Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8761

Search results for: open distance learning

8761 Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Education in Nigeria: Challenge of Academic Quality

Authors: Edu Marcelina, Sule Sheidu A., Nsor Eunice

Abstract:

As open and distance education is gradually becoming an acceptable means of solving the problem of access in higher education, quality has now become one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders of open and distance learning (ODL) and the education sector in general. This study assessed the challenges of academic quality in the open and distance learning (ODL) education in Nigeria using Distance Learning Institute (DLI), University of Lagos and National Open University of Nigeria as a case. In carrying out the study, a descriptive survey research design was employed. A researcher-designed and validated questionnaire was used to elicit responses that translated to the quantitative data for this study. The sample comprised 665 students of the Distance Learning Institute (DLI), and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), carefully selected through the method of simple random sampling. Data collected from the study were analyzed using Chi-Square (X2) at 0.05 Level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that; the use of ICT tools is a factor in ensuring quality in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) operations; the quality of the materials made available to ODL students will determine the quality of education that will be received by the students; and the time scheduled for students for self-study, online lecturing/interaction and face to face study and the quality of education in Open and Distance Learning Institutions has a lot of impact on the quality of education the students receive. Based on the findings, a number of recommendations were made.

Keywords: open and distance learning, quality, ICT, face-to-face interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
8760 The Role of Interactive White Boards towards Achieving Transactional Learning in the Context of Open Distance Learning

Authors: M. Van Zyl, M. H. A. Combrinck, E. J. Spamer

Abstract:

Due to the need for higher education in South Africa, the country experiences a rapid growth in open distance learning, especially in rural areas. It is difficult for people to enrol fulltime at contact universities, owing to work and financial constraints. The Unit for Open Distance Learning (UODL) at the North-West University (NWU), Potchefstroom campus, South Africa was established in 2013 with its main function to deliver open distance learning programmes to 30 000 students from the Faculties of Education Sciences, Theology and Health Sciences. With the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs), the NWU and UODL are now able to deliver lectures to students concurrently at 60 regional open learning centres across Southern Africa as well as to an unlimited number of individuals with Internet access worldwide. Although IWBs are not new, our initiative is to use them more extensively in order to create more contact between lecturers and students. To be able to ensure and enhance quality education it is vital to determine students’ perceptions on the delivery of programmes by means of IWBs. Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore students’ perceptions for the use of IWBs in the delivery of programmes in terms of Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance.

Keywords: interactive white board, open distance learning, technology, transactional learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
8759 Student Engagement and Perceived Academic Stress: Open Distance Learning in Malaysia

Authors: Ng Siew Keow, Cheah Seeh Lee

Abstract:

Students’ strong engagement in learning increases their motivation and satisfaction to learn, be resilient to combat academic stress. Engagement in learning is even crucial in the open distance learning (ODL) setting, where the adult students are learning remotely, lessons and learning materials are mostly delivered via online platforms. This study aimed to explore the relationship between learning engagement and perceived academic stress levels of adult students who enrolled in ODL learning mode. In this descriptive correlation study during the 2021-2022 academic years, 101 adult students from Wawasan Open University, Malaysia (WOU) were recruited through convenient sampling. The adult students’ online learning engagement levels and perceived academic stress levels were identified through the self-report Online Student Engagement Scale (OSE) and the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PASS). The Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed a significant positive relationship between online student engagement and perceived academic stress (r= 0.316, p<0.01). The higher scores on PASS indicated lower levels of perceived academic stress. The findings of the study supported the assumption of the importance of engagement in learning in promoting psychological well-being as well as sustainability in online learning in the open distance learning context.

Keywords: student engagement, academic stress, open distance learning, online learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
8758 Classroom Readiness of Open and Distance Learning Student Teachers

Authors: E. C. du Plessis

Abstract:

Teaching practice is a major component of teacher education and the preparation of teachers for the real-life classroom throughout the world. Learning is seen as a constructive process, whether it is classroom based or takes place by means of distance education. Blending theory and practice with effective education in distance context as part of situated learning is crucial. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine distance education student teachers' classroom readiness on completion of the teaching practice modules of their Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) course. A qualitative research approach was used for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. A total of 15 student teachers enrolled at the College of Education of an ODL (Open and Distance Learning) institution were selected and volunteered to participate in the research. In the light of the results of the research, it is recommended that more attention is given to the interaction between mentor teachers, academic lecturers, and student teachers, as well as the expectations and responsibilities of these role-players.

Keywords: communities of practice, mentor teachers, open and distance learning, practicum, professional development, student teachers, teaching practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
8757 The Place of Open Distance Education in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Authors: Morakinyo Akintolu, Moeketsi Letseka

Abstract:

In the year 2015, the United Nation member states, through the representative of all heads of states present, adopted the 17 Global goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals in their capacity to bring about social, economic, and cultural development to the world. Therefore, the need to accommodate equitable development one of the major goals is to achieve equitable and quality education for all to bring about international development. In this light, the study investigates the role of open distance learning in achieving sustainable development goals. Open distance learning comes as a second chance to individuals in disseminating educational content to students who missed the opportunity of attending the traditional school setting. Therefore, this study investigates if the SDGs reflect this type of learning (ODL) in creating Education for all according to the 2030 agenda by the United Nations. It further ascertains the role of ODL in achieving SDGs, the challenges encountered as well as the way forward.

Keywords: open distance learning, sustainable development goals, distance education, achieving, 2030 agenda

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
8756 Expanded Access through Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria

Authors: Okoro Ngozi Priscilla

Abstract:

Education is the bedrock of development in every nation of the world, and it is very useful in ensuring quality of life for every individual and a better world for the people. Education, therefore, is the basic instrument of economic growth and technological advancement in any society. It is in recognition of this fact that the Nigerian government commits immense resources to ensuring that its citizens acquire education and also policies are being made to ensure the accessibility of education, qualitative higher education is highly recognized as a vital driving force for the socio-economic growth and technological development of nations yet the problem of access to University education in the country persists and therefore brought about the introduction of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) which has as its main objective, the attainment of mass literacy and providing opportunities for those who could not gain admission through designated entrance examination agencies as well as those who could not afford to leave their job to attend a full-time educational programme. Open and distance learning seeks to improve skilled manpower and also improve the skills for those already at work.

Keywords: accessibility, open and distant learning programme, fulltime educational programme, distance learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
8755 Incarcerated Students' Participation Rates in Open Distance Education: Exploring the Role of South African Universities

Authors: Veisiwe Gasa

Abstract:

Many higher institutions of education that offer Open Distance Learning (ODL) and e-Learning have opened their doors to accommodate prisoners who want to further their studies. The provision of education for prisoners in South Africa emanates from a number of reasons. The alarmingly high numbers of the prison population in South Africa has called for the government to provide desperate measures. It is on these premises that the provision of higher education in prison is recommended. Higher education is recommended because of the belief that it creates employability and thereby reduces recidivism. Using targeted sampling, 5 universities were required to elaborate on their awareness strategies, how they ensure that Distance Education is accessible to the prisoners and also the ways in which they cater to the needs of incarcerated students. The research findings reveal that there is so little that has been done by these particular institutions to cater for prisoners. This raises a concern and indicates a need to raise awareness of the value of higher and distance education among prisoners. It also calls for higher education institutions to make prisons aware of their course offerings.

Keywords: e-Learning, incarcerated students, open distance learning, recidivism

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
8754 Concept Mapping of Teachers Regarding Conflict Management

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Mumtaz Akhter

Abstract:

The global need for conflict management is greater now in the early 21st century than ever before. According to UNESCO, half of the world’s 195 countries will have to expand their stock of educationist significantly, some by tens of thousands, if the goal development targets are desired to achieve. Socioeconomic inequities, political instability, demographic changes and crises such as the HIV/AIDs epidemic have engendered huge shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality in many developing countries. Education serves as back bone in development process. Open learning and distance education programs are serving as pivotal part of development process. It is now clear that ‘bricks and mortar’ approaches to expanding teacher education may not be adequate if the current and projected shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality are to be properly addressed. The study is designed to measure the perceptions of teaching learning community about conflict management with special reference to open and distance learning. It was descriptive study which targeted teachers, students, community members and experts. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical techniques served by SPSS. Findings reflected that audience perceives open and distance learning as change agent and as development tool. It is noticed that target audience has driven prominent performance by using facility of open and distance learning.

Keywords: conflict management, open and distance learning, teachers, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
8753 Assessment of E-Learning Facilities in Open and Distance Learning and Information Need by Students

Authors: Sabo Elizabeth

Abstract:

Electronic learning is increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. This approach is important in human capital development. An investigation of open distance and e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students was carried out in Jalingo, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 registered ODL students of the NOUN. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Assessment of the effectiveness of ODL facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women. A large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students in ODL compared to the youth. A high proportion of the ODL students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate ODL students was high, and large number of the students does not own a laptop computer. Inadequate e -books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities in the study areas. Inadequate computer facilities and power back up caused inconveniences and delay in administering and use of e learning facilities. To a high extent, open and distance learning students needed information on university time table and schedule of activities, availability and access to books (hard and e-books) and reference materials. The respondents emphasized that contact with course coordinators via internet will provide a better learning and academic performance.

Keywords: open and distance learning, information required, electronic books, internet gadgets, Likert scale test

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
8752 Using the Dokeos Platform for Industrial E-Learning Solution

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser

Abstract:

The application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the training area led to the creation of this new reality called E-learning. That last one is described like the marriage of multi- media (sound, image and text) and of the internet (diffusion on line, interactivity). Distance learning became an important totality for training and that last pass in particular by the setup of a distance learning platform. In our memory, we will use an open source platform named Dokeos for the management of a distance training of GPS called e-GPS. The learner is followed in all his training. In this system, trainers and learners communicate individually or in group, the administrator setup and make sure of this system maintenance.

Keywords: ICT, E-learning, learning plate-forme, Dokeos, GPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
8751 Videoconference Technology: An Attractive Vehicle for Challenging and Changing Tutors Practice in Open and Distance Learning Environment

Authors: Ramorola Mmankoko Ziphorah

Abstract:

Videoconference technology represents a recent experiment of technology integration into teaching and learning in South Africa. Increasingly, videoconference technology is commonly used as a substitute for the traditional face-to-face approaches to teaching and learning in helping tutors to reshape and change their teaching practices. Interestingly, though, some studies point out that videoconference technology is commonly used for knowledge dissemination by tutors and not so much for the actual teaching of course content in Open and Distance Learning context. Though videoconference technology has become one of the dominating technologies available among Open and Distance Learning institutions, it is not clear that it has been used as effectively to bridge the learning distance in time, geography, and economy. While tutors are prepared theoretically, in most tutor preparation programs, on the use of videoconference technology, there are still no practical guidelines on how they should go about integrating this technology into their course teaching. Therefore, there is an urgent need to focus on tutor development, specifically on their capacities and skills to use videoconference technology. The assumption is that if tutors become competent in the use of the videoconference technology for course teaching, then their use in Open and Distance Learning environment will become more commonplace. This is the imperative of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) on education generally. Against the current vacuum in the practice of using videoconference technology for course teaching, the current study proposes a qualitative phenomenological approach to investigate the efficacy of videoconferencing as an approach to student learning. Using interviews and observation data from ten participants in Open and Distance Learning institution, the author discusses how dialogue and structure interacted to provide the participating tutors with a rich set of opportunities to deliver course content. The findings to this study highlight various challenges experienced by tutors when using videoconference technology. The study suggests tutor development programs on their capacity and skills and on how to integrate this technology with various teaching strategies in order to enhance student learning. The author argues that it is not merely the existence of the structure, namely the videoconference technology, that provides the opportunity for effective teaching, but that is the interactions, namely, the dialogue amongst tutors and learners that make videoconference technology an attractive vehicle for challenging and changing tutors practice.

Keywords: open distance learning, transactional distance, tutor, videoconference

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
8750 Education System Development: Challenges and Barriers

Authors: Kumar Vikas

Abstract:

Education is to be anticipated for Human resource development and then national development. However, in most of the developing countries, due to the inadequacy of resources it is almost unattainable to educate all of their citizens through on-campus teaching. Huge amount of money is necessary to establish the infrastructure for on-campus teaching which is out of the reach of the developing countries. In these circumstances, to educate their huge inhabitants the developing countries are to depend on open learning and distance education system. However, a question still stands: can the educators dissimulate knowledge to the learners smoothly through this new system of education? Some recent research shows that the graduates of the open and distance learning institutions in the developing countries are treated as second-grade graduates. This paper aims to identify the challenges or barriers in the development of distance and Open learning system in India and suggest possible alternatives may be followed to overcome the barriers.

Keywords: barriers, distance education, developing countries, motivation, alternative solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
8749 Assessment of E-learning Facilities and Information Need by Open and Distance Learning Students in Jalingo, Nigeria

Authors: R. M. Bashir, Sabo Elizabeth

Abstract:

Electronic learning is an increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. An investigation on the assessment of e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students in Jalingo, Nigeria was conducted. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 students of the university. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Information on assessment of e-learning facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women, a large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students. A high proportion of the students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate students was higher compared with those students that owned a computer. Inadequate e-books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities. Inadequate computer facilities caused delay in examination schedule at the study center. Open and distance learning students required to a high extent information on university timetable and schedule of activities, books (hard and e-books) and reference materials and contact with course coordinators via internet for better learning and academic performance.

Keywords: open and distance learning, information required, electronic books, internet gadgets, Likert scale test

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
8748 Effects of Learner-Content Interaction Activities on the Context of Verbal Learning Outcomes in Interactive Courses

Authors: Alper Tolga Kumtepe, Erdem Erdogdu, M. Recep Okur, Eda Kaypak, Ozlem Kaya, Serap Ugur, Deniz Dincer, Hakan Yildirim

Abstract:

Interaction is one of the most important components of open and distance learning. According to Moore, who proposed one of the keystones on interaction types, there are three basic types of interaction: learner-teacher, learner-content, and learner-learner. From these interaction types, learner-content interaction, without doubt, can be identified as the most fundamental one on which all education is based. Efficacy, efficiency, and attraction of open and distance learning systems can be achieved by the practice of effective learner-content interaction. With the development of new technologies, interactive e-learning materials have been commonly used as a resource in open and distance learning, along with the printed books. The intellectual engagement of the learners with the content that is course materials may also affect their satisfaction for the open and distance learning practices in general. Learner satisfaction holds an important place in open and distance learning since it will eventually contribute to the achievement of learning outcomes. Using the learner-content interaction activities in course materials, Anadolu University, by its Open Education system, tries to involve learners in deep and meaningful learning practices. Especially, during the e-learning material design and production processes, identifying appropriate learner-content interaction activities within the context of learning outcomes holds a big importance. Considering the lack of studies adopting this approach, as well as its being a study on the use of e-learning materials in Open Education system, this research holds a big value in open and distance learning literature. In this respect, the present study aimed to investigate a) which learner-content interaction activities included in interactive courses are the most effective in learners’ achievement of verbal information learning outcomes and b) to what extent distance learners are satisfied with these learner-content interaction activities. For this study, the quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The 120 participants of the study were from Anadolu University Open Education Faculty students living in Eskişehir. The students were divided into 6 groups randomly. While 5 of these groups received different learner-content interaction activities as a part of the experiment, the other group served as the control group. The data were collected mainly through two instruments: pre-test and post-test. In addition to those tests, learners’ perceived learning was assessed with an item at the end of the program. The data collected from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by ANOVA, and in the light of the findings of this approximately 24-month study, suggestions for the further design of e-learning materials within the context of learner-content interaction activities will be provided at the conference. The current study is planned to be an antecedent for the following studies that will examine the effects of activities on other learning domains.

Keywords: interaction, distance education, interactivity, online courses

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
8747 Instructional Material Development in ODL: Achievements, Prospects, and Challenges

Authors: Felix Gbenoba, Opeyemi Dahunsi

Abstract:

Customised, self-instructional materials are at the heart of instructional delivery in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The success of any ODL institution depends on the availability of learning materials in quality and quantity. An ODL study material is expected to imitate what the teacher does in the face-to-face learning environment. This paper evaluates these expectation based on existing data and evidence. It concludes that the reality has not matched the expectation so far in terms of pedagogic aspect of instructional delivery especially in West Africa. This does not mean that instructional materials development has not produced any significant positive results in improving the overall learning (and teaching) experience in these institutions; it implies what will help further to identify the new challenges. Obstacles and problems of instructional materials development that could have affected the open educational resource initiatives are well established. The first section of this paper recalls some of the proposed values of instructional materials. The second section compares achievements so far and suggests that instructional materials development should be consider first at an early stage to realise the aspirations of instructional delivery. The third section highlights the challenges of instructional materials development in the future.

Keywords: face-to-face learning, instructional delivery, open and distance education, self-instructional materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
8746 Assessing Students’ Readiness for an Open and Distance Learning Higher Education Environment

Authors: Upasana G. Singh, Meera Gungea

Abstract:

Learning is no more confined to the traditional classroom, teacher, and student interaction. Many universities offer courses through the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode, attracting a diversity of learners in terms of age, gender, and profession to name a few. The ODL mode has surfaced as one of the famous sought-after modes of learning, allowing learners to invest in their educational growth without hampering their personal and professional commitments. This mode of learning, however, requires that those who ultimately choose to adopt it must be prepared to undertake studies through such medium. The purpose of this research is to assess whether students who join universities offering courses through the ODL mode are ready to embark and study within such a framework. This study will be helpful to unveil the challenges students face in such an environment and thus contribute to developing a framework to ease adoption and integration into the ODL environment. Prior to the implementation of e-learning, a readiness assessment is essential for any institution that wants to adopt any form of e-learning. Various e-learning readiness assessment models have been developed over the years. However, this study is based on a conceptual model for e-Learning Readiness Assessment which is a ‘hybrid model’. This hybrid model consists of 4 main parameters: 1) Technological readiness, 2) Culture readiness, 3) Content readiness, and 4) Demographics factors, with 4 sub-areas, namely, technology, innovation, people and self-development. The model also includes the attitudes of users towards the adoption of e-learning as an important aspect of assessing e-learning readiness. For this study, some factors and sub-factors of the hybrid model have been considered and adapted, together with the ‘Attitude’ component. A questionnaire was designed based on the models and students where the target population were students enrolled at the Open University of Mauritius, in undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Preliminary findings indicate that most (68%) learners have an average knowledge about ODL form of learning, despite not many (72%) having previous experience with ODL. Despite learning through ODL 74% of learners preferred hard copy learning material and 48% found difficulty in reading learning material on electronic devices.

Keywords: open learning, distance learning, student readiness, a hybrid model

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
8745 E-Learning in Life-Long Learning: Best Practices from the University of the Aegean

Authors: Chryssi Vitsilaki, Apostolos Kostas, Ilias Efthymiou

Abstract:

This paper presents selected best practices on online learning and teaching derived from a novel and innovating Lifelong Learning program through e-Learning, which has during the last five years been set up at the University of the Aegean in Greece. The university, capitalizing on an award-winning, decade-long experience in e-learning and blended learning in undergraduate and postgraduate studies, recently expanded into continuous education and vocational training programs in various cutting-edge fields. So, in this article we present: (a) the academic structure/infrastructure which has been developed for the administrative, organizational and educational support of the e-Learning process, including training the trainers, (b) the mode of design and implementation based on a sound pedagogical framework of open and distance education, and (c) the key results of the assessment of the e-learning process by the participants, as they are used to feedback on continuous organizational and teaching improvement and quality control.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, life-long programs, synchronous/asynchronous learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
8744 Instructional Resources Development in Open and Distance Learning: Prospects and Challenges of Media Integration in Nigeria

Authors: Felix E. Gbenoba, Opeyemi Dahunsi

Abstract:

Self-instructional materials are at the heart of instructional delivery in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The success of any ODL institution depends on the availability of instructional materials in quality and quantity. An ODL study material is expected to fully play the teacher plays in the face-to-face learning environment. In Nigeria, efforts to deliver ODL learning materials have been peculiarly challenging. Although researchers are unrelenting in hewing out ways to make ODL delivery in Africa generally and Nigeria in particular, meet the learners’ needs and acceptable global practices, the prospects of integrating instructional media into distance learning courses are largely unexplored. In the present study, we critically examine the prospects of integration of instructional media into ODL courses for pedagogic and other benefits it portends for delivery via the distance learning mode. Although efforts to integrate media in ODL have been recorded before now, the reality has not matched the expectation so far in Nigeria. This does not mean that the existing instructional materials have not produced any significant positive results in improving the overall learning (and teaching) experience in its institutions; it implies that increased integration as suggested here will further improve the experience as well as bring up the new challenges. Obstacles and problems of instructional materials and media development that could have affected the open educational resource initiatives are well established. The first aspect of this paper recalls the revolutionary strides that ODL brought to delivery of education in Nigeria particularly. The other aspect is on what instructional media are, their role, prospects and challenges for ODL in Nigeria; these are examined vis a vis the challenges of development, production and distribution of print instructional materials as the major format of instructional delivery at Nigeria’s only single mode ODL institution, NOUN. In the third aspect, we justify the need and benefits of integrating instructional media into the courses and make recommendations.

Keywords: instructional delivery, instructional media, ODL, media integration, Nigeria, self-instructional materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
8743 Evaluation of Massive Open Online Course in a Rural Marginalized Area: Case Study of Alice Community, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Dare Ebenezer Fatumo, Olusesan Emmanuel Adelabu

Abstract:

Online learning has taken another dimension through the introduction of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), it has also become an important resource base for teaching and learning. This research aimed at investigating the use of Massive Open Online Course in a rural marginalized area. The survey research design of descriptive nature was adopted to evaluate the awareness and usage of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in Alice community, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This study also employed quantitative approach by using self-structured questionnaire to evoke information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed amongst others the efficacy of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in fostering teaching and learning in rural marginalized areas. This study concludes that MOOCs is a veritable medium for busy or less privileged individual to acquire a degree or certification. Therefore, the study recommends MOOCs platform to be fully embraced by people in rural marginalized areas, awareness programs about its usefulness should be propagated across the municipalities nationwide.

Keywords: distance learning, information and communication technology, massive open online course, online learning, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
8742 Efficacy of Technology for Successful Learning Experience; Technology Supported Model for Distance Learning: Case Study of Botho University, Botswana

Authors: Ivy Rose Mathew

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The purpose of this study is to outline the efficacy of technology and the opportunities it can bring to implement a successful delivery model in Distance Learning. Distance Learning has proliferated over the past few years across the world. Some of the current challenges faced by current students of distance education include lack of motivation, a sense of isolation and a need for greater and improved communication. Hence the author proposes a creative technology supported model for distance learning exactly mirrored on the traditional face to face learning that can be adopted by distance learning providers. This model suggests the usage of a range of technologies and social networking facilities, with the aim of creating a more engaging and sustaining learning environment to help overcome the isolation often noted by distance learners. While discussing the possibilities, the author also highlights the complexity and practical challenges of implementing such a model. Design/methodology/approach: Theoretical issues from previous research related to successful models for distance learning providers will be considered. And also the analysis of a case study from one of the largest private tertiary institution in Botswana, Botho University will be included. This case study illustrates important aspects of the distance learning delivery model and provides insights on how curriculum development is planned, quality assurance is done, and learner support is assured for successful distance learning experience. Research limitations/implications: While some of the aspects of this study may not be applicable to other contexts, a number of new providers of distance learning can adapt the key principles of this delivery model.

Keywords: distance learning, efficacy, learning experience, technology supported model

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8741 Comparative Study of Traditional Classroom Learning and Distance Learning in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal Malik

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Traditional Learning & Distance based learning are the two systems prevailing in Pakistan. These systems affect the level of education standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional classroom learning and distance learning in Pakistan: (a) To explore the effectiveness of the traditional to Distance learning in Pakistan; (b) To identify the factors that affect traditional and distance learning. This review found that, on average, students in traditional classroom conditions performed better than those receiving education in and distance learning. The difference between student outcomes for traditional Classroom and distance learning classes —measured as the difference between treatment and control means, divided by the pooled standard deviation— was larger in those studies contrasting conditions that blended elements of online and face-to-face instruction with conditions taught entirely face-to-face. This research was conducted to highlight the impact of distance learning education system on education standard. The education standards were institutional support, course development, learning process, student support, faculty support, evaluation and assessment. A well developed questionnaire was administered and distributed among 26 faculty members of GCET, H-9 and Virtual University of Pakistan from each. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Results confirmed that there is a significant relationship and impact of DLE system on education standards. This will also provide baseline for future research. It will add value to the existing body of knowledge.

Keywords: distance learning education, higher education, education standards, student performance

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8740 Economics of Open and Distance Education in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

One of the major objectives of the Nigeria national policy on education is the provision of equal educational opportunities to all citizens at different levels of education. With regards to higher education, an aspect of the policy encourages distance learning to be organized and delivered by tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study therefore, determines how much of the Government resources are committed, how the resources are utilized and what alternative sources of funding are available for this system of education. This study investigated the trends in recurrent costs between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014 at University of Ibadan Distance Learning Centre (DLC). A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. Questionnaire was the research instrument used for the collection of data. The population of the study was 280 current distance learning education students, 70 academic staff and 50 administrative staff. Only 354 questionnaires were correctly filled and returned. Data collected were analyzed and coded using the frequencies, ratio, average and percentages were used to answer all the research questions. The study revealed that staff salaries and allowances of academic and non-academic staff represent the most important variable that influences the cost of education. About 55% of resources were allocated to this sector alone. The study also indicates that costs rise every year with increase in enrolment representing a situation of diseconomies of scale. This study recommends that Universities who operates distance learning program should strive to explore other internally generated revenue option to boost their revenue. University of Ibadan, being the premier university in Nigeria, should be given foreign aid and home support, both financially and materially, to enable the institute to run a formidable distance education program that would measure up in planning and implementation with those of developed nation.

Keywords: open education, distance education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, cost of education

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
8739 Support Services in Open and Distance Education: An Integrated Model of Open Universities

Authors: Evrim Genc Kumtepe, Elif Toprak, Aylin Ozturk, Gamze Tuna, Hakan Kilinc, Irem Aydin Menderis

Abstract:

Support services are very significant elements for all educational institutions in general; however, for distance learners, these services are more essential than traditional (face-to-face) counterparts. One of the most important reasons for this is that learners and instructors do not share the same physical environment and that distance learning settings generally require intrapersonal interactions rather than interpersonal ones. Some learners in distance learning programs feel isolated. Furthermore, some fail to feel a sense of belonging to the institution because of lack of self-management skills, lack of motivation levels, and the need of being socialized, so that they are more likely to fail or drop out of an online class. In order to overcome all these problems, support services have emerged as a critical element for an effective and sustainable distance education system. Within the context of distance education support services, it is natural to include technology-based and web-based services and also the related materials. Moreover, institutions in education sector are expected to use information and communication technologies effectively in order to be successful in educational activities and programs. In terms of the sustainability of the system, an institution should provide distance education services through ICT enabled processes to support all stakeholders in the system, particularly distance learners. In this study, it is envisaged to develop a model based on the current support services literature in the field of open and distance learning and the applications of the distance higher education institutions. Specifically, content analysis technique is used to evaluate the existing literature in the distance education support services, the information published on websites, and applications of distance higher education institutions across the world. A total of 60 institutions met the inclusion criteria which are language option (English) and availability of materials in the websites. The six field experts contributed to brainstorming process to develop and extract codes for the coding scheme. During the coding process, these preset and emergent codes are used to conduct analyses. Two coders independently reviewed and coded each assigned website to ensure that all coders are interpreting the data the same way and to establish inter-coder reliability. Once each web page is included in descriptive and relational analysis, a model of support services is developed by examining the generated codes and themes. It is believed that such a model would serve as a quality guide for future institutions, as well as the current ones.

Keywords: support services, open education, distance learning, support model

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8738 Student Perceptions on Administrative Support in the Delivering of Open Distance Learning Programmes – A Case Study

Authors: E. J. Spamer, J. M. Van Zyl, MHA Combrinck

Abstract:

The Unit for Open Distance Learning (UODL) at the North-West University (NWU), South Africa was established in 2013 with its main function to deliver open distance learning (ODL) programmes to approximately 30 000 students from the Faculties of Education Sciences, Health Sciences, Theology and Arts and Culture. Quality operational and administrative processes are key components in the delivery of these programmes and they need to function optimally for students to be successful in their studies. Operational and administrative processes include aspects such as applications, registration, dissemination of study material, availability of electronic platforms, the management of assessment, and the dissemination of important information. To be able to ensure and enhance quality during these processes, it is vital to determine students’ perceptions with regards to these mentioned processes. A questionnaire was available online and also distributed to the 63 tuition centres. The purpose of this research was to determine the perceptions of ODL students from NWU regarding operational and administrative processes. 1903 students completed and submitted the questionnaire. The data was quantitatively analysed and discussed. Results indicated that the majority of students are satisfied with the operational and administrative processes; however, the results also indicated some areas that need improvement. The data gathered is important to identify strengths and areas for improvement and form part of a bigger strategy of qualitative assurance at the UODL.

Keywords: administrative support, ODL programmes, quantitative study, students' perceptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
8737 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes web application for evaluating tests using expert system in distance learning systems. Proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. Web application works with test questions and uses expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation the results are visualized and shown to student.

Keywords: distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
8736 Social Networking Application: What Is Their Quality and How Can They Be Adopted in Open Distance Learning Environments?

Authors: Asteria Nsamba

Abstract:

Social networking applications and tools have become compelling platforms for generating and sharing knowledge across the world. Social networking applications and tools refer to a variety of social media platforms which include Facebook, Twitter WhatsApp, blogs and Wikis. The most popular of these platforms are Facebook, with 2.41 billion active users on a monthly basis, followed by WhatsApp with 1.6 billion users and Twitter with 330 million users. These communication platforms have not only impacted social lives but have also impacted students’ learning, across different delivery modes in higher education: distance, conventional and blended learning modes. With this amount of interest in these platforms, knowledge sharing has gained importance within the context in which it is required. In open distance learning (ODL) contexts, social networking platforms can offer students and teachers the platform on which to create and share knowledge, and form learning collaborations. Thus, they can serve as support mechanisms to increase interactions and reduce isolation and loneliness inherent in ODL. Despite this potential and opportunity, research indicates that many ODL teachers are not inclined to using social media tools in learning. Although it is unclear why these tools are uncommon in these environments, concerns raised in the literature have indicated that many teachers have not mastered the art of teaching with technology. Using technological, pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) and product quality theory, and Bloom’s Taxonomy as lenses, this paper is aimed at; firstly, assessing the quality of three social media applications: Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, in order to determine the extent to which they are suitable platforms for teaching and learning, in terms of content generation, information sharing and learning collaborations. Secondly, the paper demonstrates the application of teaching, learning and assessment using Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Keywords: distance education, quality, social networking tools, TPACK

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
8735 Removing Barriers in Assessment and Feedback for Blind Students in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Sindile Ngubane-Mokiwa

Abstract:

This paper addresses two questions: (1) what barriers do the blind students face with assessment and feedback in open distance learning contexts? And (2) How can these barriers be removed? The paper focuses on the distance education through which most students with disabilities elevate their chances of accessing higher education. Lack of genuine inclusion is also evident in the challenges the blind students face during the assessment. These barriers are experienced at both formative and summative stages. The insights in this paper emanate from a case study that was carried out through qualitative approaches. The data was collected through in-depth interview, life stories, and telephonic interviews. The paper provides a review of local, continental and international views on how best assessment barriers can be removed. A group of five blind students, comprising of two honours students, two master's students and one doctoral student participated in this study. The data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that (a) feedback to the assignment is often inaccessible; (b) the software used is incompatible; (c) learning and assessment are designed in exclusionary approaches; (d) assessment facilities are not conducive; and (e) lack of proactive innovative assessment strategies. The article concludes by recommending ways in which barriers to assessment can be removed. These include addressing inclusive assessment and feedback strategies in professional development initiatives.

Keywords: assessment design, barriers, disabilities, blind students, feedback, universal design for learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
8734 Stimulating Effects of Media in Improving Quality of Distance Education: A Literature Based Study

Authors: Tahzeeb Mahreen

Abstract:

Distance education refers to giving instruction in which students are remote from the institution and once in a while go to formal demonstration classes, and teaching sessions. Segments of media, for example, radio, TV, PC and Internet and so on are the assets and method for correspondence being utilized as a part of learning material by many open and distance learning institutions. Media has a great part in maximizing the learning opportunities thus enabling distance education, a mode of increased literacy rate of the country. This study goes for analyzing how media had affected distance education through its different mediums. The objectives of the study were (i) to determine the direct impact of media on distance education? (ii) To know how media effects distance education pedagogy (iii) To find out how media works to increase student’s achievement. Literature-based methodology was used, and books, peer-reviewed articles, press reports and internet-based materials were studied as a result. By using descriptive qualitative research analysis, the researcher has interpreted that distance education programs are progressively utilizing mixes of media to convey training that has a positive impact on learning along with a few challenges. In addition, the perception of the researcher varied depending on the programs of distance learning but generally believed that electronic media were moderately more supportive in enhancing the overall performance of the learners. It was concluded that the intellectual style, identity qualities, and self-expectations are the three primary enhanced areas in a student’s educational life in distance education programs. It was portrayed that a comprehension of how individual learners approach learning may make it workable for the distance educator to see an example of learning styles and arrange or modify course presentations through media. Moreover, it is noticed that teaching in distance education address the developing role of the instructor, the requirement for diminishing resistance as conventional teachers utilize remove conveyance frameworks lastly, staff state of mind toward the utilization of innovation. Furthermore, the results showed that media had assumed its part to make distance learning educators more dynamic, capable and concerned about their individual works. The study also indicated a high positive relationship between the media available at study centers and media used by the distance education. The challenge pointed out by the researcher was the clash of distance and time with communication as the life situations of every learner are varied. Recommendations included the realization of the duty of distance learning instructor to help students understand the effective use of media for their study lessons and also to develop online learning communities to be in instant connection with the students.

Keywords: distance education, education, media, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
8733 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen A. Kalinga

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Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-learning, Tanzania, secondary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
8732 Design of Mobile Teaching for Students Collaborative Learning in Distance Higher Education

Authors: Lisbeth Amhag

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to describe and analyze the design of mobile teaching for students collaborative learning in distance higher education with a focus on mobile technologies as online webinars (web-based seminars or conferencing) by using laptops, smart phones, or tablets. These multimedia tools can provide face-to-face interactions, recorded flipped classroom videos and parallel chat communications. The data collection consists of interviews with 22 students and observations of online face-to-face webinars, as well two surveys. Theoretically, the study joins the research tradition of Computer Supported Collaborative learning, CSCL, as well as Computer Self-Efficacy, CSE concerned with individuals’ media and information literacy. Important conclusions from the study demonstrated mobile interactions increased student centered learning. As the students were appreciating the working methods, they became more engaged and motivated. The mobile technology using among student also contributes to increased flexibility between space and place, as well as media and information literacy.

Keywords: computer self-efficacy, computer supported collaborative learning, distance and open learning, educational design and technologies, media and information literacy, mobile learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 294