Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 318

Search results for: gains

318 Developers’ Gains and Losses from the Economic Incentives of Green Building: Explanations from the Transitional Gains Trap and Transaction Cost Economics

Authors: Ke Fan, Edwin H. W. Chan

Abstract:

Economic incentives of green building (GB) have been implemented to promote green building and address the market barriers. However, if developers could gain from the incentives, why not all the buildings are green? This paper aims to study this problem and provide a new perspective to look at the economic incentives. The theories of Transitional Gains Trap (TGP) and Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) are employed to explain the developers’ gains and losses from the economic incentives. This paper takes the GFA (gross floor area) concession incentive in Hong Kong, which is one of the most popular incentives, as the case to conduct in-depth case study and it did interview to validate the results. The results show that after implementing the GFA concession scheme, the benefit of the GFA concession is capitalized into land value. Therefore, developers have to bear the increased land cost, which supports the theory of the TGP. Even though, some developers are still not willing to participate in the incentive scheme because of high transaction costs (TCs).

Keywords: green building, economic incentives, transitional gains trap, transaction cost

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317 Gains and Drawbacks in the Delivery of Senior High School Sports Track Program: The Lived Experiences of Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Steffany Anne Poblador, Ruben Jr. Tagare

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The Philippine Education System is now undergoing transition as a result of the implementation of Republic Act 10533, commonly referred to as the Enhanced Basic Education Act. Since its implementation in 2013, researchers have been examining the initial impact of this transition; however, investigations into the gains and drawbacks of the Philippine Senior High School Sports Track Program based on teachers’ assessment were scarcely adequate. As a result, this research used a Qualitative Phenomenology Research Design to elicit information on the gains and drawbacks faced by these instructors. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and extensive field observation were conducted with participants from selected schools in Cotabato Province. During the triangulation of the data, five (5) significant themes for gains and six (6) concerns from the research participants emerged. The findings were then used to provide recommendations for a more effective implementation of the Sports Track Program in the Philippine Senior High School program.

Keywords: teachers’ gains and drawbacks, Philippine K to 12 problems, K to 12 transition years, favorable experiences, phenomenology

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316 Using Q-Learning to Auto-Tune PID Controller Gains for Online Quadcopter Altitude Stabilization

Authors: Y. Alrubyli

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Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs), and more specifically, quadcopters need to be stable during their flights. Altitude stability is usually achieved by using a PID controller that is built into the flight controller software. Furthermore, the PID controller has gains that need to be tuned to reach optimal altitude stabilization during the quadcopter’s flight. For that, control system engineers need to tune those gains by using extensive modeling of the environment, which might change from one environment and condition to another. As quadcopters penetrate more sectors, from the military to the consumer sectors, they have been put into complex and challenging environments more than ever before. Hence, intelligent self-stabilizing quadcopters are needed to maneuver through those complex environments and situations. Here we show that by using online reinforcement learning with minimal background knowledge, the altitude stability of the quadcopter can be achieved using a model-free approach. We found that by using background knowledge instead of letting the online reinforcement learning algorithm wander for a while to tune the PID gains, altitude stabilization can be achieved faster. In addition, using this approach will accelerate development by avoiding extensive simulations before applying the PID gains to the real-world quadcopter. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using the trial and error approach of reinforcement learning combined with background knowledge to achieve faster quadcopter altitude stabilization in different environments and conditions.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, Q-leanring, online learning, PID tuning, unmanned aerial vehicle, quadcopter

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315 Near Optimal Closed-Loop Guidance Gains Determination for Vector Guidance Law, from Impact Angle Errors and Miss Distance Considerations

Authors: Karthikeyan Kalirajan, Ashok Joshi

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An optimization problem is to setup to maximize the terminal kinetic energy of a maneuverable reentry vehicle (MaRV). The target location, the impact angle is given as constraints. The MaRV uses an explicit guidance law called Vector guidance. This law has two gains which are taken as decision variables. The problem is to find the optimal value of these gains which will result in minimum miss distance and impact angle error. Using a simple 3DOF non-rotating flat earth model and Lockheed martin HP-MARV as the reentry vehicle, the nature of solutions of the optimization problem is studied. This is achieved by carrying out a parametric study for a range of closed loop gain values and the corresponding impact angle error and the miss distance values are generated. The results show that there are well defined lower and upper bounds on the gains that result in near optimal terminal guidance solution. It is found from this study, that there exist common permissible regions (values of gains) where all constraints are met. Moreover, the permissible region lies between flat regions and hence the optimization algorithm has to be chosen carefully. It is also found that, only one of the gain values is independent and that the other dependent gain value is related through a simple straight-line expression. Moreover, to reduce the computational burden of finding the optimal value of two gains, a guidance law called Diveline guidance is discussed, which uses single gain. The derivation of the Diveline guidance law from Vector guidance law is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Marv guidance, reentry trajectory, trajectory optimization, guidance gain selection

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314 Can Illusions of Control Make Us Happy?

Authors: Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun

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Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory. The current research investigated the impact of illusions of control on positive emotions. There is empirical evidence showing that people are more emotionally attentive to losses than to gains. Hence, we expected that, compared to gains, losses in illusory control would have a stronger impact on positive emotions. The results of two experimental studies support this assumption: Participants who experienced gains in illusory control showed no substantial change in positive emotions. However, positive emotions decreased when they perceived a loss in illusory control. These results suggest that a loss of illusory control (but not a gain thereof) mediates the impact of the situation on individuals’ positive emotions. Implications for emotion theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: cognitive appraisal, control, illusions, optimism, positive emotions

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313 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

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Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: gender, internal migration, patriarchy, urbanization

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312 The Confiscation of Ill-Gotten Gains in Pollution: The Taiwan Experience and the Interaction between Economic Analysis of Law and Environmental Economics Perspectives

Authors: Chiang-Lead Woo

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In reply to serious environmental problems, the Taiwan government quickly adjusted some articles to suit the needs of environmental protection recently, such as the amendment to article 190-1 of the Taiwan Criminal Code. The transfer of legislation comes as an improvement which canceled the limitation of ‘endangering public safety’. At the same time, the article 190-1 goes from accumulative concrete offense to abstract crime of danger. Thus, the public looks forward to whether environmental crime following the imposition of fines or penalties works efficiently in anti-pollution by the deterrent effects. However, according to the addition to article 38-2 of the Taiwan Criminal Code, the confiscation system seems controversial legislation to restrain ill-gotten gains. Most prior studies focused on comparisons with the Administrative Penalty Law and the Criminal Code in environmental issue in Taiwan; recently, more and more studies emphasize calculations on ill-gotten gains. Hence, this paper try to examine the deterrent effect in environmental crime by economic analysis of law and environmental economics perspective. This analysis shows that only if there is an extremely high probability (equal to 100 percent) of an environmental crime case being prosecuted criminally by Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, the deterrent effects will work. Therefore, this paper suggests deliberating the confiscation system from supplementing the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting, reasonable deterrent fines, input management, real-time system for detection of pollution, and whistleblower system, environmental education, and modernization of law.

Keywords: confiscation, ecosystem services, environmental crime, ill-gotten gains, the deterrent effect, the system of environmental and economic accounting

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311 MIMO PID Controller of a Power Plant Boiler–Turbine Unit

Authors: N. Ben-Mahmoud, M. Elfandi, A. Shallof

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This paper presents a methodology to design multivariable PID controllers for multi-input and multi-output systems. The proposed control strategy, which is centralized, combines of PID controllers. The proportional gains in the P controllers act as tuning parameters of (SISO) in order to modify the behavior of the loops almost independently. The design procedure consists of three steps: first, an ideal decoupler including integral action is determined. Second, the decoupler is approximated with PID controllers. Third, the proportional gains are tuned to achieve the specified performance. The proposed method is applied to representative processes.

Keywords: boiler turbine, MIMO, PID controller, control by decoupling, anti wind-up techniques

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310 Farming Production in Brazil: Innovation and Land-Sparing Effect

Authors: Isabela Romanha de Alcantara, Jose Eustaquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho, Jose Garcia Gasques

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Innovation and technology can be determinant factors to ensure agricultural and sustainable growth, as well as productivity gains. Technical change has contributed considerably to supply agricultural expansion in Brazil. This agricultural growth could be achieved by incorporating more land or capital. If capital is the main source of agricultural growth, it is possible to increase production per unit of land. The objective of this paper is to estimate: 1) total factor productivity (TFP), which is measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input; and 2) the land-saving effect (LSE) that is the amount of land required in the case that yield rate is constant over time. According to this study, from 1990 to 2019, it appears that 87 percent of Brazilian agriculture product growth comes from the gains of productivity; the rest of 13 percent comes from input growth. In the same period, the total LSE was roughly 400 Mha, which corresponds to 47 percent of the national territory. These effects reflect the greater efficiency of using productive factors, whose technical change has allowed an increase in agricultural production based on productivity gains.

Keywords: agriculture, land-saving effect, livestock, productivity

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309 The Relationship Between Weight Gain, Cyclicality of Diabetologic Education and the Experienced Stress: A Study Involving Pregnant Women

Authors: Agnieszka Rolinska, Marta Makara-Studzinska

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Introduction: In recent years, there has been an intensive development of research into the physiological relationships between the experienced stress and obesity. Moreover, strong chronic stress leads to the disorganization of a person’s activeness on various levels of functioning, including the behavioral and cognitive sphere (also in one’s diet). Aim: The present work addresses the following research questions: Is there a relationship between an increase in stress related to the disease and the need for the cyclicality of diabetologic education in gestational diabetes? Are there any differences in terms of the experienced stress during the last three months of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Are there any differences in terms of stress coping styles in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Method: The study involved pregnant women with gestational diabetes (treated with diet, without insulin therapy) and in normal pregnancy – 206 women in total. The following psychometric tools were employed: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Endler, Parker) and authors’ own questionnaire. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed on the basis of the results of fasting oral glucose tolerance test (75 g OGTT). Body weight measurements were confirmed in a diagnostic interview, taking into account medical data. Regularities in weight gains in pregnancy were determined according to the recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society and American norms determined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Conclusions: An increase in stress related to the disease varies in patients with differing requirements for the cyclical nature of diabetologic education (i.e. education which is systematically repeated). There are no differences in terms of recently experienced stress and stress coping styles between women with gestational diabetes and those in normal pregnancy. There is a relationship between weight gains in pregnancy and the stress experienced in life as well as stress coping styles – both in pregnancy complicated by diabetes and in physiological pregnancy. In the discussion of the obtained results, the authors refer to scientific reports from English-language magazines of international range.

Keywords: diabetologic education, gestational diabetes, stress, weight gain in pregnancy

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308 Influence of Some Psychological Factors on the Learning Gains of Distance Learners in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeola Adejumo, Oluwole David Adebayo, Muraina Kamilu Olanrewaju

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of some psychological factors (i.e, school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the learning gains of university undergraduates in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred undergraduates who are on open distance learning education programme in the University of Ibadan and thirty mathematics lecturers constituted the study’s sample. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments and the data obtained was analyzed using multiple regression statistical method. The instruments used were school climate scale, parental involvement scale and classroom interaction scale. Three research questions were answered in the study. The result showed that there was significant relationship between the three independent variables (school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the students’ learning gain in mathematics and that the independent variables both jointly and relatively contributed significantly to the prediction of students’ learning gain in mathematics. On the strength of these findings, the need to enhance the school climate, improve the parents’ involvement in the student’s education and encourage students’ classroom interaction were stressed and advocated.

Keywords: school climate, parental involvement, ODL, learning gains, mathematics

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307 Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in White Boni Sheep under the Central Highlands Region of Yemen

Authors: Abed Al-Bial, S. Alazazie, A. Shami

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The data were collected from 1992 to 2009 of White Boni sheep maintained at the Regional Research Station in the Central Highlands of Yemen. Data were analyzed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The least square means for body weights were 2.26±0.67, 11.14±0.46 and 19.21±1.25 kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (WM6), respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains (ADG1 and ADG2) were 106.04±4.98g and 46.21±8.36 g/ day. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight and weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in twin births at all stages of growth. The lambs in the dam’s second to fourth parities were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those in other parities. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.11-0.43). The phenotypic and genetic correlation among the different body weights were positive and high. The genetic correlations of the pre- and post-weaning average daily gains with body weights were hight to moderate, except BW with ADG2.

Keywords: breed, genetics, growth traits, heritability, sheep

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306 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde

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The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains

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305 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

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Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

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304 A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of the Caregiving Experiences of Family Caregivers for Elderly Cancer Patients in China: Implications for Health Social Work

Authors: Longtao He, Han Wu

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Summary: As the need for elder care increases in China due to a growing aging population and, in particular, rising cancer rates, it becomes increasingly important to also support family caregivers, who are often the main source of care. We used a qualitative meta-synthesis to systematically evaluate and integrate the caregiving experiences of family caregivers of elderly cancer patients as revealed by articles published in Chinese journals. Findings: Nine studies are included in the final analysis. The caregiver experiences they describe are synthesized into three primary themes: care needs, care burden, and care gains, with numerous secondary themes. Besides the findings that seem to align with other findings across cultures, we have highlighted three main discoveries from the synthesis that may be quite specific to the Chinese context: 1. more sub-themes related to specific caregiving skills caregivers of cancer patients; 2. a call for health professionals to improve their communication skills with family caregivers; 3. the important role of filial piety. Applications: Our findings can be used to help health social workers and relevant policymakers in China support family caregivers by identifying the education and training required for caregivers, ways to make the most of potential care gains, and ways to ease care burdens.

Keywords: cancer, Chinese family caregivers, caregiving skills, care burden, care gains, health social work

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303 Hybrid Temporal Correlation Based on Gaussian Mixture Model Framework for View Synthesis

Authors: Deng Zengming, Wang Mingjiang

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As 3D video is explored as a hot research topic in the last few decades, free-viewpoint TV (FTV) is no doubt a promising field for its better visual experience and incomparable interactivity. View synthesis is obviously a crucial technology for FTV; it enables to render images in unlimited numbers of virtual viewpoints with the information from limited numbers of reference view. In this paper, a novel hybrid synthesis framework is proposed and blending priority is explored. In contrast to the commonly used View Synthesis Reference Software (VSRS), the presented synthesis process is driven in consideration of the temporal correlation of image sequences. The temporal correlations will be exploited to produce fine synthesis results even near the foreground boundaries. As for the blending priority, this scheme proposed that one of the two reference views is selected to be the main reference view based on the distance between the reference views and virtual view, another view is chosen as the auxiliary viewpoint, just assist to fill the hole pixel with the help of background information. Significant improvement of the proposed approach over the state-of –the-art pixel-based virtual view synthesis method is presented, the results of the experiments show that subjective gains can be observed, and objective PSNR average gains range from 0.5 to 1.3 dB, while SSIM average gains range from 0.01 to 0.05.

Keywords: fusion method, Gaussian mixture model, hybrid framework, view synthesis

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302 Solar Architecture of Low-Energy Buildings for Industrial Applications

Authors: P. Brinks, O. Kornadt, R. Oly

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This research focuses on the optimization of glazed surfaces and the assessment of possible solar gains in industrial buildings. Existing window rating methods for single windows were evaluated and a new method for a simple analysis of energy gains and losses by single windows was introduced. Furthermore extensive transient building simulations were carried out to appraise the performance of low cost polycarbonate multi-cell sheets in interaction with typical buildings for industrial applications. Mainly, energy-saving potential was determined by optimizing the orientation and area of such glazing systems in dependency on their thermal qualities. Moreover the impact on critical aspects such as summer overheating and daylight illumination was considered to ensure the user comfort and avoid additional energy demand for lighting or cooling. Hereby the simulated heating demand could be reduced by up to 1/3 compared to traditional architecture of industrial halls using mainly skylights.

Keywords: solar architecture, Passive Solar Building Design, glazing, Low-Energy Buildings, industrial buildings

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301 Design and Simulation of Unified Power Quality Conditioner based on Adaptive Fuzzy PI Controller

Authors: Brahim Ferdi, Samira Dib

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The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), a combination of shunt and series active power filter, is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage and current harmonics problems in distribution power system. PI controller is very common in the control of UPQC. However, one disadvantage of this conventional controller is the difficulty in tuning its gains (Kp and Ki). To overcome this problem, an adaptive fuzzy logic PI controller is proposed. The controller is composed of fuzzy controller and PI controller. According to the error and error rate of the control system and fuzzy control rules, the fuzzy controller can online adjust the two gains of the PI controller to get better performance of UPQC. Simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed controller. The results show that the proposed controller has fast dynamic response and high accuracy of tracking the current and voltage references.

Keywords: adaptive fuzzy PI controller, current harmonics, PI controller, voltage harmonics, UPQC

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300 Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Muhammad Moaz

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In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted in a superior performance.

Keywords: differential drive robot, hybrid fuzzy controller, optimization, path tracking, unicycle robot

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299 Estimation of Energy Losses of Photovoltaic Systems in France Using Real Monitoring Data

Authors: Mohamed Amhal, Jose Sayritupac

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Photovoltaic (PV) systems have risen as one of the modern renewable energy sources that are used in wide ranges to produce electricity and deliver it to the electrical grid. In parallel, monitoring systems have been deployed as a key element to track the energy production and to forecast the total production for the next days. The reliability of the PV energy production has become a crucial point in the analysis of PV systems. A deeper understanding of each phenomenon that causes a gain or a loss of energy is needed to better design, operate and maintain the PV systems. This work analyzes the current losses distribution in PV systems starting from the available solar energy, going through the DC side and AC side, to the delivery point. Most of the phenomena linked to energy losses and gains are considered and modeled, based on real time monitoring data and datasheets of the PV system components. An analysis of the order of magnitude of each loss is compared to the current literature and commercial software. To date, the analysis of PV systems performance based on a breakdown structure of energy losses and gains is not covered enough in the literature, except in some software where the concept is very common. The cutting-edge of the current analysis is the implementation of software tools for energy losses estimation in PV systems based on several energy losses definitions and estimation technics. The developed tools have been validated and tested on some PV plants in France, which are operating for years. Among the major findings of the current study: First, PV plants in France show very low rates of soiling and aging. Second, the distribution of other losses is comparable to the literature. Third, all losses reported are correlated to operational and environmental conditions. For future work, an extended analysis on further PV plants in France and abroad will be performed.

Keywords: energy gains, energy losses, losses distribution, monitoring, photovoltaic, photovoltaic systems

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298 Effects of Incident Angle and Distance on Visible Light Communication

Authors: Taegyoo Woo, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

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Visible Light Communication (VLC) provides wireless communication features in illumination systems. One of the key applications is to recognize the user location by indoor illuminators such as light emitting diodes. For localization of individual receivers in these systems, we usually assume that receivers and transmitters are placed in parallel. However, it is difficult to satisfy this assumption because the receivers move randomly in real case. It is necessary to analyze the case when transmitter is not placed perfectly parallel to receiver. It is also important to identify changes on optical gain by the tilted angles and distances of them against the illuminators. In this paper, we simulate optical gain for various cases where the tilt of the receiver and the distance change. Then, we identified changing patterns of optical gains according to tilted angles of a receiver and distance. These results can help many VLC applications understand the extent of the location errors with regard to optical gains of the receivers and identify the root cause.

Keywords: visible light communication, incident angle, optical gain, light emitting diode

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297 Assessing Measures and Caregiving Experiences of Thai Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

Authors: Piyaorn Wajanatinapart, Diane R. Lauver

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The number of persons with dementia (PWD) has increased. Informal caregivers are the major providing care. They can have perceived gains and burdens. Caregivers who reported high in perceived gains may report low in burdens and better health. Gaps of caregiving literature were: no report psychometrics in a few studies and unclear definitions of gains; most studies with no theory-guided and conducting in Western countries; not fully described relationships among caregiving variables: motivations, satisfaction with psychological needs, social support, gains, burdens, and physical and psycho-emotional health. Those gaps were filled by assessing psychometric properties of selected measures, providing clearly definitions of gains, using self-determination theory (SDT) to guide the study, and developing the study in Thailand. The study purposes were to evaluate six measures for internal consistency reliability, content validity, and construct validity. This study also examined relationships of caregiving variables: motivations (controlled and autonomous motivations), satisfaction with psychological needs (autonomy, competency, and relatedness), perceived social support, perceived gains, perceived burdens, and physical and psycho-emotional health. This study was a cross-sectional and correlational descriptive design with two convenience samples. Sample 1 was five Thai experts to assess content validity of measures. Sample 2 was 146 Thai caregivers of PWD to assess construct validity, reliability, and relationships among caregiving variables. Experts rated questionnaires and sent them back via e-mail. Caregivers answered questionnaires at clinics of four Thai hospitals. Data analysis was used descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses using the composite indicator structural equation model to control measurement errors. For study results, most caregivers were female (82%), middle age (M =51.1, SD =11.9), and daughters (57%). They provided care for 15 hours/day with 4.6 years. The content validity indices of items and scales were .80 or higher for clarity and relevance. Experts suggested item revisions. Cronbach’s alphas were .63 to .93 of ten subscales of four measures and .26 to .57 of three subscales. The gain scale was acceptable for construct validity. With controlling covariates, controlled motivations, the satisfaction with three subscales of psychological needs, and perceived social support had positive relationships with physical and psycho-emotional health. Both satisfaction with autonomy subscale and perceived social support had negative relationship with perceived burdens. The satisfaction with three subscales of psychological needs had positive relationships among them. Physical and psycho-emotional health subscales had positive relationships with each other. Furthermore, perceived burdens had negative relationships with physical and psycho-emotional health. This study was the first use SDT to describe relationships of caregiving variables in Thailand. Caregivers’ characteristics were consistent with literature. Four measures were valid and reliable except two measures. Breadth knowledge about relationships was provided. Interpretation of study results was cautious because of using same sample to evaluate psychometric properties of measures and relationships of caregiving variables. Researchers could use four measures for further caregiving studies. Using a theory would help describe concepts, propositions, and measures used. Researchers may examine the satisfaction with psychological needs as mediators. Future studies to collect data with caregivers in communities are needed.

Keywords: caregivers, caregiving, dementia, measures

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296 An Analysis of Conditions for Efficiency Gains in Large ICEs Using Cycling

Authors: Bauer Peter, Murillo Jenny

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This paper investigates the bounds of achievable fuel efficiency improvements in engines due to cycling between two operating points assuming a series hybrid configuration . It is shown that for linear bsfc dependencies (as a function of power), cycling is only beneficial if the average power needs are smaller than the power at the optimal bsfc value. Exact expressions for the fuel efficiency gains relative to the constant output power case are derived. This asymptotic analysis is then extended to the case where transient losses due to a change in the operating point are also considered. The case of the boundary bsfc trajectory where constant power application and cycling yield the same fuel consumption.is investigated. It is shown that the boundary bsfc locations of the second non-optimal operating points is hyperbolic. The analysis of the boundary case allows to evaluate whether for a particular engine, cycling can be beneficial. The introduced concepts are illustrated through a number of real world examples, i.e. large production Diesel engines in series hybrid configurations.

Keywords: cycling, efficiency, bsfc, series hybrid, diesel, operating point

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295 REDD+ and Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities of the Landscape Governance Approach

Authors: Richard Mbatu

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Implementation of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program will not only lead to significant net gains in greenhouse gas reduction but also gains in biodiversity conservation. However, the looming paradigm shift in the program in the form of the proposed landscape governance approach could change this inclination. The concern lies with the fact that pursue of carbon credits by governments and private entities under the proposed landscape approach could encourage obstinate land use behaviors that are detrimental to the cause of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Yet, the landscape approach could also stimulate governments to develop and implement land use management policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Using two potential areas of land use under the proposed landscape approach – carbon farming in grasslands and carbon farming in plantations – this paper provides a balanced analytical review of conservation challenges and opportunities for forest governance and beyond under the proposed landscape approach to REDD+. The paper argues that such a balanced view will enable policymakers and other stakeholders to better present their arguments in their efforts to shape the course of the REDD+ program in the post-Paris Agreement era.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, REDD+, forest governance, grasslands, landscape approach, plantations

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294 A New Intelligent, Dynamic and Real Time Management System of Sewerage

Authors: R. Tlili Yaakoubi, H.Nakouri, O. Blanpain, S. Lallahem

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The current tools for real time management of sewer systems are based on two software tools: the software of weather forecast and the software of hydraulic simulation. The use of the first ones is an important cause of imprecision and uncertainty, the use of the second requires temporal important steps of decision because of their need in times of calculation. This way of proceeding fact that the obtained results are generally different from those waited. The major idea of this project is to change the basic paradigm by approaching the problem by the "automatic" face rather than by that "hydrology". The objective is to make possible the realization of a large number of simulations at very short times (a few seconds) allowing to take place weather forecasts by using directly the real time meditative pluviometric data. The aim is to reach a system where the decision-making is realized from reliable data and where the correction of the error is permanent. A first model of control laws was realized and tested with different return-period rainfalls. The gains obtained in rejecting volume vary from 19 to 100 %. The development of a new algorithm was then used to optimize calculation time and thus to overcome the subsequent combinatorial problem in our first approach. Finally, this new algorithm was tested with 16- year-rainfall series. The obtained gains are 40 % of total volume rejected to the natural environment and of 65 % in the number of discharges.

Keywords: automation, optimization, paradigm, RTC

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
293 Conception of a Regulated, Dynamic and Intelligent Sewerage in Ostrevent

Authors: Rabaa Tlili Yaakoubi, Hind Nakouri, Olivier Blanpain

Abstract:

The current tools for real time management of sewer systems are based on two software tools: the software of weather forecast and the software of hydraulic simulation. The use of the first ones is an important cause of imprecision and uncertainty, the use of the second requires temporal important steps of decision because of their need in times of calculation. This way of proceeding fact that the obtained results are generally different from those waited. The major idea of the CARDIO project is to change the basic paradigm by approaching the problem by the "automatic" face rather than by that "hydrology". The objective is to make possible the realization of a large number of simulations at very short times (a few seconds) allowing to take place weather forecasts by using directly the real time meditative pluviometric data. The aim is to reach a system where the decision-making is realized from reliable data and where the correction of the error is permanent. A first model of control laws was realized and tested with different return-period rainfalls. The gains obtained in rejecting volume vary from 40 to 100%. The development of a new algorithm was then used to optimize calculation time and thus to overcome the subsequent combinatorial problem in our first approach. Finally, this new algorithm was tested with 16- year-rainfall series. The obtained gains are 60% of total volume rejected to the natural environment and of 80 % in the number of discharges.

Keywords: RTC, paradigm, optimization, automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
292 True Single SKU Script: Applying the Automated Test to Set Software Properties in a Global Software Development Environment

Authors: Antonio Brigido, Maria Meireles, Francisco Barros, Gaspar Mota, Fernanda Terra, Lidia Melo, Marcelo Reis, Camilo Souza

Abstract:

As the globalization of the software process advances, companies are increasingly committed to improving software development technologies across multiple locations. On the other hand, working with teams distributed in different locations also raises new challenges. In this sense, automated processes can help to improve the quality of process execution. Therefore, this work presents the development of a tool called TSS Script that automates the sample preparation process for carrier requirements validation tests. The objective of the work is to obtain significant gains in execution time and reducing errors in scenario preparation. To estimate the gains over time, the executions performed in an automated and manual way were timed. In addition, a questionnaire-based survey was developed to discover new requirements and improvements to include in this automated support. The results show an average gain of 46.67% of the total hours worked, referring to sample preparation. The use of the tool avoids human errors, and for this reason, it adds greater quality and speed to the process. Another relevant factor is the fact that the tester can perform other activities in parallel with sample preparation.

Keywords: Android, GSD, automated testing tool, mobile products

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
291 The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of "zero energy buildings". The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green School in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with these principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.

Keywords: natural lighting, net zero energy building, sheds, semi-transparent photovoltaics

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
290 Task Validity in Neuroimaging Studies: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of neuroimaging studies related to language learning as imaging techniques such as fMRI and EEG have become more widely accessible to researchers. By using a variety of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, these studies have already made considerable progress in terms of our understanding of neural networks and processing related to first and second language acquisition. However, the methodological designs employed in neuroimaging studies to test language learning have been questioned by applied linguists working within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). One of the major criticisms is that tasks designed to measure language learning gains rarely have a communicative function, and seldom assess learners’ ability to use the language in authentic situations. This brings the validity of many neuroimaging tasks into question. The fundamental reason why people learn a language is to communicate, and it is well-known that both first and second language proficiency are developed through meaningful social interaction. With this in mind, the SLA field is in agreement that second language acquisition and proficiency should be measured through learners’ ability to communicate in authentic real-life situations. Whilst authenticity is not always possible to achieve in a classroom environment, the importance of task authenticity should be reflected in the design of language assessments, teaching materials, and curricula. Tasks that bear little relation to how language is used in real-life situations can be considered to lack construct validity. This paper first describes the typical tasks used in neuroimaging studies to measure language gains and proficiency, then analyses to what extent these tasks can validly assess these constructs.

Keywords: neuroimaging studies, research design, second language acquisition, task validity

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
289 Imputing the Minimum Social Value of Public Healthcare: A General Equilibrium Model of Israel

Authors: Erez Yerushalmi, Sani Ziv

Abstract:

The rising demand for healthcare services, without a corresponding rise in public supply, led to a debate on whether to increase private healthcare provision - especially in hospital services and second-tier healthcare. Proponents for increasing private healthcare highlight gains in efficiency, while opponents its risk to social welfare. None, however, provide a measure of the social value and its impact on the economy in terms of a monetary value. In this paper, we impute a minimum social value of public healthcare that corresponds to indifference between gains in efficiency, with losses to social welfare. Our approach resembles contingent valuation methods that introduce a hypothetical market for non-commodities, but is different from them because we use numerical simulation techniques to exploit certain market failure conditions. In this paper, we develop a general equilibrium model that distinguishes between public-private healthcare services and public-private financing. Furthermore, the social value is modelled as a by product of healthcare services. The model is then calibrated to our unique health focused Social Accounting Matrix of Israel, and simulates the introduction of a hypothetical health-labour market - given that it is heavily regulated in the baseline (i.e., the true situation in Israel today). For baseline parameters, we estimate the minimum social value at around 18% public healthcare financing. The intuition is that the gain in economic welfare from improved efficiency, is offset by the loss in social welfare due to a reduction in available social value. We furthermore simulate a deregulated healthcare scenario that internalizes the imputed value of social value and searches for the optimal weight of public and private healthcare provision.

Keywords: contingent valuation method (CVM), general equilibrium model, hypothetical market, private-public healthcare, social value of public healthcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 57