Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4881

Search results for: mechanical characterization

4881 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka


The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
4880 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi


The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
4879 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud


Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

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4878 Mechanical Characterization of Extrudable Foamed Concrete: An Experimental Study

Authors: D. Falliano, D. De Domenico, G. Ricciardi, E. Gugliandolo


This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of foamed concrete specimens with protein-based foaming agent. Unlike classic foamed concrete, a peculiar property of the analyzed foamed concrete is the extrudability, which is achieved via a specific additive in the concrete mix that significantly improves the cohesion and viscosity of the fresh cementitious paste. A broad experimental campaign was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength and the indirect tensile strength of the specimens. The study has comprised three different cement types, two water/cement ratios, three curing conditions and three target dry densities. The variability of the strength values upon the above mentioned factors is discussed.

Keywords: cement type, curing conditions, density, extrudable concrete, foamed concrete, mechanical characterization

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4877 Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Composites Reinforced with Coconut Fiber in the Polymeric Matrix of Recycled PVC

Authors: Luiz C. G. Pennafort Jr., Alexandre de S. Rios, Enio P. de Deus


In the search for materials that replace conventional polymers in order to preserve natural resources, combined with the need to minimize the problems arising from environmental pollution generated by plastic waste, comes the recycled materials biodegradable, especially the composites reinforced with natural fibers. However, such materials exhibit properties little known, requiring studies of manufacturing methods and characterization of these composites. This article shows informations about preparation and characterization of a composite produced by extrusion, which consists of recycled PVC derived from the recycling of materials discarded, added of the micronized coconut fiber. The recycled PVC with 5% of micronized fiber were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical analysis and optical microscopy. The use of fiber in the composite caused a decrease in its specific weight, due to the lower specific weight of fibers and the appearance of porosity, in addition to the decrease of mechanical properties.

Keywords: recycled PVC, coconut fiber, characterization, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
4876 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma


Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: characterization, structural, optical, nanomaterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
4875 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann


This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
4874 Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Li, V. D. Thi, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui


This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: wood waste ash, characterization, mechanical properties, bending tests

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4873 Mechanical Characterization and Metallography of Sintered Aluminium-Titanium Diboride Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Sai Harshini Irigineni, Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala


The industrial applicability of aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) has been rapidly growing due to their exceptional materials traits such as low weight, high strength, excellent thermal performance, and corrosion resistance. The increasing demand for AMMCs in automobile, aviation, aerospace and defence ventures has opened up windows of opportunity for the development of processing methods that facilitate low-cost production of AMMCs with superior properties. In the present work, owing to its economy, efficiency, and suitability, powder metallurgy (P/M) technique was employed to develop AMMCs with pure aluminium as matrix material and titanium diboride (TiB₂) as reinforcement. AMMC samples with different weight compositions (Al-0.1%TiB₂, Al-5%TiB₂, Al-10%TiB₂, and Al-15% TiB₂) were prepared through hot press compacting followed by traditional sintering. The developed AMMC was subjected to metallographic studies and mechanical characterization. Experimental evidences show significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness with increasing reinforcement content. The current study demonstrates the superiority of AMMCs over conventional metals and alloys and the results obtained may be of immense in material selection for different structural applications.

Keywords: AMMCs, mechanical characterization, powder metallurgy, TiB₂

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4872 Characterization of Structural Elements Concrete Metal Fibre

Authors: Benaouda Hemza


This work on the characterization of structural elements in metal fiber concrete is devoted to the study of recyclability, as reinforcement for concrete, of chips resulting from the machining of steel parts. We are interested in this study to the rheological behavior of fresh chips reinforced concrete and its mechanical behavior at a young age. The evaluation of the workability with the LCL workabilimeter shows that optimal sand gravel ratios (S/G) are S/G=0.8, and S/G=1. The study of the content chips (W%) influence on the workability of the concrete shows that the flow time and the S/G optimum increase with W%. For S/G=1.4, the flow time is practically insensitive to the variation of W%, the concrete behavior is similar to that of self-compacting concrete. Mechanical characterization tests (direct tension, compression, bending, and splitting) show that the mechanical properties of chips concrete are comparable to those of the two selected reference concretes (concrete reinforced with conventional fibers: EUROSTEEL fibers corrugated and DRAMIX fibers). Chips provide a significant increase in strength and some ductility in the post-failure behavior of the concrete. Recycling chips as reinforcement for concrete can be favorably considered.

Keywords: fiber concrete, chips, workability, direct tensile test, compression test, bending test, splitting test

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4871 Characterization of Structural Elements in Metal Fiber Concrete

Authors: Ammari Abdelhammid


This work on the characterization of structural elements in metal fiber concrete is devoted to the study of recyclability, as reinforcement for concrete, of chips resulting from the machining of steel parts. We're interested in this study to the Rheological behavior of fresh chips reinforced concrete and its mechanical behavior at a young age. The evaluation of the workability with the LCL workabilimeter shows that optimal sand gravel ratios ( S/G) are S/G = 0.8 and S/G = 1. The study of the content chips (W%) influence on the workability of the concrete shows that the flow time and the S/G optimum increase with W%. For S/G = 1.4, the flow time is practically insensitive to the variation of W%, the concrete behavior is similar to that of self-compacting concrete. Mechanical characterization tests (direct tension, compression, bending, and splitting) show that the mechanical properties of chips concrete are comparable to those of the two selected reference concretes (concrete reinforced with conventional fibers: Eurosteel fibers corrugated and Dramix fibers). Chips provide a significant increase in strength and some ductility in the post-failure behavior of the concrete. Recycling chips as reinforcement for concrete can be favorably considered.

Keywords: fiber concrete, chips, workability, direct tensile test, compression test, bending test, splitting test

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
4870 Mechanical Cortical Bone Characterization with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Method

Authors: Djamel Remache, Marie Semaan, Cécile Baron, Martine Pithioux, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Cortical bone is a complex multi-scale structure. Even though several works have contributed significantly to understanding its mechanical behavior, this behavior remains poorly understood. Nanoindentation testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of bone at small scales. The purpose of this study was to provide new nanoindentation data of cortical bovine bone in different directions and at different bone microstructures (osteonal, interstitial and laminar bone), and then to identify anisotropic properties of samples with FEM (finite element method) based inverse method. Experimentally and numerical results were compared. Experimental and numerical results were compared. The results compared were in good agreement.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4869 Reverse Engineering of a Secondary Structure of a Helicopter: A Study Case

Authors: Jose Daniel Giraldo Arias, Camilo Rojas Gomez, David Villegas Delgado, Gullermo Idarraga Alarcon, Juan Meza Meza


The reverse engineering processes are widely used in the industry with the main goal to determine the materials and the manufacture used to produce a component. There are a lot of characterization techniques and computational tools that are used in order to get this information. A study case of a reverse engineering applied to a secondary sandwich- hybrid type structure used in a helicopter is presented. The methodology used consists of five main steps, which can be applied to any other similar component: Collect information about the service conditions of the part, disassembly and dimensional characterization, functional characterization, material properties characterization and manufacturing processes characterization, allowing to obtain all the supports of the traceability of the materials and processes of the aeronautical products that ensure their airworthiness. A detailed explanation of each step is covered. Criticality and comprehend the functionalities of each part, information of the state of the art and information obtained from interviews with the technical groups of the helicopter’s operators were analyzed,3D optical scanning technique, standard and advanced materials characterization techniques and finite element simulation allow to obtain all the characteristics of the materials used in the manufacture of the component. It was found that most of the materials are quite common in the aeronautical industry, including Kevlar, carbon, and glass fibers, aluminum honeycomb core, epoxy resin and epoxy adhesive. The stacking sequence and volumetric fiber fraction are a critical issue for the mechanical behavior; a digestion acid method was used for this purpose. This also helps in the determination of the manufacture technique which for this case was Vacuum Bagging. Samples of the material were manufactured and submitted to mechanical and environmental tests. These results were compared with those obtained during reverse engineering, which allows concluding that the materials and manufacture were correctly determined. Tooling for the manufacture was designed and manufactured according to the geometry and manufacture process requisites. The part was manufactured and the mechanical, and environmental tests required were also performed. Finally, a geometric characterization and non-destructive techniques allow verifying the quality of the part.

Keywords: reverse engineering, sandwich-structured composite parts, helicopter, mechanical properties, prototype

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4868 Challenges in the Characterization of Black Mass in the Recovery of Graphite from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Anna Vanderbruggen, Kai Bachmann, Martin Rudolph, Rodrigo Serna


Recycling of lithium-ion batteries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and focuses primarily on valuable metals such as cobalt, nickel, and lithium. Despite the growth in graphite consumption and the fact that it is classified as a critical raw material in the European Union, USA, and Australia, there is little work focusing on graphite recycling. Thus, graphite is usually considered waste in recycling treatments, where graphite particles are concentrated in the “black mass”, a fine fraction below 1mm, which also contains the foils and the active cathode particles such as LiCoO2 or LiNiMnCoO2. To characterize the material, various analytical methods are applied, including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and SEM-based automated mineralogy. The latter consists of the combination of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is a powerful and well-known method for primary material characterization; however, it has not yet been applied to secondary material such as black mass, which is a challenging material to analyze due to fine alloy particles and to the lack of an existing dedicated database. The aim of this research is to characterize the black mass depending on the metals recycling process in order to understand the liberation mechanisms of the active particles from the foils and their effect on the graphite particle surfaces and to understand their impact on the subsequent graphite flotation. Three industrial processes were taken into account: purely mechanical, pyrolysis-mechanical, and mechanical-hydrometallurgy. In summary, this article explores various and common challenges for graphite and secondary material characterization.

Keywords: automated mineralogy, characterization, graphite, lithium ion battery, recycling

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4867 Preparation and Characterization of Newly Developed Trabecular Structures in Titanium Alloy to Optimize Osteointegration

Authors: M. Regis, E. Marin, S. Fusi, M. Pressacco, L. Fedrizzi


Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process was used to prepare porous scaffolds with controlled porosity to ensure optimal levels of osteointegration for different trabeculae sizes. Morphological characterization by means of SEM analyses was carried out to assess pore dimensions; tensile, compression and adhesion tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical behavior. The results indicate that EBM process allows the creation of regular and repeatable porous scaffolds. Mechanical properties greatly depend on pore dimension and on bulk-pore ratio. Adhesion resistance meets the normative requirements, and the overall performance of the produced structures is compatible with potential orthopaedic applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, orthopaedic implants, osteointegration, trabecular structures

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4866 Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach

Authors: Djamel Remache, Serge Dos Santos, Michael Cliez, Michel Gratton, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.

Keywords: mechanical skin tissue behavior, uniaxial tensile test, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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4865 Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.

Keywords: chitosan, edible films, ethanolic extract of propolis, mechanical properties, optical properties, physical characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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4864 Characterization and Nanostructure Formation of Banana Peels Nanosorbent with Its Application

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer


Characterization and nanostructure formation of banana peels as sorbent material are described in this paper. The transformation of this agricultural waste via mechanical milling to enhance its properties such as changed in microstructure and surface area for water pollution control and other applications were studied. Mechanical milling was employed using planetary continuous milling machine with ethanol as a milling solvent and the samples were taken at time intervals between 10 h to 30 h to examine the structural changes. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET). Results revealed three typical structures with different deformation mechanisms and the grain-sizes within the range of (71-12 nm), nanostructure of the particles and fibres. The particle size decreased from 65µm to 15 nm as the milling progressed for a period of 30 h. The morphological properties of the materials indicated that the particle shapes becomes regular and uniform as the milling progresses. Furthermore, particles fracturing resulted in surface area increment from 1.0694-4.5547 m2/g. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capacity to coordinate and remove metal ions, such as the carboxylic and amine groups were identified at absorption bands of 1730 and 889 cm-1, respectively. However, the choice of this sorbent material for the sorption or any application will depend on the composition of the pollutant to be eradicated.

Keywords: characterization, nanostructure, nanosorbent, eco-friendly, banana peels, mechanical milling, water quality

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4863 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach


The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: seashells, limestone, sand, self-compacting concrete, fluidity, compressive strength, flexural strength

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4862 Synthesis and Characterization of Functionalized Carbon Nanorods/Polystyrene Nanocomposites

Authors: M. A. Karakassides, M. Baikousi, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis


Nanocomposites of Carbon Nanorods (CNRs) with Polystyrene (PS), have been synthesized successfully by means of in situ polymerization process and characterized. Firstly, carbon nanorods with graphitic structure were prepared by the standard synthetic procedure of CMK-3 using MCM-41 as template, instead of SBA-15, and sucrose as carbon source. In order to create an organophilic surface on CNRs, two parts of modification were realized: surface chemical oxidation (CNRs-ox) according to the Staudenmaier’s method and the attachment of octadecylamine molecules on the functional groups of CNRs-ox (CNRs-ODA The nanocomposite materials of polystyrene with CNRs-ODA, were prepared by a solution-precipitation method at three nanoadditive to polymer loadings (1, 3 and 5 wt. %). The as derived nanocomposites were studied with a combination of characterization and analytical techniques. Especially, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the chemical and structural characterization of the pristine materials and the derived nanocomposites while the morphology of nanocomposites and the dispersion of the carbon nanorods were analyzed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Tensile testing and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) along with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used to examine the mechanical properties and thermal stability -glass transition temperature of PS after the incorporation of CNRs-ODA nanorods. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of the PS/ CNRs-ODA nanocomposites gradually improved with increasing of CNRs-ODA loading.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polystyrene, carbon, nanorods

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4861 Mechanical Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered 2024 AA Reinforced with TiB₂ and Nano Yttrium

Authors: Suresh Vidyasagar Chevuri, D. B. Karunakar Chevuri


The main advantages of 'Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs)' include excellent mechanical performance, good wear resistance, low creep rate, etc. The method of fabrication of MMNCs is quite a challenge, which includes processing techniques like Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), etc. The objective of the present work is to fabricate aluminum based MMNCs with the addition of small amounts of yttrium using Spark Plasma Sintering and to evaluate their mechanical and microstructure properties. Samples of 2024 AA with yttrium ranging from 0.1% to 0.5 wt% keeping 1 wt% TiB2 constant are fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The mechanical property like hardness is determined using Vickers hardness testing machine. The metallurgical characterization of the samples is evaluated by Optical Microscopy (OM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Unreinforced 2024 AA sample is also fabricated as a benchmark to compare its properties with that of the composite developed. It is found that the yttrium addition increases the above-mentioned properties to some extent and then decreases gradually when yttrium wt% increases beyond a point between 0.3 and 0.4 wt%. High density is achieved in the samples fabricated by spark plasma sintering when compared to any other fabrication route, and uniform distribution of yttrium is observed.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, 2024 AA, yttrium addition, microstructure characterization, mechanical properties

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4860 Mechanical Characterization of Banana by Inverse Analysis Method Combined with Indentation Test

Authors: Juan F. P. Ramírez, Jésica A. L. Isaza, Benjamín A. Rojano


This study proposes a novel use of a method to determine the mechanical properties of fruits by the use of the indentation tests. The method combines experimental results with a numerical finite elements model. The results presented correspond to a simplified numerical modeling of banana. The banana was assumed as one-layer material with an isotropic linear elastic mechanical behavior, the Young’s modulus found is 0.3Mpa. The method will be extended to multilayer models in further studies.

Keywords: finite element method, fruits, inverse analysis, mechanical properties

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4859 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander


In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: lamb waves, industry 4.0, process control, elasticity, acoustoelasticity, microstructure

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4858 Sampling and Characterization of Fines Created during the Shredding of Non Hazardous Waste

Authors: Soukaina Oujana, Peggy Zwolinski


Fines are heterogeneous residues created during the shredding of non-hazardous waste. They are one of the most challenging issues faced by recyclers, because they are at the present time considered as non-sortable and non-reusable mixtures destined to landfill. However, fines contain a large amount of recoverable materials that could be recycled or reused for the production of solid recovered fuel. This research is conducted in relation to a project named ValoRABES. The aim is to characterize fines and establish a suitable sorting process in order to extract the materials contained in the mixture and define their suitable recovery paths. This paper will highlight the importance of a good sampling and will propose a sampling methodology for fines characterization. First results about the characterization will be also presented.

Keywords: fines, non-hazardous waste, recovery, shredding residues, waste characterization, waste sampling

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4857 Development and Characterization of Ceramic-Filled Composite Filaments and Functional Structures for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: B. Khatri, K. Lappe, M. Habedank, T. Müller, C. Megnin, T. Hanemann


We present a process flow for the development of ceramic-filled polymer composite filaments compatible with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. Thermoplastic-ceramic composites were developed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and 10- and 20 vol.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (corresponding to 39.47- and 58.23 wt.% respectively) and characterized for their flow properties. To make them compatible with the existing FDM process, the composites were extruded into filaments. These composite filaments were subsequently structured into tensile stress specimens using a commercially available FDM 3D printer and characterized for their mechanical properties. Rheometric characterization of the material composites revealed non-Newtonian behavior with the viscosity logarithmically decreasing over increasing shear rates, as well as higher viscosities for samples with higher BaTiO3 filler content for a given shear rate (with the ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3 composite being over 50% more viscous compared to pure ABS at a shear rate of 1x〖10〗^3 s^(-1)). Mechanical characterization of the tensile stress specimens exhibited increasingly brittle behavior as well as a linearly decreasing ultimate tensile strength of the material composites with increasing volumetric ratio of BaTiO3 (from σ_max=32.4MPa for pure ABS to σ_max=21.3MPa for ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3). Further studies being undertaken include the development of composites with higher filler concentrations, sintering of the printed composites to yield pure dielectric structures and the determination of the dielectric characteristics of the composites.

Keywords: ceramic composites, fused deposition modeling, material characterization, rapid prototyping

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4856 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

Authors: Djamal Atlaoui, Youcef Bouafia


This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions 10 x 20 x 120 cm3. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%) of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a sand-to-gravel ratio (S/G) of concrete matrix equal to 1. The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

Keywords: characterization, chips fibers, cracking mode, ductility, undulation, shear

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4855 Extraction and Characterization of Ethiopian Hibiscus macranthus Bast Fiber

Authors: Solomon Tilahun Desisa, Muktar Seid Hussen


Hibiscus macranthus is one of family Malvaceae and genus Hibiscus plant which grows mainly in western part of Ethiopia. Hibiscus macranthus is the most adaptable and abundant plant in the nation, which are used as an ornamental plant often a hedge or fence plant, and used as a firewood after harvesting the stem together with the bark, and used also as a fiber for trying different kinds of things by forming the rope. However, Hibiscus macranthus plant fibre has not been commercially exploited and extracted properly. This study of work describes the possibility of mechanical and retting methods of Hibiscus macranthus fibre extraction and characterization. Hibiscus macranthus fibre is a bast fibre which obtained naturally from the stem or stalks of the dicotyledonous plant since it is a natural cellulose plant fiber. And the fibre characterized by studying its physical and chemical properties. The physical characteristics were investigated as follows, including the length of 100-190mm, fineness of 1.0-1.2Tex, diameter under X100 microscopic view 16-21 microns, the moisture content of 12.46% and dry tenacity of 48-57cN/Tex along with breaking extension of 0.9-1.6%. Hibiscus macranthus fiber productivity was observed that 12-18% of the stem out of which more than 65% is primary long fibers. The fiber separation methods prove to decrease of non-cellulose ingredients in the order of mechanical, water and chemical methods. The color measurement also shows the raw Hibiscus macranthus fiber has a natural golden color according to YID1925 and paler look under both retting methods than mechanical separation. Finally, it is suggested that Hibiscus macranthus fibre can be used for manufacturing of natural and organic crop and coffee packages as well as super absorbent, fine and high tenacity textile products.

Keywords: Hibiscus macranthus, bast fiber, extraction, characterization

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4854 Characterization of an Almond Shell Composite Based on PHBH

Authors: J. Ivorra-Martinez, L. Quiles-Carrillo, J. Gomez-Caturla, T. Boronat, R. Balart


The utilization of almond crop by-products to obtain PHBH-based composites was carried out by using an extrusion process followed by an injection to obtain test samples. To improve the properties of the resulting composite, the incorporation of OLA 8 as a coupling agent and plasticizer was additionally considered. A characterization process was carried out by the measurement of mechanical properties, thermal properties, surface morphology, and water absorption ability. The use of the almond residue allows obtaining composites based on PHBH with a higher environmental interest and lower cost.

Keywords: almond shell, PHBH, composites, compatibilization

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4853 Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Functional Polypropylene Films Incorporated with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ Useful as Returnable Packaging in Seafood Distribution

Authors: Suman Singh, Myungho Lee, Insik Park, Yangjai Shin, Youn Suk Lee


Active antimicrobial films prepared by incorporating AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ at 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% (w/w) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization were carried out of all formulations and determined the antimicrobial efficiency and returnable antimicrobial efficiency according to the Japanese Industrial Standard method. The morphology of the films showed agglomerates of particles in the composites. The active formulation had decreased elongation compared to the pure PP sample. Thermal analyses indicated that the active formulation compositions had increased thermal stability. The films showed 50% antimicrobial properties after the fifth wash against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive ones. These findings suggest that PP films with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ particles could provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of seafood in the distribution chain.

Keywords: antimicrobial film, properties and characterization, returnable packaging, sea food

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4852 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui


This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: anisotropy, off-axis tensile test, strain fields, textile woven fabric

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