Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2991

Search results for: abundance of food

2991 Major Sucking Pests of Rose and Their Seasonal Abundance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Ruhul Amin

Abstract:

This study was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Entomology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2017 to May 2018 with a view to understanding the seasonal abundance of the major sucking pests namely thrips, aphid and red spider mite on rose. The findings showed that the thrips started to build up their population from the middle of January with abundance 1.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (2.6 leaf⁻¹) in the middle of February and then declined. Aphid started to build up their population from the second week of November with abundance 6.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.4 leaf⁻¹) in the last week of December and then declined. Mite started to build up their population from the first week of December with abundance 0.8 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.2 leaf⁻¹) in the second week of March and then declined. Thrips and mite prevailed until the last week of April, and aphid showed their abundance till last week of May. The daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with thrips and significant negative correlation with aphid abundance. The daily mean temperature had significant positive, relative humidity had an insignificant positive, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with mite abundance. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the weather parameters together contributed 38.1, 41.0 and 8.9% abundance on thrips, aphid and mite on rose, respectively and the equations were insignificant.

Keywords: aphid, mite, thrips, weather factors

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2990 Examining the Role of Soil pH on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrite Oxidising Bacteria

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Hussein I. Ibrahim, Ahmed F. Umar

Abstract:

Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (NO3-) via nitrite (NO2-) is a vital process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and is performed by two distinct functional groups; ammonia oxidisers (comprised of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA)) and nitrite oxidising bacteria. Autotrophic nitrification is said to occur in acidic soils, even though most laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia and nitrite oxidising bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. Published studies revealed that soil pH is a major driver for determining the distribution and abundance of AOB and AOA. To determine whether distinct populations of nitrite oxidising bacteria within the lineages of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are adapted to a particular range of pH as observed in ammonia oxidising organisms, the community structure of Nitrospira-like and Nitrobacter-like NOB were examined across a pH gradient (4.5–7.5) by amplifying nitrite oxido-reductase (nxrA) and 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure of both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter changed with soil pH, with distinct populations observed in acidic and neutral soils. The abundance of Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene copies contrasted across the pH gradient. Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, whereas Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA gene abundance increased with increasing pH. Findings indicated that abundance and distributions of soil NOB is influence by soil pH.

Keywords: nitrospira, nitrobacter, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, nitrification, pH, soil

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2989 Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Detect Microplastics and Pieces of Plastic in Almond Flour

Authors: H. Apaza, L. Chévez, H. Loro

Abstract:

Plastic and microplastic pollution in human food chain is a big problem for human health that requires more elaborated techniques that can identify their presences in different kinds of food. Hyperspectral imaging technique is an optical technique than can detect the presence of different elements in an image and can be used to detect plastics and microplastics in a scene. To do this statistical techniques are required that need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the more efficient ones. In this work, two problems related to the presence of plastics are addressed, the first is to detect and identify pieces of plastic immersed in almond seeds, and the second problem is to detect and quantify microplastic in almond flour. To do this we make use of the analysis hyperspectral images taken in the range of 900 to 1700 nm using 4 unmixing techniques of hyperspectral imaging which are: least squares unmixing (LSU), non-negatively constrained least squares unmixing (NCLSU), fully constrained least squares unmixing (FCLSU), and scaled constrained least squares unmixing (SCLSU). NCLSU, FCLSU, SCLSU techniques manage to find the region where the plastic is found and also manage to quantify the amount of microplastic contained in the almond flour. The SCLSU technique estimated a 13.03% abundance of microplastics and 86.97% of almond flour compared to 16.66% of microplastics and 83.33% abundance of almond flour prepared for the experiment. Results show the feasibility of applying near-infrared hyperspectral image analysis for the detection of plastic contaminants in food.

Keywords: food, plastic, microplastic, NIR hyperspectral imaging, unmixing

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2988 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz

Abstract:

The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter, river, water quality

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2987 Dietary Selectivity and Degree of Grazing in Atlas Deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus)

Authors: Brahim Ismaili, Abderrahmane Ouijja, Mohammed Diouri

Abstract:

Based on evidence of species depletion and palatability, previous studies of the diet of Atlas deer (Cervus elaphus barbarus) in semi-captivity in the Tazekka National Park (TNP) revealed that there is an imbalance between the natural resources of the environment and the number of deers, an imbalance translated by a degree of overgrazing of about 17.14%. In TNP enclosure, the specific issues related to deer are: (1) the suspicion of insufficient food resources that would cause an imbalance between these forage resources and the deer population and (2) the supposed spatial inadequacy of the enclosure (area = 534.79 ha) with the population size of this herbivore. The objectives of this study, conducted in the Bab Klati Reserve of TNP during fall 2016 and winter 2017, were: (i) the estimation of the abundance, in the environment, of the consumed species, to highlight its effect on deer food selectivity; (ii) the evaluation of the effect of the degree of grazing on the environment, to confirm or disprove the existence of an imbalance between natural resources and deer population and ofan inadequacy of the enclosure area; and (iii) the assessment of the necessity of a food supplement. The average relative abundance of species in the diet of Atlas deer (ri) was determined in 2014 - 2015 for the 4 seasons. During the fall 2016 and winter 2017, the average relative abundance of species in the environment (pi) was calculated for 21 plots. A logarithmic transformation were applied to the fall and winter mean ri and pi of each plant species. After testing the conditions of parametric tests, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the differences between these mean ri and/or pi within each season and between seasons. The Vanderploeg and Scavia selectivity index (Ei*) was used to assess the levels of species preference consumed by deer. In autumn, Cytisus triflorus lead deer food preferences (Ei* = 0.71), followed by Ulex boivinii (Ei* = 0.22), then Poaceae (Ei* = - 0.05) and finally Lavandula stoechas (Ei* = - 0.56). In winter, Lavandula stoechas and Cytisus triflorus were at the top level of the deer food preferences (Ei* = 0.45 and Ei* = 0.44 respectively); they were followed by Ulex boivinii (Ei* = 0.18), Poaceae (Ei* = 0.04) and finally Pteridium aquilinum (Ei* = - 0.44). The difference in food selectivity observed in deer is thought to be due to (i) the composition of each plant and of oak acorns, (ii) the specific food requirements of this herbivore during each season, and (iii) the food supplementation. The grazing rate in TNPwas positive (44%), indicating that the deer reserve can accommodate a maximum load of about 144 deer. In the reserve, the present deer stocking (estimated at 100 deer) would be in balance with both the natural resources and the enclosure area. The supplementation does not seem to be necessary.

Keywords: cervus elaphus barbarus, diet, food selectivity index (Ei*), grazing, stocking, tazekka national park

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2986 Alterations in the Abundance of Ruminal Microbial Species during the Peripartal Period in Dairy Cows

Authors: S. Alqarni, J. C. McCann, A. Palladino, J. J. Loor

Abstract:

Seven fistulated Holstein cows were used from 3 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum to determine the relative abundance of 7 different species of ruminal microorganisms. The prepartum diet was based on corn silage. In the postpartum, diet included ground corn, grain by-products, and alfalfa haylage. Ruminal digesta were collected at five times: -14, -7, 10, 20, and 28 days around parturition. Total DNA from ruminal digesta was isolated and real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative abundance of bacterial species. Eubacterium ruminantium and Selenomonas ruminantium were not affected by time (P>0.05). Megasphaera elsdenii and Prevotella bryantii increased significantly postpartum (P<0.001). Conversely, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus decreased gradually from -14 through 28 days (P<0.001). Fibrobacter succinogenes was affected by time being lowest at day 10 (P=0.02) while Anaerovibrio lipolytica recorded the lowest abundance at -7 d followed by an increase by 20 days postpartum (P<0.001). Overall, these results indicate that changes in diet after parturition affect the abundance of ruminal bacteria, particularly M. elsdenii (a lactate-utilizing bacteria) and P. bryantii (a starch-degrading bacteria) which increased markedly after parturition likely as a consequence of a higher concentrate intake.

Keywords: rumen bacteria, transition cows, rumen metabolism, peripartal period

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2985 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, diversity, abundance, West Port

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2984 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

Abstract:

Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

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2983 A Faunistic Study of Syrphidae Flowerflies in Alfalfa Fields of North of Khouzestan, Iran

Authors: Zahra Safaeian, Shila Goldasteh, Rouhollah Radjabi

Abstract:

Flowerflies of Syrphidae family is one of the largest families among the Diptera order that due to predatory habit of some species in larva stage has an important role for controlling aphids of the fields. In the present study, flowerflies fauna in the alfalfa fields of the north of Khouzestan were studied during 2012-2013. The species of the family were collected using appropriate methods including insect collecting sweeping net and Malaise traps. According to the fact that the shape of male genitalia in the male insect is important in identification of these species the male genitalia was separated from the body and microscopical slide was prepared then species identification was done considering the male genitalia, the patterns and figures on the abdomen and using available keys. Based on the finding four species of Sphaerophoria scripta, Sphaerophoria turkmenica, Melanostoma mellinu, Sphaerophoria ruppelli were collected and according to the abundance frequency of the collected species the most abundance was related to Sphaerophoria scripta, then Sphaerophoria turkmenica had the most abundance and the least abundance was related to Sphaerophoria ruppelli.

Keywords: syrphidae, fauna, alfalfa, Iran

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2982 Exploitation of Endophytes for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Authors: N. P. Eswara Reddy, S. Thahir Basha

Abstract:

Here, we report the success stories of potential leaf, seed and root endophytes against soil borne as well as foliar plant pathogens which are nutritionally adequate and safe for consumption. Endophytes are the microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants are a robust source of potential biocontrol agents and it is presumed that the survival ability of endophytes may be better when compared to phylloplane microflora. Of all the 68 putative leaf endophytes, the endophytes viz., EB9 (100%), and EB35 (100%) which were superior in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were identified as Brevundimonas bullata (EB09) and Bacillus thuringiensis (EB35) and further delayed in ripening of mango fruits up to 21 days. As a part, the seed endophyte GSE-4 was identified as Archoromobacter spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut and the root endophyte REB-8 against Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Both recorded least percent disease incidence (PDI) and increased plant growth promotion, respectively. Further, the novel Bacillus subtilis (SEB-2) against Macrophomina pahseolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower provides an ample scope for exploring the endophytes at large scale. The talc-based formulations of these endophytes developed can be commercialized after toxicological studies. At the bottom line these unexplored endophytes are the need of the hour against aggressive plant pathogens and to maintain the quality and abundance of food and feed and also to fetch marginal economy to the farmers will be discussed.

Keywords: endophytes, plant pathogens, commercialization, abundance of food

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2981 Food and Feeding Habit of Clarias anguillaris in Tagwai Reservoir, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: B. U. Ibrahim, A. Okafor

Abstract:

Sixty-two (62) samples of Clarias anguillaris were collected from Tagwai Reservoir and used for the study. 29 male and 33 female samples were obtained for the study. Body measurement indicated that different sizes were collected for the study. Males, females and combined sexes had standard length and total length means of 26.56±4.99 and 31.13±6.43, 27.17±5.21 and 30.62±5.43, 26.88±5.08 and 30.86±5.88 cm, respectively. The weights of males, females and combined sexes have mean weights of 241.10±96.27, 225.75±78.66 and 232.93±86.95 gm, respectively. Eight items; fish, insects, plant materials, sand grains, crustaceans, algae, detritus and unidentified items were eaten as food by Clarias anguilarias in Tagwai Reservoir. Frequency of occurrence and numerical methods used in stomach contents analysis indicated that fish was the highest, followed by insect, while the lowest was the algae. Frequency of stomach fullness of Clarias anguillaris showed low percentage of empty stomachs or stomachs without food (21.00%) and high percentage of stomachs with food (79.00%), which showed high abundance of food and high feeding intensity during the period of study. Classification of fish based on feeding habits showed that Clarias anguillaris in this study is an omnivore because it consumed both plant and animal materials.

Keywords: stomach content, feeding habit, Clarias anguillaris, Tagwai Reservoir

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2980 Diversity and Structure of Trichoptera Communities and Water Quality Variables in Streams, Northern Thailand

Authors: T. Prommi, P. Thamsenanupap

Abstract:

The influence of physicochemical water quality parameters on the abundance and diversity of caddisfly larvae was studied in seven sampling stations in Mae Tao and Mae Ku watersheds, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. The streams: MK2 and MK8 as reference site, and impacted streams (MT1-MT5) were sampled bi-monthly during July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 4,584 individual of caddisfly larvae belonging to 10 family and 17 genera were found. The larvae of family Hydropsychidae were the most abundance, followed by Philopotamidae, Odontoceridae, and Leptoceridae, respectively. The genus Cheumatopsyche, Hydropsyche, and Chimarra were the most abundance genera in this study. Results of CCA ordination showed the total dissolved solids, sulfate, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important physicochemical factors to affect distribution of caddisflies communities. Changes in the caddisfly fauna may indicate changes in physicochemical factors owing to agricultural pollution, urbanization, or other human activities. Results revealed that the order Trichoptera, identified to species or genus, can be potentially used to assess environmental water quality status in freshwater ecosystems.

Keywords: Caddisfly larvae, environmental variables, diversity, streams

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2979 Evaluating Habitat Manipulation as a Strategy for Rodent Control in Agricultural Ecosystems of Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

Habitat manipulation is an important technique that can be used for controlling rodent damage in agricultural ecosystems. It involves intentionally manipulation of vegetation cover in adjacent habitats around the active burrows of rodents to reduce shelter, food availability and to increase predation pressure. The current study was conducted in the Pothwar Plateau during the respective non-crop period of wheat-groundnut (post-harvested and un-ploughed/non-crop fallow lands) with the aim to assess the impact of the reduction in vegetation height of adjacent habitats (field borders) on rodent’s richness and abundance. The study area was divided into two sites viz. treated and non-treated. At the treated sites, habitat manipulation was carried out by removing crop cache, and non-crop vegetation’s over 10 cm in height to a distance of approximately 20 m from the fields. The trapping sessions carried out at both treated and non-treated sites adjacent to wheat-groundnut fields were significantly different (F 2, 6 = 13.2, P = 0.001) from each other, which revealed that a maximum number of rodents were captured from non-treated sites. There was a significant difference in the overall abundance of rodents (P < 0.05) between crop stages and between treatments in both crops. The manipulation effect was significantly observed on damage to crops, and yield production resulted in the reduction of damage within the associated croplands (P < 0.05). The outcomes of this study indicated a significant reduction of rodent population at treated sites due to changes in vegetation height and cover which affect important components, i.e., food, shelter, movements and increased risk sensitivity in their feeding behavior; therefore, they were unable to reach levels where they cause significant crop damage. This method is recommended for being a cost-effective and easy application.

Keywords: agricultural ecosystems, crop damage, habitat manipulation, rodents, trapping

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2978 Using Hierarchical Modelling to Understand the Role of Plantations in the Abundance of Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

Authors: Kita R. Ashman, Anthony R. Rendall, Matthew R. E. Symonds, Desley A. Whisson

Abstract:

Forest cover is decreasing globally, chiefly due to the conversion of forest to agricultural landscapes. In contrast, the area under plantation forestry is increasing significantly. For wildlife occupying landscapes where native forest is the dominant land cover, plantations generally represent a lower value habitat; however, plantations established on land formerly used for pasture may benefit wildlife by providing temporary forest habitat and increasing connectivity. This study investigates the influence of landscape, site, and climatic factors on koala population density in far south-west Victoria where there has been extensive plantation establishment. We conducted koala surveys and habitat characteristic assessments at 72 sites across three habitat types: plantation, native vegetation blocks, and native vegetation strips. We employed a hierarchical modeling framework for estimating abundance and constructed candidate multinomial N-mixture models to identify factors influencing the abundance of koalas. We detected higher mean koala density in plantation sites (0.85 per ha) than in either native block (0.68 per ha) or native strip sites (0.66 per ha). We found five covariates of koala density and using these variables, we spatially modeled koala abundance and discuss factors that are key in determining large-scale distribution and density of koala populations. We provide a distribution map that can be used to identify high priority areas for population management as well as the habitat of high conservation significance for koalas. This information facilitates the linkage of ecological theory with the on-ground implementation of management actions and may guide conservation planning and resource management actions to consider overall landscape configuration as well as the spatial arrangement of plantations adjacent to the remnant forest.

Keywords: abundance modelling, arboreal mammals plantations, wildlife conservation

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2977 Comparative Study of the Abundance of Winter Nests of the Pine Processionary Caterpillar in Different Forests of Pinus Halepensis, pinus Pinaster, Pinus Pinea and Cedrus Atlantica, in Algeria

Authors: Boudjahem Ibtissem, Aouati Amel

Abstract:

Thaumetopoea pityocampa is one of the major insect pests of pine forests in Algeria, the Mediterranean region, and central Europe. This pest is responsible for several natural and human damages these last years. The caterpillar can feed itself during the larval stage on several species of pine or cedar. The forests attack by the insect can reduce their resistance against other forest enemies, fires, or drought conditions. In this case, the tree becomes more vulnerable to other pests. To understand the eating behavior of the insect in its ecological conditions, and its nutritional preference, we realized a study of the abundance of winter nests of the pine processionary caterpillar in four different forests: Pinus halepensis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea, and Cedrus atlantica. A count of the sites affected by the processionary caterpillar was carried out on a hundred trees from the forests in different regions in Algeria; Alkala region, Mila region, Annaba region, and Blida region; the total rate and average abundance are calculated for each forest. Ecological parameters are also estimated for each infestation. The results indicated a higher rate of infestation in Pinus halepensis trees (85%) followed by Cedrus atlantica (66%) and Pinus pinaster (50%) trees. The Pinus pinea forest is the least attacked region by the pine processionary caterpillar (23%). The abundance of the pine processionary caterpillar can be influenced by the height of the trees, the climate of the region, the age of the forest but also the quality of needles.

Keywords: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Pinus halepensis, needles, winter nests

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2976 Spatial Patterns and Temporal Evolution of Octopus Abundance in the Mauritanian Zone

Authors: Dedah Ahmed Babou, Nicolas Bez

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The Min-Max autocorrelation factor (MAF) approach makes it possible to express in a space formed by spatially independent factors, spatiotemporal observations. These factors are ordered in decreasing order of spatial autocorrelation. The starting observations are thus expressed in the space formed by these factors according to temporal coordinates. Each vector of temporal coefficients expresses the temporal evolution of the weight of the corresponding factor. Applying this approach has enabled us to achieve the following results: (i) Define a spatially orthogonal space in which the projections of the raw data are determined; (ii) Define a limit threshold for the factors with the strongest structures in order to analyze the weight, and the temporal evolution of these different structures (iii) Study the correlation between the temporal evolution of the persistent spatial structures and that of the observed average abundance (iv) Propose prototypes of campaigns reflecting a high vs. low abundance (v) Propose a classification of campaigns that highlights seasonal and/or temporal similarities. These results were obtained by analyzing the octopus yield during the scientific campaigns of the oceanographic vessel Al Awam during the period 1989-2017 in the Mauritanian exclusive economic zone.

Keywords: spatiotemporal , autocorrelation, kriging, variogram, Octopus vulgaris

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2975 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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2974 Composition, Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, Philippines

Authors: Jeter Canete, Noreen Joyce Estrella, Yedda Sachi Patrice Madelo

Abstract:

Zooplankton plays a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems and a number of water parameters involved in it. Despite their relevance, there is inadequate information about zooplankton communities in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province: one of the most essential waterbodies in Mindanao. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition, abundance, and diversity of zooplankton as well as to provide more recent data about the physico-chemical characteristics of Sarangani Bay. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical hauls using a zooplankton net (mouth diameter: 0.5m; mesh size opening: round, 350μm) in three stations in the coastal waters of Alabel, Malapatan, and Maasim during November 2018. A total of 74 species of zooplankton belonging mainly to Kingdom Protozoa, Phylum Arthropoda, Chaetognatha, and Chordata were identified. Results showed a total zooplankton abundance of 1,984,166 ind/m³ with the highest count recorded at Malapatan (717,169 ind/m³) and the lowest at Maasim (624,411 ind/m³). Among 22 zooplankton groups identified, subclass Copepoda was found to be the most dominant (73.10%), followed by Appendicularia (12.18%) and Vertebrata (3.54%). Diversity analysis revealed an even distribution of species and a diverse ecosystem in all stations sampled. Correlation analysis indicated a strong relationship between zooplankton abundance and physico-chemical parameters. Overall, the physico-chemical profile of Sarangani Bay did not differ from the standards set by DENR, and analysis of the zooplankton communities revealed that Sarangani Bay favorably supports marine organisms to flourish. The findings of this study provide useful knowledge on zooplankton communities and can be used to create management strategies to protect the aquatic biodiversity in Sarangani Bay.

Keywords: aquatic biomonitoring, biodiversity, physicochemical analysis, population survey, Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, zooplankton

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2973 Re-Defining Food Waste and Food Waste Management in the Food Service Sector: A Case Study in a University Food Service Unit

Authors: Boineelo P. Lefadola, Annemarie T. Viljoen, Gerrie E. Du Rand

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The food service sector wastes staggering quantities of food. More than one-third of food produced today gets wasted. This is both perplexing and daunting given that not all that is wasted is accounted for when measuring food waste. It is recognised that the present food waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really take into account all food waste generated. The contention is that food waste in the food service sector can be prevented or reduced if we have an explicit food waste definition in the context of food service. This study, therefore, explores the definition of the concept of food waste in the food service sector and its implications on sustainable food waste management strategies. An ethnographic research approach was adopted. A university food service unit was selected as a research site. Data collection techniques employed included document analyses, participant observations, focus group discussions with front-of-house and back-of-house staff, and one-on-one interviews with staff on managerial positions. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyse data. The concept of food waste was constructed differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, BOH and FOH staff drew upon socio-cultural implications. This study lays the foundation for a harmonised definition of the concept of food waste in food service.

Keywords: food service, food waste, food waste management, sustainability

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2972 Bird Diversity along Boat Touring Routes in Tha Ka Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: N. Charoenpokaraj, P. Chitman

Abstract:

This research aims to study species, abundance, status of birds, the similarities and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Tha Ka sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. from October 2012 – September 2013. The data was analyzed to find the abundance, and similarity index of the birds. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 33 families and 63 species. Route 3 (traditional coconut sugar making kiln – resort) had the most species; 56 species. There were 18 species of commonly found birds with an abundance level of 5, which calculates to 28.57% of all bird species. In August, 46 species are found, being the greatest number of bird species benefiting from this route. As for the status of the birds, there are 51 resident birds, 7 resident and migratory birds, and 5 migratory birds. On Route 2 and Route 3, the similarity index value is equal to 0.881. The birds are classified by their activity characteristics i.e. insectivore, piscivore, granivore, nectrivore and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Some birds also use the area for nesting.

Keywords: bird diversity, boat touring routes, Samut Songkram, similarity index

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2971 Three-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of High-Solids Food Waste and Horse Manure

Authors: Kai-Chee Loh, Jingxin Zhang, Yen-Wah Tong

Abstract:

Hydrolysis and acidogenesis are the rate-controlling steps in an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Considering that the optimum conditions for each stage can be diverse diverse, the development of a multi-stage AD system is likely to the AD efficiency through individual optimization. In this research, we developed a highly integrate three-stage anaerobic digester (HM3) to combine the advantages of dry AD and wet AD for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and horse manure. The digester design comprised mainly of three chambers - high-solids hydrolysis, high-solids acidogenesis and wet methanogensis. Through comparing the treatment performance with other two control digesters, HM3 presented 11.2 ~22.7% higher methane yield. The improved methane yield was mainly attributed to the functionalized partitioning in the integrated digester, which significantly accelerated the solubilization of solid organic matters and the formation of organic acids, as well as ammonia in the high-solids hydrolytic and acidogenic stage respectively. Additionally, HM3 also showed the highest volatile solids reduction rate among the three digesters. Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the abundance and biodiversity of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea in HM3 was much higher than that in the control reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, high-solids, food waste and horse manure, microbial community

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2970 Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas

Authors: N. Norazlimi, R. Ramli

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of these, eleven species (47.8%) are migrants, six species (26.1%) have both migrant and resident populations, four species (17.4%) are vagrants and two species (8.7%) are residents. The compositions of the birds differed significantly in all months (χ2=84.35, p<0.001). There is a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t=2.39, p=0.036). The avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis Beaches during migratory periods (t=4.39, p=0.001) but not during non-migratory periods (t=0.78, p=0.456). Shorebird diversity was also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t=78.0, p<0.005). Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution (Mann-Whitney, t=57.0, p= 0.0134). Therefore, this study concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.

Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, migratory birds, direct observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2969 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

Abstract:

This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: food security, national security, agriculture, public resources, economic security

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2968 Food Safety Management in Riyadh’s Ministry of Health Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

Abstract:

Providing patients with safe meals on a daily basis is one of the challenges in the healthcare sector. In Saudi Arabia matters related to food safety and hygiene have been the heart of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The aim of this study is to examine the causes of inadequate implementation of food safety management systems such as HACCP in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. By the law, food safety must be managed using a documented, HACCP based approach, and food handlers must be appropriately trained in food safety. Food handlers in Saudi Arabia are not required to provide a certificate or attend a food handling training course even in healthcare sectors. Since food safety and hygiene issues are of increasing importance for Saudi Arabian health decision makers, the SFDA has been established to apply food hygiene requirements in all food operations. It should be pointed out that the implications of food outbreaks on the whole society may potentially go beyond individual health impacts but also impact on the Nation’s health and bring about economic repercussions.

Keywords: food safety, patient, hospital, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2967 Mesozooplankton in the Straits of Florida: Patterns in Biomass and Distribution

Authors: Sharein El-Tourky, Sharon Smith, Gary Hitchcock

Abstract:

Effective fisheries management is necessarily dependent on the accuracy of fisheries models, which can be limited if they omit critical elements. One critical element in the formulation of these models is the trophic interactions at the larval stage of fish development. At this stage, fish mortality rates are at their peak and survival is often determined by resource limitation. Thus it is crucial to identify and quantify essential prey resources and determine how they vary in abundance and availability. The main resources larval fish consume are mesozooplankton. In the Straits of Florida, little is known about temporal and spatial variability of the mesozooplankton community despite its importance as a spawning ground for fish such as the Blue Marlin. To investigate mesozooplankton distribution patterns in the Straits of Florida, a transect of 16 stations from Miami to the Bahamas was sampled once a month in 2003 and 2004 at four depths. We found marked temporal and spatial variability in mesozooplankton biomass, diversity, and depth distribution. Mesozooplankton biomass peaked on the western boundary of the SOF and decreased gradually across the straits to a minimum at eastern stations. Midcurrent stations appeared to be a region of enhanced year-round variability, but limited seasonality. Examination of dominant zooplankton groups revealed groups could be parsed into 6 clusters based on abundance. Of these zooplankton groups, copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group, with the 20 most abundant species making up 86% of the copepod community. Copepod diversity was lowest at midcurrent stations and highest in the Eastern SOF. Interestingly, one copepods species, previously identified to compose up to 90% of larval blue marlin and sailfish diets in the SOF, had a mean abundance of less than 7%. However, the unique spatial and vertical distribution patterns of this copepod coincide with peak larval fish spawning periods and larval distribution, suggesting an important relationship requiring further investigation.

Keywords: mesozooplankton biodiversity, larval fish diet, food web, Straits of Florida, vertical distribution, spatiotemporal variability, cross-current comparisons, Gulf Stream

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2966 Household Food Wastage Assessment: A Case Study in South Africa

Authors: Fhumulani R. Ramukhwatho, Roelien du Plessis, Suzan H. H. Oelofse

Abstract:

There are a growing number of scientific papers, journals and reports on household food waste, the reason being that food waste has become a significant global issue that is costing billions of Rands in resources. To reduce food waste in a sustainable manner, it requires an understanding of the generation of food waste. This paper assesses household food wastage in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). A total of 210 interviewed participants using face-to-face interviews based on a structured questionnaire and the actual weighing of households’ food wasted was quantified using a weighing kitchen scale. Fifty-nine percent of respondents agreed that they wasted food, while 41% thought they did not waste food at all. Households wasted an average total of 6 kg of food waste per week per household. The study concluded that households buy and prepare more food that ends up wasted.

Keywords: assessment, developing country, food waste, household

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2965 Land Use and Natal Multimammate Mouse Abundance in Lassa Fever Endemic Villages of Eastern Sierra Leone

Authors: J. T. Koininga, J. E. Teigen, A. Wilkinson, D. Kanneh, F. Kanneh, M. Foday, D. S. Grant, M. Leach, L. M. Moses

Abstract:

Lassa fever (LF) is a severe febrile illness endemic to West Africa. While human-to-human transmission occurs, evidence suggests most LF cases originate from exposure to rodents, particularly the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. Within West Africa, LF occurs primarily in rural communities where agriculture is the main economic activity. Seasonality of LF has also been linked to agricultural cycles, with peak incidence occurring in the dry season when fields are burned and plowed. To investigate this pattern of seasonality, four agricultural communities were selected for this two-year longitudinal study. Each community was to be sampled four times each year, but this was interrupted by the Ebola virus disease outbreak. Agricultural land use, forested, and fallow areas were identified through participatory mapping. Transects were plotted in each area and Sherman traps were set for four nights. Captured small mammals were identified, ear tagged, and released. Mastomys natalensis abundance was found to be highest in areas of converted fallow land and rice swamps in the dry season and upland mixed crop areas toward the onset of the rainy season. All peak times were associated with heavy perturbation of soil. All ages and genders were present during these time points. These results suggest that peak abundance of the Mastomys natalensis in agricultural areas coincides with peak incidence of LF reported in this region. Although contact with rodents may be higher in villages, our study suggests human behaviors in agricultural areas may increase risk of transmission of Lassa virus.

Keywords: agriculture, land use, Lassa Fever, rodent abundance

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2964 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2963 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: L. Chevez, A. Apaza, J. Rodriguez, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos

Abstract:

Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, minimum noise fraction, MNF, simplex growing algorithm, SGA, standard normal variance, SNV, virtual dimension, XRD

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2962 Ichthyofauna and Population Status at Indus River Downstream, Sindh-Pakistan

Authors: M. K. Sheikh, Y. M. Laghari., P. K. Lashari., N. T. Narejo

Abstract:

The Indus River is one of the longest important rivers of the world in Asia that flows southward through Pakistan, merges into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh Province, and forms the Indus Delta. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. In fish, healthy nutriments are present which are not found in any other meat source because it have a huge quantity of omega- 3 fatty acids, which are very essential for the human body. Ichthyologic surveys were conducted to explore the diversity of freshwater fishes, distribution, abundance and current status of the fishes at different spatial scale of the downstream, Indus River. Total eight stations were selected namely Railo Miyan (RM), Karokho (Kk), Khanpur (Kp), Mullakatiyar (Mk), Wasi Malook Shah (WMS), Branch Morie (BM), Sujawal (Sj) and Jangseer (JS). The study was carried in the period of January 2016 to December 2019 to identify River and biodiversity threats and to suggest recommendations for conservation. The data were analysed by different population diversity index. Altogether, 124 species were recorded belonging to 12 Orders and 43 Families from the downstream of Indus River. Among 124 species, 29% belong to high commercial value and 35% were trash fishes. 31% of fishes were identified as marine/estuarine origin (migratory) and 05% were exotic fish species. Perciformes is the most predominated order, contributing to 41% of families. Among 43 families, the family Cyprinidae was the richest family from all localities of downstream, represented by 24% of fish species demonstrating a significant dominance in the number of species. A significant difference was observed for species abundance in between all sites, the maximum abundance species were found at first location RM having 115 species and minimum observed at the last station JS 56 genera. In the recorded Ichthyofauna, seven groups were found according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature status (IUCN), where a high species ratio was collected, in Least Concern (LC) having 94 species, 11 were found as not evaluated (NE), whereas 8 was identified as near threatened (NT), 1 was recorded as critically endangered (CR), 11 were collected as data deficient (DD), and while 8 was observed as vulnerable (VU) and 3 endangered (EN) species. Different diversity index has been used extensively in environmental studies to estimate the species richness and abundance of ecosystems outputs of their wellness; a positive environment (biodiversity rich) with species at RM had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 4.566% while a negative control environment (biodiversity poor) on last station JS had an environmental wellness and biodiversity levels of 3.931%. The status of fish biodiversity and river has been found under serious threat. Due to the lower diversity of fishes, it became not only venerable for fish but also risky for fishermen. Necessary steps are recommended to protect the biodiversity by conducting further conservative research in this area.

Keywords: ichthyofaunal biodiversity, threatened species, diversity index, Indus River downstream

Procedia PDF Downloads 56