cultural capability to engage with increasingly diverse communities. Given the key role of language in shaping cultural and social attitudes, using gender-inclusive language is a powerful way to promote gender equality and eradicate gender bias. This means speaking and writing in a way that does not discriminate against a particular sex, gender or sexual identity and does not perpetuate gender stereotypes. Individuals must be allowed to present themselves and identify in ways they choose and be addressed by their chosen pronouns.

Keywords: heteronormativity, inclusivity, gender, universities

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24 Exploring Community Benefits Frameworks as a Tool for Addressing Intersections of Equity and the Green Economy in Toronto's Urban Development

Authors: Cheryl Teelucksingh

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Toronto is in the midst of an urban development and infrastructure boom. Population growth and concerns about urban sprawl and carbon emissions have led to pressure on the municipal and the provincial governments to re-think urban development. Toronto’s approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation has positioning of the emerging green economy as part of the solution. However, the emerging green economy many not benefit all Torontonians in terms of jobs, improved infrastructure, and enhanced quality of life. Community benefits agreements (CBAs) are comprehensive, negotiated commitments, in which founders and builders of major infrastructure projects formally agree to work with community interest groups based in the community where the development is taking place, toward mutually beneficial environmental and labor market outcomes. When community groups are equitably represented in the process, they stand not only to benefit from the jobs created from the project itself, but also from the longer-term community benefits related to the quality of the completed work, including advocating for communities’ environmental needs. It is believed that green employment initiatives in Toronto should give greater consideration to best practices learned from community benefits agreements. Drawing on the findings of a funded qualitative study in Toronto (Canada), “The Green Gap: Toward Inclusivity in Toronto’s Green Economy” (2013-2016), this paper examines the emergent CBA in Toronto in relation to the development of a light rail transit project. Theoretical and empirical consideration will be given to the research gaps around CBAs, the role of various stakeholders, and discuss the potential for CBAs to gain traction in the Toronto’s urban development context. The narratives of various stakeholders across Toronto’s green economy will be interwoven with a discussion of the CBA model in Toronto and other jurisdictions.

Keywords: green economy in Toronto, equity, community benefits agreements, environmental justice, community sustainability

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23 The Psychology of Virtual Relationships Provides Solutions to the Challenges of Online Learning: A Pragmatic Review and Case Study from the University of Birmingham, UK

Authors: Catherine Mangan, Beth Anderson

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There has been a significant drive to use online or hybrid learning in Higher Education (HE) over recent years. HEs with a virtual presence offer their communities a range of benefits, including the potential for greater inclusivity, diversity, and collaboration; more flexible learning packages; and more engaging, dynamic content. Institutions can also experience significant challenges when seeking to extend learning spaces in this way, as can learners themselves. For example, staff members’ and learners’ digital literacy varies (as do their perceptions of technologies in use), and there can be confusion about optimal approaches to implementation. Furthermore, the speed with which HE institutions have needed to shift to fully online or hybrid models, owing to the COVID19 pandemic, has highlighted the significant barriers to successful implementation. HE environments have been shown to predict a range of organisational, academic, and experiential outcomes, both positive and negative. Much research has focused on the social aspect of virtual platforms, as well as the nature and effectiveness of the technologies themselves. There remains, however, a relative paucity of synthesised knowledge on the psychology of learners’ relationships with their institutions; specifically, how individual difference and interpersonal factors predict students’ ability and willingness to engage with novel virtual learning spaces. Accordingly, extending learning spaces remains challenging for institutions, and wholly remote courses, in particular, can experience high attrition rates. Focusing on the last five years, this pragmatic review summarises evidence from the psychological and pedagogical literature. In particular, the review highlights the importance of addressing the psychological and relational complexities of students’ shift from offline to online engagement. In doing so, it identifies considerations for HE institutions looking to deliver in this way.

Keywords: higher education, individual differences, interpersonal relationships, online learning, virtual environment

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22 Preventing Cyclical Homelessness: The Life Skills Project

Authors: S.J. Cumming , J. DiSanto, B. McFarlane

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Homelessness in Canada is a persistent problem. It has been widely argued that the best tactic for eradicating homelessness is to approach social issues from a Housing First perspective—an approach that centers on quickly moving people into permanent and independent housing, and then providing them additional supports and services as needed. It is recognized that life skills training is both necessary and an effective way to reduce cyclical homelessness, however there is a scarcity of research on effective ways to teach life skills; this problem was exacerbated in a pandemic context, where in-person delivery was severely restricted or no longer possible. Very little attention has been paid to the diverse cultural needs of clients in a multicultural context and the need to foster cultural knowledge/awareness in individuals to successfully contribute to the cultural safety of communities. This research attempts to fill these gaps in the literature and in practice by employing a community-engaged research (CER) approach. Academic, government, funders and front-line staff and clients at 15 not-for-profits from across the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario Canada collaborated to co-create a virtual, client centric, equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) informed life skill learning management system. We employed a triangulation methodology for this research. An environmental scan was conducted for best practices. Two separate Creative Problem Solving Sessions were held with over 100 front-line workers, managers and executive directors who work with homeless populations. Quantitative and open-ended surveys were completed by over 200 individuals with experience with homelessness. All sections of this research aimed to discover the areas of skills that individuals need to maintain housing and to ascertain what a more client driven, EDI approach to life skills training should include. This project will culminate in a comprehensive virtual life skills curriculum that will be shared across not-for-profit sector.

Keywords: homelessness, lifeskills, housing first, vulnerable populations, equity diversity and inclusivity

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21 Improving Numeracy Standards for UK Pharmacy Students

Authors: Luke Taylor, Samantha J. Hall, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman

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Medway School of Pharmacy, as part of an Equality Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI) initiative run by the University of Kent, decided to take steps to try and negate disparities in numeracy competencies within students undertaking the Master of Pharmacy degree in order to combat a trend in pharmacy students’ numerical abilities upon entry. This included a research driven project 1) to identify if pharmacy students are aware of weaknesses in their numeracy capabilities, and 2) recognise where their numeracy skillset is lacking. In addition to gaining this student perspective, a number of actions have been implemented to support students in improving their numeracy competencies. Reflective and quantitative analysis has shown promising improvements for the final year cohort of 2014/15 when compared to previous years. The method of involving student feedback into the structure of numeracy teaching/support has proven to be extremely beneficial to both students and teaching staff alike. Students have felt empowered and in control of their own learning requirements, leading to increased engagement and attainment. School teaching staff have received quality data to help improve existing initiatives and to innovate further in the area of numeracy teaching. In light of the recognised improvements, further actions are currently being trialled in the area of numeracy support. This involves utilising Virtual Learning Environment platforms to provide individualised support as a supplement to the increased numeracy mentoring (staff and peer) provided to students. Mentors who provide group or one-to-one sessions are now given significant levels of training in dealing with situations that commonly arise from mentoring schemes. They are also provided with continued support throughout the life of their degree. Following results from this study, Medway School of Pharmacy hopes to drive increasing numeracy standards within Pharmacy (primarily through championing peer mentoring) as well as other healthcare professions including Midwifery and Nursing.

Keywords: attainment, ethnicity, numeracy, pharmacy, support

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20 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

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Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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19 Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Pradhananga

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Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.

Keywords: accessible tourism, disability, earthquake, inclusion

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18 Effect of Classroom Acoustic Factors on Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Children with Mild to Moderate Hearing Loss

Authors: Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Robert Ljung, Lorna Halliday, Stuart Rosen

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Contemporary classrooms are increasingly inclusive of children with mild to moderate disabilities and children from different language backgrounds (bilinguals, multilinguals), but classroom environments and standards have not yet been adapted adequately to meet these challenges brought about by this inclusivity. Additionally, classrooms are becoming noisier as a learner-centered as opposed to teacher-centered teaching paradigm is adopted, which prioritizes group work and peer-to-peer learning. Challenging listening conditions with distracting sound sources and background noise are known to have potentially negative effects on children, particularly those that are prone to struggle with speech perception in noise. Therefore, this research investigates two groups vulnerable to these environmental effects, namely children with a mild to moderate hearing loss (MMHLs) and sequential bilinguals learning in their second language. In the MMHL study, this group was assessed on speech-in-noise perception, and a number of receptive language and cognitive measures (auditory working memory, auditory attention) and correlations were evaluated. Speech reception thresholds were found to be predictive of language and cognitive ability, and the nature of correlations is discussed. In the bilinguals study, sequential bilingual children’s listening comprehension, speech-in-noise perception, listening effort and release from masking was evaluated under a number of different ecologically valid acoustic scenarios in order to pinpoint the extent of the ‘native language benefit’ for Swedish children learning in English, their second language. Scene manipulations included target-to-distractor ratios and introducing spatially separated noise. This research will contribute to the body of findings from which educational institutions can draw when designing or adapting educational environments in inclusive schools.

Keywords: sequential bilinguals, classroom acoustics, mild to moderate hearing loss, speech-in-noise, release from masking

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17 Implications of Internationalization for Management and Practice in Higher Education

Authors: Naziema B. Jappie

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Internationalization is very complex and multifaceted and has implications for the entire university sector, and the larger community which it serves. Higher education strategic plans require sustainability on all levels of academic engagement and internationalization contributes to the sustainability because of the global competition but, at the same time, ensures diversity on campuses. Universities all over the world are increasingly recognizing the challenges of globalization and the pressures towards internationalization. The past 25 years of internationalization has faded away, and new challenges have emerged. Although internationalization remains a central strategic objective for all universities, for many leaders and education practitioners it has remained a confused concept. It has various interpretations, and it intersects with numerous other national agendas in higher education domain; it often builds upon narrow notions limited to one of its facets –attracting international student fees for financial sustainability or for ensuring a diverse campus culture. It is essential to have clear institutional views, but it is imperative that everyone reflects on the values and beliefs that underpin the internationalization of higher education and have a global focus. This paper draws together the international experience locally and globally to explore the emerging patterns of strategy and practice in internationalizing higher education. This will highlight some critical notions of how the concepts of internationalization and globalization in the context of higher education is understood by those who lead universities and what new challenges are being created as universities seek to become more international. Institutions cannot simply have bullet points in the strategic plan about recruitment of international students; there has to be a complete commitment to an international strategy of inclusivity. This paper will further examine the leadership styles that ensure transformation together with the goals set out for internationalization. The interviews with the senior leadership are in-depth semi-structured recorded interviews of approximately one-hour to learn about their institutional experiences, promotion, and enhancement of the value of internationalisation to the tertiary education sector and initiating discussions around adding the international relations dimension to the curriculum. This paper will address the issues relevant to the cross-border delivery of higher education. To ensure anonymity throughout this study, the interviewees are identified only by their institutions.

Keywords: challenges, globalization, higher education, internationalization, strategic focus

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16 Professional Stakeholders Perspectives on Community Participation in Transit-Oriented Development Projects: A Johannesburg Case Study

Authors: Kofi Quartey, Kola Ijasan

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Achieving densification around transit-oriented development projects has proven the most ideal way of facilitating urban sprawl whilst increasing the mobility of the majority of the urban populations, making parts of the city that were inaccessible, accessible. Johannesburg has undertaken TOD vision, which was initially called the corridors of freedom. The TOD, in line with the Sustainable Development Goal 11, seeks to establish inclusive, sustainable cities and, in line with the Joburg Growth Development Strategy, aims to create an equitable world-class African city. Equity and inclusivity should occur from the onset of planning and implementation of TOD projects through meaningful community participation. Stakeholder engagement literature from various disciplinary backgrounds has documented dissatisfaction of communities regarding the lack of meaningful participation in government-led development initiatives. The views of other project stakeholders such as project policy planners and project implementors and their challenges in undertaking community participation are, however, not taken into account in such instances, leaving room for a biased perspective. Document analysis was undertaken to determine what is expected of the Project stakeholders according to policy and whether they carried out their duties) seven interviews were also conducted with city entities and community representatives to determine their experiences and challenges with community participation in the various TOD projects attributed to the CoF vision. The findings of the study indicated that stakeholder engagement processes were best described as an ‘educative process’; where local communities were limited to being informed from the onset rather than having an active involvement in the planning processes. Most community members felt they were being informed and educated as to what was going to happen in spite of having their views and opinions collected – primarily due to project deadlines and budget constraints, as was confirmed by professional stakeholders. Some community members exhibited reluctance to change due to feelings of having projects being imposed on them, and the implications of the projects on their properties and lifestyles. It is recommended that community participation should remain a participatory and engaging process that creates an exchange of knowledge and understanding in the form of a dialogue between communities and project stakeholders until a consensus is reached.

Keywords: stakeholder engagement, transit oriented development, community participation, Johannesburg

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15 Conflict around the Brownfield Reconversion of the Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa: A Clash of Ambitions and Visions in Canadian Urban Sustainability

Authors: Kenza Benali

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Over the past decade, a number of remarkable projects in urban brownfield reconversion emerged across Canada, including the reconversion of former military bases owned by the Canada Lands Company (CLC) into sustainable communities. However, unlike other developments, the regeneration project of the former Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa – which was announced as one of the most ambitious Smart growth projects in Canada – faced serious obstacles in terms of social acceptance by the local community, particularly urban minorities composed of Francophones, Indigenous and vulnerable groups who live near or on the Base. This turn of events led to the project being postponed and even reconsidered. Through an analysis of its press coverage, this research aims to understand the causes of this urban conflict which lasted for nearly ten years. The findings reveal that the conflict is not limited to the “standard” issues common to most conflicts related to urban mega-projects in the world – e.g., proximity issues (threads to the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods; noise, traffic, pollution, New-build gentrification) often associated with NIMBY phenomena. In this case, the local actors questioned the purpose of the project (for whom and for what types of uses is it conceived?), its local implementation (to what extent are the local history and existing environment taken into account?), and the degree of implication of the local population in the decision-making process (with whom is the project built?). Moreover, the interests of the local actors have “jumped scales” and transcend the micro-territorial level of their daily life to take on a national and even international dimension. They defined an alternative view of how this project, considered strategic by his location in the nation’s capital, should be a reference as well as an international showcase of Canadian ambition and achievement in terms of urban sustainability. This vision promoted, actually, a territorial and national identity approach - in which some cultural values are highly significant (respect of social justice, inclusivity, ethnical diversity, cultural heritage, etc.)- as a counterweight to planners’ vision which is criticized as a normative/ universalist logic that ignore the territorial peculiarities.

Keywords: smart growth, brownfield reconversion, sustainable neighborhoods, Canada Lands Company, Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe, urban conflicts

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14 An Ethnographic Study of Workforce Integration of Health Care Workers with Refugee Backgrounds in Ageing Citizens in Germany

Authors: A. Ham, A. Kuckert-Wostheinrich

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Demographic changes, like the ageing population in European countries and shortage of nursing staff, the increasing number of people with severe cognitive impairment, and elderly socially isolated people raise important questions about who will provide long-term care for ageing citizens. Due to the so-called refugee crisis in 2015, some health care institutions for ageing citizens in Europe invited first generation immigrants to start a nursing career and providing them language skills, nursing training, and internships. The aim of this ethnographic research was to explore the social processes affecting workforce integration and how newcomers enact good care in ageing citizens in a German nursing home. By ethnographic fieldwork, 200 hours of participant observations, 25 in-depth interviews with immigrants and established staff, 2 focus groups with 6 immigrants, and 6 established staff members, data were analysed. The health care institution provided the newcomers a nursing program on psychogeriatric theory and nursing skills in the psychogeriatric field and professional oriented language skills. Courses of health prevention and theater plays accompanied the training. The knowledge learned in education could be applied in internships on the wards. Additionally, diversity and inclusivity courses were given to established personal for cultural awareness and sensitivity. They learned to develop a collegial attitude of respect and appreciation, regardless of gender, nationality, ethnicity, religion or belief, age sexual orientation, or disability and identity. The qualitative data has shown that social processes affected workforce integration, like organizational constraints, staff shortages, and a demanding workload. However, zooming in on the interactions between newcomers and residents, we noticed how they tinkered to enact good care by embodied caring, playing games, singing and dancing. By situational acting and practical wisdom in nursing care, the newcomers could meet the needs of ageing residents. Thus, when health care institutions open up nursing programs for newcomers with refugees’ backgrounds and focus on talent instead of shortcomings, we might as well stimulate the unknown competencies, attitudes, skills, and expertise of newcomers and create excellent nurses for excellent care.

Keywords: established staff, Germany, nursing, refugees

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13 An Ethnography of Language Policy in Puebla: Investigating Discourses About Multilingualism

Authors: Rosalba Karina Ortiz Saenz

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The field of language planning and policy (LPP) has been a fast-developing area of research over the past decades. Recent LPP studies have turned their attention to multilingual contexts where intercultural bilingual programmes have been implemented in an attempt to revitalise indigenous languages. This study focuses on one such programme in the multilingual state of Puebla, Mexico, where Nahuatl used to be the most widely spoken indigenous language before the Colonial Period. In the last decades, however, there has been a language shift due to migration and the influence of Spanish on younger generations. Most grandparents and parents, who experienced racial discrimination due to their indigenous roots, were forced to assimilate the colonial language and culture, and no longer speak Nahuatl to the younger generations, but use Spanish instead. Whilst previous research has focused on teaching methodologies to develop biliteracy skills, the aims, challenges and opportunities of intercultural bilingual education in Puebla and the wider Mexican context, there is scant research on the discursive links between language policy discourses and linguistic practices at the community level. To help fill this gap, this study explores 1) macro-level discourses in official policy documents, 2) school authorities, teachers, and parents’ views on education for indigenous people and use of language varieties, and 3) parents and children’s linguistic practices instantiated in diary entries. Following an Ethnography of Language Policy methodological approach, data were collected from three official language policy documents, seventeen semi-structured interviews with main stakeholders, ten diaries and diary-based interviews, and field note entries. The approach to analysing the data was the Discourse Historical Approach since it is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive connections between discourses and texts from specific contexts and triangulates the analysis of the data by conceptualising ‘context’ in four levels. The findings shed light on three orientations towards LPP in this context: language as problem, as right and as resource. These orientations relate to linguistic discrimination, homogeneity, rights, interculturality, inclusivity, and cultural diversity, and are illustrated in the findings with reference to nomination, predication, argumentation, perspectivisation, and intensification/mitigation strategies. The limitations and implications for LPP are also considered.

Keywords: ethnography of language policy, Mexico, multilingual education, discourse-historical approach

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12 The Use of Social Media in a UK School of Pharmacy to Increase Student Engagement and Sense of Belonging

Authors: Samantha J. Hall, Luke Taylor, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman

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Medway School of Pharmacy – a joint collaboration between the University of Kent and the University of Greenwich – is a large school of pharmacy in the United Kingdom. The school primarily delivers the accredited Master or Pharmacy (MPharm) degree programme. Reportedly, some students may feel isolated from the larger student body that extends across four separate campuses, where a diverse range of academic subjects is delivered. In addition, student engagement has been noted as being limited in some areas, as evidenced in some cases by poor attendance at some lectures. In January 2015, the University of Kent launched a new initiative dedicated to Equality, Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI). As part of this project, Medway School of Pharmacy employed ‘Student Success Project Officers’ in order to analyse past and present school data. As a result, initiatives have been implemented to i) negate disparities in attainment and ii) increase engagement, particularly for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) students which make up for more than 80% of the pharmacy student cohort. Social media platforms are prevalent, with global statistics suggesting that they are most commonly used by females between the ages of 16-34. Student focus groups held throughout the academic year brought to light the school’s need to use social media much more actively. Prior to the EDI initiative, social media usage for Medway School of Pharmacy was scarce. Platforms including: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, The Student Room and University Blogs were either introduced or rejuvenated. This action was taken with the primary aim of increasing student engagement. By using a number of varied social media platforms, the university is able to capture a large range of students by appealing to different interests. Social media is being used to disseminate important information, promote equality and diversity, recognise and celebrate student success and also to allow students to explore the student life outside of Medway School of Pharmacy. Early data suggests an increase in lecture attendance, as well as greater evidence of student engagement highlighted by recent focus group discussions. In addition, students have communicated that active social media accounts were imperative when choosing universities for 2015/16. It allows students to understand more about the University and community prior to beginning their studies. By having a lively presence on social media, the university can use a multi-faceted approach to succeed in early engagement, as well as fostering the long term engagement of continuing students.

Keywords: engagement, social media, pharmacy, community

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11 Digital Value Co-Creation: The Case of Worthy a Virtual Collaborative Museum across Europe

Authors: Camilla Marini, Deborah Agostino

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Cultural institutions provide more than service-based offers; indeed, they are experience-based contexts. A cultural experience is a special event that encompasses a wide range of values which, for visitors, are primarily cultural rather than economic and financial. Cultural institutions have always been characterized by inclusivity and participatory practices, but the upcoming of digital technologies has put forward their interest in collaborative practices and the relationship with their audience. Indeed, digital technologies highly affected the cultural experience as it was conceived. Especially, museums, as traditional and authoritative cultural institutions, have been highly challenged by digital technologies. They shifted by a collection-oriented toward a visitor-centered approach, and digital technologies generated a highly interactive ecosystem in which visitors have an active role, shaping their own cultural experience. Most of the studies that investigate value co-creation in museums adopt a single perspective which is separately one of the museums or one of the users, but the analysis of the convergence/divergence of these perspectives is still emphasized. Additionally, many contributions focus on digital value co-creation as an outcome rather than as a process. The study aims to provide a joint perspective on digital value co-creation which include both museum and visitors. Also, it deepens the contribution of digital technologies in the value co-creation process, addressing the following research questions: (i) what are the convergence/divergence drivers on digital value co-creation and (ii) how digital technologies can be means of value co-creation? The study adopts an action research methodology that is based on the case of WORTHY, an educational project which involves cultural institutions and schools all around Europe, creating a virtual collaborative museum. It represents a valuable case for the aim of the study since it has digital technologies at its core, and the interaction through digital technologies is fundamental, all along with the experience. Action research has been identified as the most appropriate methodology for researchers to have direct contact with the field. Data have been collected through primary and secondary sources. Cultural mediators such as museums, teachers and students’ families have been interviewed, while a focus group has been designed to interact with students, investigating all the aspects of the cultural experience. Secondary sources encompassed project reports and website contents in order to deepen the perspective of cultural institutions. Preliminary findings highlight the dimensions of digital value co-creation in cultural institutions from a museum-visitor integrated perspective and the contribution of digital technologies in the value co-creation process. The study outlines a two-folded contribution that encompasses both an academic and a practitioner level. Indeed, it contributes to fulfilling the gap in cultural management literature about the convergence/divergence of service provider-user perspectives but it also provides cultural professionals with guidelines on how to evaluate the digital value co-creation process.

Keywords: co-creation, digital technologies, museum, value

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10 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

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In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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