Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: S. Thahir Basha

13 Exploitation of Endophytes for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Authors: N. P. Eswara Reddy, S. Thahir Basha

Abstract:

Here, we report the success stories of potential leaf, seed and root endophytes against soil borne as well as foliar plant pathogens which are nutritionally adequate and safe for consumption. Endophytes are the microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants are a robust source of potential biocontrol agents and it is presumed that the survival ability of endophytes may be better when compared to phylloplane microflora. Of all the 68 putative leaf endophytes, the endophytes viz., EB9 (100%), and EB35 (100%) which were superior in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were identified as Brevundimonas bullata (EB09) and Bacillus thuringiensis (EB35) and further delayed in ripening of mango fruits up to 21 days. As a part, the seed endophyte GSE-4 was identified as Archoromobacter spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut and the root endophyte REB-8 against Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Both recorded least percent disease incidence (PDI) and increased plant growth promotion, respectively. Further, the novel Bacillus subtilis (SEB-2) against Macrophomina pahseolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower provides an ample scope for exploring the endophytes at large scale. The talc-based formulations of these endophytes developed can be commercialized after toxicological studies. At the bottom line these unexplored endophytes are the need of the hour against aggressive plant pathogens and to maintain the quality and abundance of food and feed and also to fetch marginal economy to the farmers will be discussed.

Keywords: endophytes, plant pathogens, commercialization, abundance of food

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
12 Analysis of Buddhist Rock Carvings in Diamer Basha Dam Reservoir Area, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Ghani Khan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the Buddhist rock carvings in the Diamer-Basha reservoir area, Gilgit-Baltistan, which is perhaps the largest rock art province of the world. The study region has thousands of rock carvings, particularly of the stupa carvings, engraved by artists, devotees or pilgrims, merchants have left their marks in the landscape or for the propagation of Buddhism. The Pak-German Archaeological Mission prepared, documented, and published the extensive catalogues of these carvings. Though, to date, very little systematic or statistically driven analysis was undertaken for in-depth understandings of the Buddhist rock carving tradition of the study region. This paper had made an attempt to examine stupa carvings and their constituent parts from the five selected sites, namely Oshibat, Shing Nala, Gichi Nala, Dadam Das, and Chilas Bridge. The statistical analyses and classification of the stupa carvings and their chronological contexts were carried out with the help of modern scientific tools such as STATA, FileMaker Pro, and MapSource softwares. The study had found that the tradition of stupa carvings on the surfaces of the rocks at the five selected sites continued for around 900 years, from the 1st century BCE to 8th century CE. There is a variation within the chronological settings of each of selected sites, possibly impacted by their utilization within particular landscapes, such as political (for example, change in political administrations or warfare) landscapes and geographical (for example, shifting of routes). The longer existence of the stupa carvings' tradition at these specific locations also indicates their central position on the trade and communication routes, and these were possibly also linked with religious ideologies within their particular times. The analyses of the different architectural elements of stupa carvings in the study area show that this tradition had structural similarities and differences in temporal and spatial contexts.

Keywords: rock carvings, stupa, stupa carvings, Buddhism, Pak-German archaeological mission

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
11 Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice Using an Aqueous Extract

Authors: Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh, Ahed Zyoud

Abstract:

Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice using an Aqueous Extract Division of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences An- Najah National University Nablus- Palestine Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh and Ahed Zyoud Purpose: Throughout history, various natural materials were used as remedies for treatment of various diseases, and recently a vastly growing and renewed interest in herbal medicine is witnessed globally. In Palestinian folk medicine, Crataegus aronia is used as a diuretic and for treatment of hypertension. This study aimed to assess the preliminary phytochemical properties and the diuretic effect of the aqueous extracts of this plant in mice after its intraperitonial administration. Methods: It is an experimental trial applied on mice (n=8, Male, CD-1, weight range: [25-30 gram]), which are divided into two groups (4 in each). The first group administered with the plant extract (500 mg/kg) , and the second with normal saline as negative control group. Then urine output and electrolyte contents were quantified up to 6 hours for the three groups and then compared to the control one. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids and flavoniods as major phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. Significant diuresis was noted in those received the aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Moreover, aqueous extract had an acidic pH and a mild increase in the electrolyte excretion (Na, K). Conclusions: Our results revealed that Crataegus aronia aqueous extract has a potential diuretic effect. Further studies are needed to evaluate this diuretic effect in the relief of diseases characterized by volume overload. Keywords: C. aronia, furosemide, diuresis, mice, medicinal plants.

Keywords: medicinal plants, diuretic activity, mice, C. aronia, , furosemide, , Phytochemical Investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
10 Phyto Diversity and Conservation of Pulicat Lake-Andhra Pradesh

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora and fauna. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared that it is a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora and fauna of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.

Keywords: phytodiversity, Pulicat Lake, threats, conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
9 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh

Abstract:

This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
8 Forecasting the Fluctuation of Currency Exchange Rate Using Random Forest

Authors: Lule Basha, Eralda Gjika

Abstract:

The exchange rate is one of the most important economic variables, especially for a small, open economy such as Albania. Its effect is noticeable on one country's competitiveness, trade and current account, inflation, wages, domestic economic activity and bank stability. This study investigates the fluctuation of Albania’s exchange rates using monthly average foreign currency, Euro (Eur) to Albanian Lek (ALL) exchange rate with a time span from January 2008 to June 2021 and the macroeconomic factors that have a significant effect on the exchange rate. Initially, the Random Forest Regression algorithm is constructed to understand the impact of economic variables in the behavior of monthly average foreign currencies exchange rates. Then the forecast of macro-economic indicators for 12 months was performed using time series models. The predicted values received are placed in the random forest model in order to obtain the average monthly forecast of Euro to Albanian Lek (ALL) exchange rate for the period July 2021 to June 2022.

Keywords: exchange rate, random forest, time series, machine learning, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
7 Effectiveness of Selected Anthementics on Nematode Parasites of Sheep in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, N. Basha, I. V. Nsahlai

Abstract:

This study determined the effectiveness of selected anthementics (Ivermectin 1% (IVM), Closantel 7.5% (CST) and a combination Abamectin 0.08% and Praziquantel 1.5% (CAP) currently being used in SA. Gender, initial egg per gram (EPG) and initial live weight aided in blocking animals into groups, each group was randomly treated with one of four drug treatments comprising: the untreated control (D0), IVM, CST, and CAP. Animals grazed throughout on infested pasture. Rectal faeces were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for determining EPG. Faeces were mixed per group and incubated to identify and determine the abundance of larval forms of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus, and Cooperia species. Differences between treatments changed over time. On day7 IVM, CST, and CAP depressed EPG to 0.66, 0.37 and 0.80 of their respective starting values whilst EPG increased 1.39 times for D0. Thereafter, EPG increased consistently for all drugs; CST recorded the lowest values. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus and Coperia species contributed respectively 60%, 30%, 6%, 3%, and 1% of the larval forms on day 0; and 78%, 8%, 11%, 1%, 2% on day 21. Larval forms increased for Haemonchus species but decreased for Trichostrongylus species over time. Closantel was the most effective dewormer. Haemonchus Spp. were least affected whilst Trichostrongylus Spp. were the most affect by all drugs.

Keywords: anthementics, faecal egg count, L3 larvae, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
6 Comparison of Sign Language Skill and Academic Achievement of Deaf Students in Special and Inclusive Primary Schools of South Nation Nationalities People Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Tesfaye Basha

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the sign language and academic achievement of deaf students in special and inclusive primary schools of Southern Ethiopia. The study used a mixed-method to collect varied data. The study contained Signed Amharic and English skill tasks, questionnaire, 8th-grade Primary School Leaving Certificate Examination results, classroom observation, and interviews. For quantitative (n=70) deaf students and for qualitative data collection, 16 participants were involved. The finding revealed that the limitation of sign language is a problem in signing and academic achievements. This displays that schools are not linguistically rich to enable sign language achievement for deaf students. Moreover, the finding revealed that the contribution of Total Communication in the growth of natural sign language for deaf students was unsatisfactory. The results also indicated that special schools of deaf students performed better sign language skills and academic achievement than inclusive schools. In addition, the findings revealed that high signed skill group showed higher academic achievement than the low skill group. This displayed that sign language skill is highly associated with academic achievement. In addition, to qualify deaf students in sign language and academics, teacher institutions must produce competent teachers on how to teach deaf students with sign language and literacy skills.

Keywords: academic achievement, inclusive school, sign language, signed Amharic, signed English, special school, total communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
5 Influence of Flexible Plate's Contour on Dynamic Behavior of High Speed Flexible Coupling of Combat Aircraft

Authors: Dineshsingh Thakur, S. Nagesh, J. Basha

Abstract:

A lightweight High Speed Flexible Coupling (HSFC) is used to connect the Engine Gear Box (EGB) with an Accessory Gear Box (AGB) of the combat aircraft. The HSFC transmits the power at high speeds ranging from 10000 to 18000 rpm from the EGB to AGB. The HSFC is also accommodates larger misalignments resulting from thermal expansion of the aircraft engine and mounting arrangement. The HSFC has the series of metallic contoured annular thin cross-sectioned flexible plates to accommodate the misalignments. The flexible plates are accommodating the misalignment by the elastic material flexure. As the HSFC operates at higher speed, the flexural and axial resonance frequencies are to be kept away from the operating speed and proper prediction is required to prevent failure in the transmission line of a single engine fighter aircraft. To study the influence of flexible plate’s contour on the lateral critical speed (LCS) of HSFC, a mathematical model of HSFC as a elven rotor system is developed. The flexible plate being the bending member of the system, its bending stiffness which results from the contoured governs the LCS. Using transfer matrix method, Influence of various flexible plate contours on critical speed is analyzed. In the above analysis, the support bearing flexibility on critical speed prediction is also considered. Based on the study, a model is built with the optimum contour of flexible plate, for validation by experimental modal analysis. A good correlation between the theoretical prediction and model behavior is observed. From the study, it is found that the flexible plate’s contour is playing vital role in modification of system’s dynamic behavior and the present model can be extended for the development of similar type of flexible couplings for its computational simplicity and reliability.

Keywords: flexible rotor, critical speed, experimental modal analysis, high speed flexible coupling (HSFC), misalignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
4 Drawbacks of Second Generation Urban Re-Development in Addis Ababa

Authors: Ezana Haddis Weldeghebrael

Abstract:

Addis Ababa City Administration is engaged in a massive facelift of the inner-city. The paper, therefore, aims to analyze the challenges of the current urban regeneration effort by paying special attention to Lideta and Basha Wolde Chilot projects. To this end, the paper has adopted a documentary research strategy to collect the data and Institutionalist perspective as well as the concept of urban regeneration to analyze the data. The sources were selected based on relevance and recency. Academic research outputs were used primarily. However, where much scholastic publications are not available institutional reports, newspaper articles, and expert presentations were used. The major findings of the research revealed that although the second generation of urban redevelopment projects have attempted to involve affected groups and succeeded in designing better neighborhoods, they are riddled with three major drawbacks. The first one is institutional constraints, i.e. absence of urban redevelopment strategy as well as housing policy, broad definition of ‘public purpose’, little regard for informal businesses, limitation on rights groups, negotiation power not devolved at sub-city level and no plan for groups that cannot afford to pay the down payment for low-cost apartments. The second one is planning limitation, i.e. absence of genuine affected group participation as well as consultative level of public engagement. The third one is implementation failure, i.e. no regard to maintaining social bond, non-participatory and ill-informed resettlement, interference from senior government officials, failure to protect the poor from speculators, corruption and disregard to heritage buildings. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that the current inner-city redevelopment has failed to be socially sustainable and calls for enactment of housing policy as well as redevelopment strategy, affected group participation, on-site resettlement, empowering the Sub-city to manage the project and allowing housing rights groups to advocate for the poor slum dwellers.

Keywords: participation, redevelopment, planning, implementation, consultation

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
3 Proniosomes as a Carrier for Ocular Drug Delivery

Authors: Rawia M. Khalil, Ghada Abd-Elbary, Mona Basha, Ghada E. A. Awad, Hadeer A. Elhashemy

Abstract:

Background: Bacterial infections of the eye are the clinical conditions responsible for ocular morbidity and blindness. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, due to Staphylococcus aureus. Lomefloxacin HCl (LXN) is a third generation flouroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum against wide range of bacteria and very effective against Staph infections especially in conjunctiva (conjunctivitis). The present study aims to develop and evaluate novel ocular proniosomal gels of Lomefloxacin Hcl (LXN); in order to improve its ocular bioavailability for the management of bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Proniosomes were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using different types of nonionic surfactants (Span 60,40,20,Tween 20,40,60,80,Brij 35,98,72) solely and as mixtures with Span® 60. The formed gels were characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and in vitro drug release. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 were characterized for pH measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as Stability study and microbiological evaluation .The results revealed that only Span 60 was able to form stable LXN proniosomal gel when used individually while the other nonionic surfactants formed gels only in combination with Span 60 at different ratios. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 (Span60:Tween60, 9:1) appeared as spherical shaped vesicles having high entrapment efficiency (>80 %), appropriate vesicle size (187 nm) as well as controlled drug release over 12h. DSC confirmed the amorphous nature and the uniformity of LXN inclusion within the vesicles. Physical stability study did not show any significant changes in appearance or entrapment efficiency or vesicle size after storage for 3 months at 4°C. Ocular irritancy test revealed that P-LXN 7 was safe, well tolerable and suitable for ocular delivery. In vivo antibacterial activity of P-LXN 7 evaluated using the susceptibility test and topical therapy of induced ocular conjunctivitis confirmed the enhanced antibacterial therapeutic efficacy of the LXN-proniosomal gel compared to the commercially available LXN eye drops; Orchacin®. Conclusions: Our results suggest that proniosomal gels could provide a promising carrier of LXN for efficient ocular treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

Keywords: bacterial conjunctivitis, lomefloxacin HCl, ocular drug delivery, proniosomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2 Medicinal Plant Resources and Conservation of Nallamalais, Forest Range, Eastern Ghats, India

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

Abstract:

Nallamalas one of the centres of Plant Diversity (CPD) (WWF&IUCN,1995) is located in the central eastern Ghats between latitudes 15.20’-16.30’N and Longitude 78.30-80.10E in Andhra Pradesh, extended to an area of 7640 Sq.Km. No Comprehensive work available for RET Plants in the study area, therefore the objective of the present paper is to document the RET Medicinal Plants of Nallamalias and their uses by the local people of the area. In India, one of the major resources to know about the number of plant species and their medicinal values is the groups who are habituated in near and deep forests. The most common groups in south Indian forests are Yanadis and Yerukulas. These two groups of people are residing in the forest, which is located very far from the modern society, towns and cities. They are following traditional methods obtained from their forefathers in all respects, including medication. They are the only source to know many medicinal plants in the areas where they reside and are also important to record the medicinal properties of various plant species which are not reported. The new reports may help in drug industry in order to develop pharmaceutical herbal medicine for human health. In the present study, nearly 150 rare species have been found to be used for various ailments. Out of these 23 species are critically endangered, over 25 are vulnerable and around 22 comes under the category of near threatened. Some important species like Christella dentate, Careya arborea are used for curing cough and cold. Piper attnuatum, piper nigrum are used for curing skin disease. Ipomoea mauritiana is used against male impotency.Glycosmis cochinensis, Entada perseatha are used as contraceptives. The roots of Andrographis nallamalayana and Acrocephalus indicus are used for leucorrhoea. While the stem barks of Gyrocarpus americanus is given orally for spider bite. Piper hymenophyllum leaves mixed with turmeric and gingerly oil is used externally for mouth ulcers in cattle. Piper nigrum fruits are used for skin diseases. Vernonia anthelmentica seeds are used for indigestion. It was widely distributed in this hills. Due to over exploitation this species was in declined condition. Sterculia urens which is a sorce of gum for tribal, due to over exploitation this species declaimed in these hills. Hence, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and prevent their exploitation and extinction with the help of tribals. There is a need to adopt sustainable utilization, cultivation and micro propagation techniques. Medicinal plants are as potent and effective today as they were thousands of years ago. They are natures wonderful gift to mankind and are involved in India as a very rich ancient heritage of traditional systems medicine i.e., ayurveda, siddha and unani. Unfortunately, these traditions have been largely eroded because of lack of support and recognition as well as rapid destruction of natural habitats which has led to shrinkage of medicinal plants therefore the conservation of medicinal plants and the revitalization of local health traditions has been taken up on priority basis.

Keywords: RET plants CPD, IUCN, nallamalas, yanadis, yerukulas

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1 [Keynote Talk]: Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides of Microbial Origin in Discovery of Cytokine Inhibitors

Authors: Sajeli A. Begum, Ameer Basha, Kirti Hira, Rukaiyya Khan

Abstract:

Cyclic dipeptides are simple diketopiperazine derivatives being investigated by several scientists for their biological effects which include anticancer, antimicrobial, haematological, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory effect, etc. They are potentially active microbial metabolites having been synthesized too, for developing into drug candidates. Cultures of Pseudomonas species have earlier been reported to produce cyclic dipeptides, helping in quorum sensing signals and bacterial–host colonization phenomena during infections, causing cell anti-proliferation and immunosuppression. Fluorescing Pseudomonas species have been identified to secrete lipid derivatives, peptides, pyrroles, phenazines, indoles, aminoacids, pterines, pseudomonic acids and some antibiotics. In the present work, results of investigation on the cyclic dipeptide metabolites secreted by the culture broth of Pseudomonas species as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors are discussed. The bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut crop and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT625586). Culture broth of this strain was prepared by inoculating into King’s B broth and incubating at 30 ºC for 7 days. The ethyl acetate extract of culture broth was prepared and lyophilized to get a dry residue (EEPA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ELISA assay proved the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in culture supernatant of RAW 264.7 cells by EEPA (IC50 38.8 μg/mL). The effect of oral administration of EEPA on plasma TNF-α level in rats was tested by ELISA kit. The LPS mediated plasma TNF-α level was reduced to 45% with 125 mg/kg dose of EEPA. Isolation of the chemical constituents of EEPA through column chromatography yielded ten cyclic dipeptides, which were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. These cyclic dipeptides are biosynthesized in microorganisms by multifunctional assembly of non-ribosomal peptide synthases and cyclic dipeptide synthase. Cyclo (Gly-L-Pro) was found to be more potentially (IC50 value 4.5 μg/mL) inhibiting TNF-α production followed by cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (IC50 value 14.2 μg/mL) and the effect was equal to that of standard immunosuppressant drug, prednisolone. Further, the effect was analyzed by determining mRNA expression of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. EEPA and isolated cyclic dipeptides demonstrated diminution of TNF-α mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner under the tested conditions. Also, they were found to control the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6, when tested through their mRNA expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages under LPS-stimulated conditions. In addition, significant inhibition effect was found on Nitric oxide production. Further all the compounds exhibited weak toxicity to LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus the outcome of the study disclosed the effectiveness of EEPA and the isolated cyclic dipeptides in down-regulating key cytokines involved in pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.In another study led by the investigators, microbial cyclic dipeptides were found to exhibit excellent antimicrobial effect against Fusarium moniliforme which is an important causative agent of Sorghum grain mold disease. Thus, cyclic dipeptides are emerging small molecular drug candidates for various autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: cyclic dipeptides, cytokines, Fusarium moniliforme, Pseudomonas, TNF-alpha

Procedia PDF Downloads 127