Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2559

Search results for: plant hormones

2289 Impact of the Photovoltaic Integration in Power Distribution Network: Case Study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Authors: David Hasurungan

Abstract:

This paper objective is to analyze the impact from photovoltaic system integration to power distribution network. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. Badak LNG electricity network is operated in islanded mode. The total power generation in Badak LNG plant is significantly affected to feed gas supply. Meanwhile, to support the Government regulation, Badak LNG continuously implemented the grid-connected photovoltaic system in existing power distribution network. The impact between train operational mode change in Badak LNG plant and the growth of photovoltaic system is also encompassed in analysis. The analysis and calculation are performed using software Power Factory 15.1.

Keywords: Power Quality, distribution network, grid-connected photovoltaic system, power management system

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2288 Field Application of Trichoderma Harzianum for Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematodes in Summer Tomatoes

Authors: Baharullah Khattak, Saifullah

Abstract:

To study the efficacy of the selected Trichoderma isolates, field trials were conducted in the root-knot nematode-infested areas of Dargai and Swat, Pakistan. Four isolates of T. harzianum viz, Th-1, Th-2, Th-9 and Th-15 were tested against root knot nematodes on summer tomatoes under field conditions. The T. harzianum isolates, grown on wheat grains substrate, were applied @ 8 g plant-1, either alone or in different combinations. Root weight of tomato plants was reduced Th-9 as compared to 26.37 g in untreated control. Isolate Th-1 was found to enhance shoot and root lengths to the maximum levels of 78.76 cm and 19.59 cm, respectively. Tomato shoot weight was significantly increased (65.36g) in Th-1-treated plots as compared to 49.66 g in control. Maximum (156) number of flowers plant-1 and highest (48.18%) fruit set plant-1 was observed in Th-1 treated plots, while there were 87 flowers and 35.50% fruit set in the untreated control. Maximum fruit weight (70.97 g) plant-1 and highest (17.99 t ha-1) marketable yield were recorded in the treatments where T. harzianum isolate Th-1 was used, in comparison to 51.33 g tomato fruit weight and 9.90 t ha-1 yield was noted in the control plots. It was observed that T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the nematode populations. The fungus enhanced plant growth and yield in all the treated plots. Jabban isolate (Th-1) was found as the most effective in nematode suppression followed by Shamozai (Th-9) isolate. It was concluded from the present findings that T. harzianum has a potential bio control capability against root-knot nematodes.

Keywords: Biological Control, root-knot nematode, Trichoderma harzianum, meloidogyne

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2287 Redesigning the Plant Distribution of an Industrial Laundry in Arequipa

Authors: Ana Belon Hercilla

Abstract:

The study is developed in “Reactivos Jeans” company, in the city of Arequipa, whose main business is the laundry of garments at an industrial level. In 2012 the company initiated actions to provide a dry cleaning service of alpaca fiber garments, recognizing that this item is in a growth phase in Peru. Additionally this company took the initiative to use a new greenwashing technology which has not yet been developed in the country. To accomplish this, a redesign of both the process and the plant layout was required. For redesigning the plant, the methodology used was the Systemic Layout Planning, allowing this study divided into four stages. First stage is the information gathering and evaluation of the initial situation of the company, for which a description of the areas, facilities and initial equipment, distribution of the plant, the production process and flows of major operations was made. Second stage is the development of engineering techniques that allow the logging and analysis procedures, such as: Flow Diagram, Route Diagram, DOP (process flowchart), DAP (analysis diagram). Then the planning of the general distribution is carried out. At this stage, proximity factors of the areas are established, the Diagram Paths (TRA) is developed, and the Relational Diagram Activities (DRA). In order to obtain the General Grouping Diagram (DGC), further information is complemented by a time study and Guerchet method is used to calculate the space requirements for each area. Finally, the plant layout redesigning is presented and the implementation of the improvement is made, making it possible to obtain a model much more efficient than the initial design. The results indicate that the implementation of the new machinery, the adequacy of the plant facilities and equipment relocation resulted in a reduction of the production cycle time by 75.67%, routes were reduced by 68.88%, the number of activities during the process were reduced by 40%, waits and storage were removed 100%.

Keywords: Greenwashing, redesign, time optimization, industrial laundry

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2286 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

Abstract:

Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: Growth, colonization, potato, crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

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2285 The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.

Authors: Banaz Sdiq Abdulla

Abstract:

Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.

Keywords: Pest, Rice, plant extraction, protectant

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2284 The Effect on Some Plant Traits of Cutting Frequency Applied in Species of Grass

Authors: Mehmet Ali Avcı, Medine Çopur Doğrusöz

Abstract:

This study has been carried out in the Selcuk University, Department of Fields Crops Research and Application Greenhouse. 4 different grass genotypes (1 Lolium perenne L., 1 Poa trivialis L., 1 Festuca ovina L., and 1 Festuca arundinacea Scheb.) have been used in the application. It has been done with four repetition according to design of random parcel test. The research have been started with the implementation of 3 clones to each pot of each kind on 07.12.2009. It has been processed normally. When the plants have filled % 80 of the pot and have grown to the height of 7-10 cm, 5 cm has cut. After the first cutting, there have been applied 4 cutting frequency within the periods of 5, 10, 15, 20 days. Number of tillers, the degree of filling the bottom, the height of plant, the length of leaf and the width of the leaf have been measured. This procedure have been repeated in once a-five-day-periods, once a-ten-day-periods, once a-fifteen-day-periods, once a-twenty-day-periods, the data have been taken, and it has completed in 60 days. All the plants in the pots have been reaped from the 5cm height on 16.08.2010. The first measures have been taken for each quality. It is aimed to set the effects of different cutting frequency on the some grass kinds’ some plant characteristics.

Keywords: cutting frequency, Festuca, Lolium, Poa

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2283 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Germination and Early Growth of Onion (Allium cepa)

Authors: Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida S. Djuric, Timea Hajnal Jafari

Abstract:

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, at root surfaces and in association with roots, enhancing the growth of the plant either directly and/or indirectly. Increased crop productivity associated with the presence of PGPR has been observed in a broad range of plant species, such as raspberry, chickpeas, legumes, cucumber, eggplant, pea, pepper, radish, tobacco, tomato, lettuce, carrot, corn, cotton, millet, bean, cocoa, etc. However, until now there has not been much research about influences of the PGPR on the growth and yield of onion. Onion (Allium cepa L.), of the Liliaceae family, is a species of great economic importance, widely cultivated all over the world. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of plant growth promoting bacteria Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, Bacillus subtillis and Azotobacter sp. on the seed germination and early growth of onion (Allium cepa). PGPR Azotobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, from the collection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia, were used as inoculants. The number of cells in 1 ml of the inoculum was 10⁸ CFU/ml. The control variant was not inoculated. The effect of PGPR on seed germination and hypocotyls length of Allium cepa was evaluated in controlled conditions, on filter paper in the dark at 22°C, while effect on the plant length and mass in semicontrol conditions, in 10 l volume vegetative pots. Seed treated with fungicide and untreated seed were used. After seven days the percentage of germination was determined. After seven and fourteen days hypocotil length was measured. Fourteen days after germination, length and mass of plants were measured. Application of Pseudomonas sp. Dragana and Kiš and Bacillus subtillis had a negative effect on onion seed germination, while the use of Azotobacter sp. gave positive results. On average, application of all investigated inoculants had a positive effect on the measured parameters of plant growth. Azotobacter sp. had the greatest effect on the hypocotyls length, length and mass of the plant. In average, better results were achieved with untreated seeds in compare with treated. Results of this study have shown that PGPR can be used in the production of onion.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Mass, Germination, onion, length

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2282 Locating Potential Site for Biomass Power Plant Development in Central Luzon Philippines Using GIS-Based Suitability Analysis

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Bryan M. Baltazar, Marjorie V. Remolador, Klathea H. Sevilla

Abstract:

Biomass energy is a traditional source of sustainable energy, which has been widely used in developing countries. The Philippines, specifically Central Luzon, has an abundant source of biomass. Hence, it could supply abundant agricultural residues (rice husks), as feedstock in a biomass power plant. However, locating a potential site for biomass development is a complex process which involves different factors, such as physical, environmental, socio-economic, and risks that are usually diverse and conflicting. Moreover, biomass distribution is highly dispersed geographically. Thus, this study develops an integrated method combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and methods for energy planning; Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), for locating suitable site for biomass power plant development in Central Luzon, Philippines by considering different constraints and factors. Using MCDA, a three level hierarchy of factors and constraints was produced, with corresponding weights determined by experts by using AHP. Applying the results, a suitability map for Biomass power plant development in Central Luzon was generated. It showed that the central part of the region has the highest potential for biomass power plant development. It is because of the characteristics of the area such as the abundance of rice fields, with generally flat land surfaces, accessible roads and grid networks, and low risks to flooding and landslide. This study recommends the use of higher accuracy resource maps, and further analysis in selecting the optimum site for biomass power plant development that would account for the cost and transportation of biomass residues.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision analysis, Biomass Energy, GIS, Site Suitability Analysis, analytic hierarchy process

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2281 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: Control, fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms

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2280 Effects of Endurance Training and Thyme Consumption on Neuropeptide Y in Untrained Men

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S.Fazelifar

Abstract:

Abstract Aim: Over-weight is not desirable and has implications for health and in the case of athletes affects performance. Exercise is a strategy used to counteract overweight owing to create a negative energy balance by increasing energy expenditure and influencing appetite regulating hormones. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed inhibitory effects of exercise on the hunger associated with these hormones in healthy subjects Neuropeptide Y(NPY) is a 36 amino acid protein that is a powerful stimulant appetite. NPY is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue. This neurotransmitter is secreted in the brain and autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, research has shown that thyme in addition to various properties, also affects the appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine Effects of eight weeks endurance training and thyme consumption on neuropeptide Y in untrained men. Methodology: 36 Healthy untrained men (mean body weight 78.25±3.2 kg, height 176±6.8 cm, age 34.32±4.54 years and BMI 29.1±4.3 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study . Subjects were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. Endurance training, 3. Thyme 4. Endurance training + Thyme. Amount of 10cc Blood sampling were obtained pre-test and post-test (after 8 weeks). The taken blood samples were centrifuged at 1500 × g for 15 min then plasma was stored at -20 °C until analysis. Endurance training consisted three session per week with 60% -75% of reserve heart rate for eight weeks. Exclusion criteria were history of gastrointestinal, endocrine, cardiovascular or psychological disease, and consuming any supplementation, alcohol and tobacco products. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for all measures. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0/05 accepted. Results: Results showed that aerobic training significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, but significant increase observed in maximal oxygen consumption level (p ≤ 0/05). The neuropeptide Y levels were significantly increased after exercise. Analysis of data determined that there was no significant difference between the four groups. Conclusion: Appetite control plays a critical role in the competition between energy consumption and energy expenditure. The results of this study showed that endurance training and thyme consumption can be cause improvement in physiological parameters such as increasing aerobic capacity, reduction of fat mass and improve body composition in untrained men.

Keywords: Endurance Training, thyme, neuropeptide Y, untrained men

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2279 Optimum Performance of the Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Statistical Analysis

Authors: M. M. Rahman, Thamir K. Ibrahim, Marwah Noori Mohammed

Abstract:

This study deals with modeling and performance enhancements of a gas-turbine combined cycle power plant. A clean and safe energy is the greatest challenges to meet the requirements of the green environment. These requirements have given way the long-time governing authority of steam turbine (ST) in the world power generation, and the gas turbine (GT) will replace it. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the characteristics of the GT system and optimize its operating strategy by developing a simulation system. The integrated model and simulation code for exploiting the performance of gas turbine power plant are developed utilizing MATLAB code. The performance code for heavy-duty GT and CCGT power plants are validated with the real power plant of Baiji GT and MARAFIQ CCGT plants the results have been satisfactory. A new technology of correlation was considered for all types of simulation data; whose coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated as 0.9825. Some of the latest launched correlations were checked on the Baiji GT plant and apply error analysis. The GT performance was judged by particular parameters opted from the simulation model and also utilized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) an advanced new optimization technology. The best thermal efficiency and power output attained were about 56% and 345MW respectively. Thus, the operation conditions and ambient temperature are strongly influenced on the overall performance of the GT. The optimum efficiency and power are found at higher turbine inlet temperatures. It can be comprehended that the developed models are powerful tools for estimating the overall performance of the GT plants.

Keywords: Optimization, Performance, Gas Turbine, ANFIS, operating conditions

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2278 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, antioxidant activity, Raphanis raphanistrum L, wild radish

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2277 Antimicrobial Effect of Essential Oil of Plant Schinus molle on Some Bacteria Pathogens

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Ladjel segni

Abstract:

Humans use plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, In many developing countries, Much of the population relies on traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to cure them. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, They are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, Against dermatophytes, Those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of the plant Schinus molle on some pathogenic bacteria. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, They are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, Against dermatophytes, Those of bacterial origin. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), This method allows to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism according to the sample studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plant Schinus molle has a different effect on the resistance of germs: For Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain is a moderately sensitive with an inhibition zone of 10 mm, Further Antirobactere, Escherichia coli and Proteus are strains that represent a high sensitivity, A zone of inhibition equal to 14.66 mm.

Keywords: Microorganism, Essential Oil, antibiogram, shinus molle

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2276 Phytoremediation Potenciality of ‘Polypogon monspeliensis L. in Detoxification of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Mozhgan Farzami Sepehr, Farhad Nourozi

Abstract:

In a greenhouse study, decontamination capacity of the species Polypogon monspoliensis, for detoxification of petroleum-polluted soils caused by sewage and waste materials of Tehran Petroleum Refinery. For this purpose, the amount of total oil and grease before and 45 days after transplanting one-month-old seedlings in the soils of five different treatments in which pollution-free agricultural soil and contaminated soil were mixed together with the weight ratio of respectively 1 to 9 (% 10), 2 to 8 (%20), 3 to 7 (%30) , 4 to 6 (%40), and 5 to 5 (%50) were evaluated and compared with the amounts obtained from control treatment without vegetation, but with the same concentration of pollution. Findings demonstrated that the maximum reduction in the petroleum rate ,as much as 84.85 percent, is related to the treatment 10% containing the plant. Increasing the shoot height in treatments 10% and 20% as well as the root dry and fresh weight in treatments 10% , 20% , and 30% shows that probably activity of more rhizosphere microorganisms of the plant in these treatments has led to the improvement in growth of plant organs comparing to the treatments without pollution.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Rhizosphere, Phytoremediation, total oil and grease, petroleum-contaminated soil

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2275 Study of Cavitation Erosion of Pump-Storage Hydro Power Plant Prototype

Authors: Tine Cencič, Marko Hočevar, Brane Širok

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been made to detect cavitation in pump–storage hydro power plant prototype suffering from cavitation in pump mode. Vibrations and acoustic emission on the housing of turbine bearing and pressure fluctuations in the draft tube were measured and the corresponding signals have been recorded and analyzed. The analysis was based on the analysis of high-frequency content of measured variables. The pump-storage hydro power plant prototype has been operated at various input loads and Thoma numbers. Several estimators of cavitation were evaluated according to coefficient of determination between Thoma number and cavitation estimators. The best results were achieved with a compound discharge coefficient cavitation estimator. Cavitation estimators were evaluated in several intervals of frequencies. Also, a prediction of cavitation erosion was made in order to choose the appropriate maintenance and repair periods.

Keywords: Fluid Dynamics, Turbine, cavitation erosion, cavitation measurement

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2274 Microfluidized Fiber Based Oleogels for Encapsulation of Lycopene

Authors: Behic Mert

Abstract:

This study reports a facile approach to structure soft solids from microfluidizer lycopene-rich plant based structure and oil. First carotenoid-rich plant material (pumpkin was used in this study) processed with high-pressure microfluidizer to release lycopene molecules, then an emulsion was formed by mixing processed plant material and oil. While, in emulsion state lipid soluble carotenoid molecules were allowed to dissolve in the oil phase, the fiber material of plant material provided the network which was required for emulsion stabilization. Additional hydrocolloids (gelatin, xhantan, and pectin) up to 0.5% were also used to reinforce the emulsion stability and their impact on final product properties were evaluated via rheological, textural and oxidation studies. Finally, water was removed from emulsion phase by drying in a tray dryer at 40°C for 36 hours, and subsequent shearing resulted in soft solid (ole gel) structures. The microstructure of these systems was revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Effect of hydrocolloids on total lycopene and surface lycopene contents were also evaluated. The surface lycopene was lowest in gelatin containing oleo gels and highest in pectin-containing oleo gels. This study outlines the novel emulsion-based structuring method that can be used to encapsulate lycopene without the need of separate extraction of them.

Keywords: Fiber, encapsulation, lycopene, oleo gel

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2273 Results of EPR Dosimetry Study of Population Residing in the Vicinity of the Uranium Mines and Uranium Processing Plant

Authors: P. Kazymbet, M. Bakhtin, K. Zhumadilov, A. Ivannikov, A. Akylbekov, K. Kadyrzhanov, A. Morzabayev, M. Hoshi

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible excess of dose received by uranium processing plant workers. The possible excess of dose of workers was evaluated with comparison with population pool (Stepnogorsk) and control pool (Astana city). The measured teeth samples were extracted according to medical indications. In total, twenty-seven tooth enamel samples were analyzed from the residents of Stepnogorsk city (180 km from Astana city, Kazakhstan). About 6 tooth samples were collected from the workers of uranium processing plant. The results of tooth enamel dose estimation show us small influence of working conditions to workers, the maximum excess dose is less than 100 mGy. This is pilot study of EPR dose estimation and for a final conclusion additional sample is required.

Keywords: Workers, EPR dose, uranium mines, tooth samples

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2272 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Developed Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Mehmet Ali Avci

Abstract:

This research was made during the 2015 growing periods in the trial filed of ‘Research Station for Department of Field Crops, Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University’ according to ‘Randomized Blocks Design’ with 3 replications. Research material was the following pea lines; PS16, PS18, PS21, PS23, PS24, PS25, PS36, PS47, PS49, PS51, PS54, PS58, PS67, PS69, PS71, PS73, PS83, PS84, PS87 and PSKY and three cultivars and other 2 commercial varieties named as Bolero, Rondo and Ultrello. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm) number of pod per plant number of seed per pod number of seed per plant 100 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics. Nevertheless, similar researches should be continued in different locations and years.

Keywords: agricultural characters, seed yield, Pisum sativum, pea

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2271 Advanced Exergetic Analysis: Decomposition Method Applied to a Membrane-Based Hard Coal Oxyfuel Power Plant

Authors: Renzo Castillo, George Tsatsaronis

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High-temperature ceramic membranes for air separation represents an important option to reduce the significant efficiency drops incurred in state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation for high tonnage oxygen production required in oxyfuel power stations. This study is focused on the thermodynamic analysis of two power plant model designs: the state-of-the-art supercritical 600ᵒC hard coal plant (reference power plant Nordrhein-Westfalen) and the membrane-based oxyfuel concept implemented in this reference plant. In the latter case, the oxygen is separated through a mixed-conducting hollow fiber perovskite membrane unit in the three-end operation mode, which has been simulated under vacuum conditions on the permeate side and at high-pressure conditions on the feed side. The thermodynamic performance of each plant concept is assessed by conventional exergetic analysis, which determines location, magnitude and sources of efficiency losses, and advanced exergetic analysis, where endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts of exergy destruction are calculated at the component and full process level. These calculations identify thermodynamic interdependencies among components and reveal the real potential for efficiency improvements. The endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction portions are calculated by the decomposition method, a recently developed straightforward methodology, which is suitable for complex power stations with a large number of process components. Lastly, an improvement priority ranking for relevant components, as well as suggested changes in process layouts are presented for both power stations.

Keywords: Exergy, Carbon capture and storage, Ceramic Membranes, perovskite, oxyfuel combustion

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2270 Energy Savings with the Use of LED Lights at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kishen Prathivadi

Abstract:

The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) is a Joint Powers Authority formed in 1976 and provides secondary wastewater treatment to an average flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. SAM owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a sanitary sewage collection system that collects sewage from its three member agencies: the City of Half Moon Bay, the Granada Community Services District and Montara Water and Sanitary District. The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) partnered with Pacific Gas & Electric, and its contractor GEL America, to review and replace all inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs at the SAM treatment plant and administrative office. The project focused on replacing old and inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs, reducing annual operating and maintenance costs, and reducing SAM’s carbon footprint. The project resulted in a 55% overall energy reduction, higher light quality and acuity, and a total operational savings of $495,000 over ten years.

Keywords: Electrical, Lighting, LED, Energy Savings

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2269 Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring of Base Metal Flotation Plant Using Dissimilarity Scale-Based Singular Spectrum Analysis

Authors: Syamala Krishnannair

Abstract:

A multivariate statistical process monitoring methodology using dissimilarity scale-based singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is proposed for the detection and diagnosis of process faults in the base metal flotation plant. Process faults are detected based on the multi-level decomposition of process signals by SSA using the dissimilarity structure of the process data and the subsequent monitoring of the multiscale signals using the unified monitoring index which combines T² with SPE. Contribution plots are used to identify the root causes of the process faults. The overall results indicated that the proposed technique outperformed the conventional multivariate techniques in the detection and diagnosis of the process faults in the flotation plant.

Keywords: Fault diagnosis, Process monitoring, Fault Detection, dissimilarity scale

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2268 Interaction of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides and Biocontrol Agents on Cultivated Tomato Plants and Nematode Numbers

Authors: Phatu W. Mashela, Jacqueline T. Madaure

Abstract:

Interactive effects of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and biocontrol agents on growth and nematode suppression on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, Trichoderma harzianum and Steinernema feltiae on growth of tomato plants and suppression of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. A 2x2x2 trial was conducted using tomato cv. ‘HTX’ on a field infested with Meloidogyne species. The treatments were applied at commercial rates. At 56 days after treatments, interactions were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for selected plant variables, without significant interactions on nematode variables. In conclusion, results of the current study did not support the combination of the test products for nematode suppression, except that some combinations improved plant growth.

Keywords: natural enemies, Plant Extracts, entomopathogenic nematodes, Cucurbitacin B, cucumis africanus, ethnobotanicals

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2267 Nitrification Efficiency and Community Structure of Municipal Activated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Sheena Kumari, Faizal Bux, Oluyemi O. Awolusi

Abstract:

Nitrification is essential to biological processes designed to remove ammonia and/or total nitrogen. It removes the excess nitrogenous compound in wastewater which could be very toxic to the aquatic fauna or cause a serious imbalance of such aquatic ecosystem. Efficient nitrification is linked to an in-depth knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the nitrifying community structure within the wastewater treatment systems. In this study, molecular technique was employed for characterizing the microbial structure of activated sludge [ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)] in a municipal wastewater treatment with intention of linking it to the plant efficiency. PCR-based phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for. The average operating and environmental parameters, as well as specific nitrification rate of a plant, was investigated during the study. During the investigation, the average temperature was 23±1.5oC. Other operational parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand inversely correlated with ammonia removal. The dissolved oxygen level in the plant was constantly lower than the optimum (between 0.24 and 1.267 mg/l) during this study. The plant was treating wastewater with the influent ammonia concentration of 31.69 and 24.47 mg/l. The influent flow rates (ML/day) was 96.81 during the period. The dominant nitrifiers include: Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp. The AOB had a correlation with nitrification efficiency and temperature. This study shows that the specific ammonia oxidizing rate and the specific nitrate formation rates can serve as a good indicator of the plant overall nitrification performance.

Keywords: Ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit gene, amoA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB, specific nitrification rate

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2266 Anatomy Study of Seeds of Calligonium comosum in Vitro

Authors: Abobkar Saad, Qasmia Abdalla, Fatma Emhemed

Abstract:

Eighty-four of Calligonum comosum were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium on every combination supplemented with different concentrations of IAA, BA, Zeatin, and GA3. When 84 seeds were inoculated on MS free hormones, different types of cells contain dense cytoplasm were observed ater 23 days and long thick wall cells arranged in layers. In case of using MS +BA(0.5mg/L), different types and shapes of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm were detected after four weeks. In the case of using MS + BA(1mg/L) + GA3 (3mg/L), thick wall parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 19 days, but many layers of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 28 days. When MS +kin(0.5mg/L) a thick cells wall as Sclereids were observed after 29 days. No any response were observed on Zeatin (0.5, 1 mg/L).

Keywords: Anatomy, In vitro, Calligonum comosum, aeeds

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2265 Developing Indoor Enhanced Bio Composite Vertical Smart Farming System for Climbing Food Plant

Authors: A. Rashidi, R. Ibrahim, S. Mokhtar, K. Abdan

Abstract:

The population in the world are growing in very fast rate. It is expected that urban growth and development would create serious questions of food production and processing, transport, and consumption. Future smart green city policies are emerging to support new ways of visualizing, organizing and managing the city and its flows towards developing more sustainable cities in ensuring food security while maintaining its biodiversity. This is a survey paper analyzing the feasibility of developing a smart vertical farming system for climbing food plant to meet the need of food consumption in urban cities with an alternative green material. This paper documents our investigation on specific requirement for farming high valued climbing type food plant suitable for vertical farming, development of appropriate biocomposite material composition, and design recommendations for developing a new smart vertical farming system inside urban buildings. Results include determination of suitable specific climbing food plant species and material manufacturing processes for reinforcing natural fiber for biocomposite material. The results are expected to become recommendations for developing alternative structural materials for climbing food plant later on towards the development of the future smart vertical farming system. This paper contributes to supporting urban farming in cities and promotes green materials for preserving the environment. Hence supporting efforts in food security agenda especially for developing nations.

Keywords: Smart Farming, Vertical Farming, biocomposite, natural reinforce fiber

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2264 Comparation of Essential Oils Composition from the Leaves and Flowers of Salvia pratensis L.

Authors: Nada Bezić, Valerija Dunkić

Abstract:

Salvia is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Lamiaceae family and growing wild throughout the world. This abstract reports the comparation of the essential oils from leaves and flowers composition of Salvia pratensis L. from mountain Velebit, Croatia. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. Fifty-three constituents, representing 99.4% of the leaf oil composition; 51 constituents, representing 86.8% of the flower oil composition. Essential oil yield varied from 0.9% to 1.3% in the leaf and flower parts of the plant. The flower essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of E-caryophyllene (21.9%) and germacrene D (10.2%). Major constituents of the leaf oil were linalool (17.7%), linalool acetate (15.3%) and limonene (9.8%). The comparative results clearly indicated that the leaf and flower oil compositions of S. pratensis were quite different in terms of major components content. The present study gives additional knowledge about secondary metabolites contents on the genus Salvia.

Keywords: Essential Oil, flower, leaf, Salvia pratensis L

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2263 Dynamic Modeling of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants Using BioWin

Authors: Komal Rathore, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford, Aydin Sunol

Abstract:

Advanced wastewater treatment plants have complex biological kinetics, time variant influent flow rates and long processing times. Due to these factors, the modeling and operational control of advanced wastewater treatment plants become complicated. However, development of a robust model for advanced wastewater treatment plants has become necessary in order to increase the efficiency of the plants, reduce energy costs and meet the discharge limits set by the government. A dynamic model was designed using the Envirosim (Canada) platform software called BioWin for several wastewater treatment plants in Hillsborough County, Florida. Proper control strategies for various parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids, recycle activated sludge and waste activated sludge were developed for models to match the plant performance. The models were tuned using both the influent and effluent data from the plant and their laboratories. The plant SCADA was used to predict the influent wastewater rates and concentration profiles as a function of time. The kinetic parameters were tuned based on sensitivity analysis and trial and error methods. The dynamic models were validated by using experimental data for influent and effluent parameters. The dissolved oxygen measurements were taken to validate the model by coupling them with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The Biowin models were able to exactly mimic the plant performance and predict effluent behavior for extended periods. The models are useful for plant engineers and operators as they can take decisions beforehand by predicting the plant performance with the use of BioWin models. One of the important findings from the model was the effects of recycle and wastage ratios on the mixed liquor suspended solids. The model was also useful in determining the significant kinetic parameters for biological wastewater treatment systems.

Keywords: dynamic modeling, flowsheet simulation, kinetic modeling, BioWin

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2262 Influences of Island Characteristics on Plant Community Structure of Farasan Archipelago, Saudi Arabia: Island Biogeography and Nested Pattern

Authors: Khalid Al Mutairi, Mashhor Mansor, Magdy El-Bana, Saud L. Al-Rowaily, Asyraf Mansor

Abstract:

The present study was carried out in 20 islands of Farasan Archipelago in Saudi Arabia to describe the biogeography patterns of plants. A total of 191 species belonging to 129 genera and 53 families were identified. Following island biogeography theory, total plant species richness and their ecological groups were positively influenced by island size, number of habitats,elevation and were not affected by isolation. The high level of nestedness, the strong effect of area on total plant species richness and ecological groups, and the similarity of vegetation composition on the islands has several implications for conservation. In conclusion the large and richest islands in Farasan Archipelago such as Farasan Alkbir would conserve higher diversity than several smaller islands. This island also includes rare habitats like coral rocks and rare species. The invasion of the unique habitats such as wadi channels and water catchments in this island by the exotic tree Prosopis juliflora should be managed to conserve the native biodiversity. The protection of such critical habitats is very important on the other large island (e.g. Zufaf), due to their limited distribution in the country.

Keywords: Conservation, Plant diversity, Saudi Arabia, Island Biogeography, farasan archipelago

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2261 Electrical Power Distribution Reliability Improvement by Retrofitting 4.16 kV Vacuum Contactor in Badak LNG Plant

Authors: David Hasurungan

Abstract:

This paper objective is to assess the power distribution reliability improvement by retrofitting obsolete vacuum contactor. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. To support plant operational, Badak LNG is equipped with 4.16 kV switchgear for supplying the storage and loading facilities, utilities facilities, and train facilities. However, there is a problem in two switch gears of sixteen switch gears. The problem is the obsolescence issue in its vacuum contactor. Not only that, but the same switchgear also has suffered from electrical fault due to contact fingering misalignment. In order to improve the reliability in switchgear, the vacuum contactor retrofit project is done. The retrofit will introduce new vacuum contactor design. The comparison between existing design and the new design is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, The reliability assessment and calculation are performed using software Reliasoft 7.

Keywords: Reliability, Obsolescence, retrofit, vacuum contactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2260 Bio-Efficacy of Newer Insecticides against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) in Cabbage

Authors: C. S. Patil, C. G. Sawant

Abstract:

The investigation was conducted during January 2016 on Farmer’s field at Nandur Madhyameshwar, Tq. Niphad, Dist. Nashik (Maharashtra: India) on bio-efficacy of newer insecticides against Plutella xylostella L. infesting cabbage. The cabbage crop (var. Saint) was raised according to package of practices except for plant protection measures. Six newer insecticides along with two conventional insecticides and one synthetic pyrethroid were applied twice at 30 and 55 days after transplanting. Insecticidal solutions were diluted in water (375-500 L ha-1) and applied using knapsack sprayer (16L) with hollow cone nozzle. Treatments included indoxacarb @ 40 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i.ha-1, flubendiamide @18.24 g a.i. ha-1, diafenthiuron @ 300 g a. i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, quinalphos @ 250 g a. i. ha-1, triazophos @ 500 g a. i. ha-1, bifenthrin @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 and untreated control. The larvae were counted on head and outside the head. Observations were recorded one day before spray (Precount) and 1,3,7,14 days after spray. Results revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior over untreated control by recording lower larval count. Among the insecticidal treatments, significantly lowest number of larvae of diamondback moth was recorded in chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1 (1.00 larvae plant-1) followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 (1.45 larvae plant-1 and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1(1.53 larvae plant-1). The efficacy of insecticides reflected on yield of marketable cabbage heads by recording 242.27 qt ha-1 (1:33.38) in the treatment of chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1. It was followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 with 236.91 qt ha-1 (1:24.92) and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1 with 228.49 qt ha-1 (1:30.43).

Keywords: cabbage, chlorantraniliprole, bio-efficacy, Plutella xylostella L

Procedia PDF Downloads 41