Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2636

Search results for: functional foods

2636 Functional Foods and Their Health Benefits with an Emphasis on Probiotics

Authors: Tanu Malik, Eusebe Gnonlonfoun, Eudes L. Anihouvi

Abstract:

The rise of nutrition-related diseases, increase of health care cost, and the social perception that food could directly affect health have naturally created an environment conducive to the development of foods and beverages with an asserted health benefit. Consumer habits have turned considerably healthier in recent years and led to the demand for fortified and enhanced foods that could adequately provide health benefits beyond necessary nutrients for humans when they are consumed as part of the diet and regularly. These trends have developed a global market for functional foods, that grows annually and undoubtedly requires to be diversified. Product development appears thus as a key research priority for both the food industry and science sectors. The health benefits of these functional foods are summarized in two possible ways: either indirectly as a desired result of biogenic effect or through the direct interaction of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect). This paper reviews functional foods and their beneficial health effects with a key focus on probiotics for the possible expansion of their use by the food industry in order to develop non-dairy based probiotics foods. Likewise, it reveals the need for more researches oriented towards an accurate understanding of the possible interaction between probiotic strains and the matrix and, on the other hand, the interaction between probiotic strains and some enzymes used during food manufacturing.

Keywords: functional foods, food industry, health benefits, probiotics

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2635 Functional Food Industry in Thailand: Perspectives from Government, Education, and Private Sector

Authors: Charintorn Suwannawong, Tananpon Yavilas, Sopida Boonaneksap, Chotika Viriyarattanasak, Chairath Tangduangdee

Abstract:

With increasing aging population and health conscious consumers, the demand for health promoting products such as functional foods, dietary supplements, and nutraceutical products has continuously increased in Thailand. Nevertheless, the strategic framework for regulatory functional food developments in Thailand is still unclear. The objective of this study was to survey stakeholders’ perspectives on three scopes, consisting of 1) the current status 2) obstacles, and 3) future trend for the development and production of functional foods in Thailand. A survey was conducted by interviewing ten experts from governmental organization, industrial sector and academic institute. The obtained results show that there is no established definition for functional foods in Thailand. There is a variety of raw materials that are capable to be potential ingredients for functional food production in Thailand and exported to global market. However, the scaling up technology into a commercial production is limited. Moreover, there is a need to establish the infrastructures, such as testing laboratory, and regulatory standards for quality control and ensuring product safety. This information is useful for government in the development of the strategic framework and policy statement on improvement of functional food industry in Thailand.

Keywords: functional foods, interview, perspective, Thailand

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2634 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants

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2633 Searching for an Effective Marketing in the Food Supplement Industry in Japan

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto

Abstract:

The market for "functional foods" and "foods with functional claims" that are effective in maintaining and improving health, has expanded year by year due to the entry of major food and beverage manufacturers following the introduction of the specified health food system in 1991 in Japan. To bring health claims related products or services to the market, it is necessary to let consumers to learn about these products or services; an effective marketing through advertising are important. This research proposes a framework for an effective advertisement medium for the food supplement industry by using survey data of 2,500 people.

Keywords: functional foods, dietary supplements, marketing strategy, structural equation modeling

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2632 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

Abstract:

Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

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2631 Food Effects and Food Choices: Aligning the Two for Better Health

Authors: John Monro, Suman Mishra

Abstract:

Choosing foods for health benefits requires information that accurately represents the relative effectiveness of foods with respect to specific health end points, or with respect to responses leading to health outcomes. At present consumers must rely on nutrient composition data, and on health claims to guide them to healthy food choices. Nutrient information may be of limited usefulness because it does not reflect the effect of food structure and food component interactions – that is, whole food effects. Health claims demand stringent criteria that exclude most foods, even though most foods have properties through which they may contribute to positive health outcomes in a diet. In this presentation, we show how the functional efficacy of foods may be expressed in the same format as nutrients, with weight units, as virtual food components that allow a nutrition information panel to show not only what a food is, but also what it does. In the presentation, two body responses linked to well-being are considered – glycaemic response and colonic bulk – in order to illustrate the concept. We show how the nutrient information on available carbohydrates and dietary fibre values obtained by food analysis methods fail to provide information of the glycaemic potency or the colonic bulking potential of foods, because of failings in the methods and approach taken to food analysis. It is concluded that a category of food values that represent the functional efficacy of foods is required to accurately guide food choices for health.

Keywords: dietary fibre, glycaemic response, food values, food effects, health

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2630 Herbal Medicinal Materials for Health/Functional Foods in Korea

Authors: Chang-Hwan Oh, Young-Jong Lee

Abstract:

In April, 2015, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety’s announcement that only 10 of the 207 products that list Cynanchum Wilfordii Radix among their ingredients were confirmed to actually contain “iyeobupiso” the counterfeit version of the “baeksuo” raised a fog to consumers who purchased health/functional foods supposedly containing the herbal medicinal material, “baeksuo” in Korean. Baeksuo is the main ingredient of the product “EstroG-100” that contain Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas too (NaturalEndoTech, S.Korea). The hot water extract of the herbal medicinal materials (HMM) was approved as a product specific Health/Functional Food (HFF) having a helpful function to women reaching menopause by Korea Food & Drug Administration (Ministry of Food & Drug Safety at present). The origin of “baeksuo” is the root of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley in Korea (But “iyeobupiso, the root of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight is considered as the origin of “baeksuo” in China). In Korea, about 116 HMMs are listed as the food materials in Korea Food Code among the total 187 HMMs could be used for food and medicine purpose simultaneously. But there are some chances of the HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) could be misused by the part and HMMs not permitted for HFF such as the “baeksuo” case. In this study, some of HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) are examined to alleviate the misuse chance of HMMs for HFFs in Korea. For the purpose of this study, the origin, shape, edible parts, efficacy and the side effects of the similar HMMs to be misused for HFF are investigated.

Keywords: herbal medicinal materials, healthy/functional foods, misuse, shared use

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2629 Upgrading along Value Chains: Strategies for Thailand's Functional Milk Industry

Authors: Panisa Harnpathananun

Abstract:

This paper is 'Practical Experience Analysis' which aims to analyze critical obstacles hampering the growth of the functional milk industry and suggest recommendations to overcome those obstacles. Using the Sectoral Innovation System (SIS) along value chain analysis, it is found that restriction in regulation of milk disinfection process, difficulty of dairy entrepreneurs for health claim approval of functional food and beverage and lack of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units for certification of functional foods and milk are major causes that needed to be resolved. Consequently, policy recommendations are proposed to tackle the problems occurring throughout the value chain. For the upstream, a collaborative platform using the quadruple helix model is proposed in a pattern of effective dairy cooperatives. For the midstream, regulation issues of new process, extended shelf life (ESL) milk, or prolonged milk are necessary, which can be extended the global market opportunity. For the downstream, mechanism of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units can be assisted in certified process of functional milk, especially a process of 'health claim' approval.

Keywords: Thailand, functional milk, supply chain, quadruple helix, intermediary, functional food

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2628 Consumption Habits of Low-Fat Plant Sterol-Enriched Yoghurt Enriched with Phytosterols

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, A. C. Sousa Pereira, M. C. Castilho, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The increasing interest in plant sterol enriched foods is due to the fact that they reduce blood cholesterol concentrations without adverse side effects. In this context, enriched foods with phytosterols may be helpful in protecting population against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate in a population of Viseu, Portugal, the consumption habits low-fat, plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. For this study, 577 inquiries were made and the sample was randomly selected for people shopping in various supermarkets. The preliminary results showed that the biggest consumers of these products were women aged 45 to 65 years old. Most of the people who claimed to buy these products consumed them once a day. Also, most of the consumers under antidyslipidemic therapeutics noticed positive effects on hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: consumption habits, fermented milk, functional foods, low fat, phytosterols

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2627 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Proximate, Functional, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Weaning Foods Formulated from Maize (Zea mays) and Soybean (Glycine max) Flour Blends

Authors: C. O. Agu, C. C. Okafor

Abstract:

Maize and soybean flours were produced using different methods of processing which include fermentation (FWF), roasting (RWF) and malting (MWF). Products from the different methods were mixed in the ratio 60:40 maize/soybean, respectively. These composites mixed with other ingredients such as sugar, vegetable oil, vanilla flavour and vitamin mix were analyzed for proximate composition, physical/functional, sensory and nutritional properties. The results for the protein content ranged between 6.25% and 16.65% with sample RWF having the highest value. Crude fibre values ranged from 3.72 to 10.0%, carbohydrate from 58.98% to 64.2%, ash from 1.27 to 2.45%. Physical and functional properties such as bulk density, wettability, gelation capacity have values between 0.74 and 0.76g/ml, 20.33 and 46.33 min and 0.73 to 0.93g/ml, respectively. On the sensory quality colour, flavour, taste, texture and general acceptability were determined. In terms of colour and flavour there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) while the values for taste ranged between 4.89 and 7.1 l, texture 5.50 to 8.38 and general acceptability 6.09 and 7.89. Nutritionally there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sample RWF and the control in all parameters considered. Samples FWF and MWF showed significantly (P < 0.5) lower values in all parameters determined. In the light of the above findings, roasting method is highly recommend in the production of weaning foods.

Keywords: fermentation, malting, ratio, roasting, wettability

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2626 Evaluating the Functional Properties of Flours Varying Percentage Blend of Malted Acha, Aya and Ede flours as Potentials for Weaning Food Formulation

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, E. Chibuzo, H. M. Badau

Abstract:

Traditional weaning foods are dense or thick paste, which are then diluted with large volume of water to produce thin drinkable consistency for infants. This work was aimed at evaluating the functional properties of six varying percentage blends of locally abundant, underutilized crops; malted acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and ede (Colocasia esculentum) flours as weaning foods. The results of bulk density and starch digestibility showed a decrease with increasing percentage addition of malted acha with values from 5.889±0.98 to 7.953±0.103; -5.45 to -13.6 respectively. While water absorption capacity, measure of dispersibility, wettability, swelling power, % solubility increased with increase in percentage addition of malted acha with values from 6.6±0.712 to 8.1±0.1; 2.12 to 37.225; 3.21±0.04 to 3.6±0.03; 20.64 to 24.46 respectively. There was no significant difference between all the formula and the control. Results of pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity, setback values from -0.42±0.085 to -3.67±0.085; 5.63±0.045 to 1.79±0.04;-3.88±0.045 to -1.475±0.275; 2.17±0.045 to 2.93±0.045 respectively. There was no significant different between some of the weaning formula and the control for peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity and temperatures required to form paste. The formula compared favorably with the control- a commercially sold formula.

Keywords: weaning food, functional properties, under-utilized crops, blends

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2625 Production of Functional Crackers Enriched with Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Extract

Authors: Rosa Palmeri, Julieta I. Monteleone, Antonio C. Barbera, Carmelo Maucieri, Aldo Todaro, Virgilio Giannone, Giovanni Spagna

Abstract:

In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the functional properties of foods, and a relevant role has been played by phenolic compounds, able to scavenge free radicals. A more sustainable agriculture has to emerge to guarantee food supply over the next years. Wheat, corn, and rice are the most common cereals cultivated, but also other cereal species, such as barley can be appreciated for their peculiarities. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a C3 winter cereal that shows high resistance at drought and salt stresses. There are growing interests in barley as ingredient for the production of functional foods due to its high content of phenolic compounds and Beta-glucans. In this respect, the possibility of separating specific functional fractions from food industry by-products looks very promising. Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of olive grove farming, and are an interesting source of phenolic compounds. In particular, oleuropein, which provide important nutritional benefits, is the main phenolic compound in olive leaves and ranges from 17% to 23% depending upon the cultivar and growing season period. Together with oleuropein and its derivatives (e.g. dimethyloleuropein, oleuropein diglucoside), olive leaves further contain tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and a series of secondary metabolities structurally related to them: verbascoside, ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol glucoside, tyrosol glucoside, oleuroside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, and nuzhenide. Several flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, and phenolic acids have also described in olive leaves. The aim of this work was the production of functional food with higher content of polyphenols and the evaluation of their shelf life. Organic durum wheat and barley grains contain higher levels of phenolic compounds were used for the production of crackers. Olive leaf extract (OLE) was obtained from cv. ‘Biancolilla’ by aqueous extraction method. Two baked goods trials were performed with both organic durum wheat and barley flours, adding olive leaf extract. Control crackers, made as comparison, were produced with the same formulation replacing OLE with water. Total phenolic compound, moisture content, activity water, and textural properties at different time of storage were determined to evaluate the shelf-life of the products. Our the preliminary results showed that the enriched crackers showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than control. Alternative uses of olive leaf extracts for crackers production could represent a good candidate for the addition of functional ingredients because bakery items are daily consumed, and have long shelf-life.

Keywords: barley, functional foods, olive leaf, polyphenols, shelf life

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2624 Natural Preservatives: An Alternative for Chemical Preservative Used in Foods

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

Abstract:

Microbial degradation of foods is defined as a decrease of food safety due to microorganism activity. Organic acids, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, dimethyl dicarbonate and several preservative gases have been used as chemical preservatives in foods as well as natural preservatives which are indigenous in foods. It is determined that usage of herbal preservatives such as blueberry, dried grape, prune, garlic, mustard, spices inhibited several microorganisms. Moreover, it is determined that animal origin preservatives such as whey, honey, lysosomes of duck egg and chicken egg, chitosan have antimicrobial effect. Other than indigenous antimicrobials in foods, antimicrobial agents produced by microorganisms could be used as natural preservatives. The antimicrobial feature of preservatives depends on the antimicrobial spectrum, chemical and physical features of material, concentration, mode of action, components of food, process conditions, and pH and storage temperature. In this review, studies about antimicrobial components which are indigenous in food (such as herbal and animal origin antimicrobial agents), antimicrobial materials synthesized by microorganisms, and their usage as an antimicrobial agent to preserve foods are discussed.

Keywords: animal origin preservatives, antimicrobial, chemical preservatives, herbal preservatives

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2623 Bifidobacterial Postbiotics as Health-Promoting Agents in Dairy Products

Authors: Saba Kamalledin Moghadam, Amir M. Mortazavian, Aziz Homayouni-Rad

Abstract:

In the recent decade, bioactive-enriched foods, as well as natural health products, have caught the intention of the general and health-conscious population. In this regard, naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms have been successfully added to various dairy products during fermentation. Bifidobacteria, known as probiotics with a broad range of bioactivities, are commonly used in the dairy industry to naturally enrich dairy products. These bioactive metabolites are industrially and commercially important due to health-promoting activities on the consumers (e.g., anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation, etcetera). This review aims to discuss the potential of bifidobacteria for the elaboration of dairy foods with functional properties and added value.

Keywords: dairy, probiotic, postbiotic, bifidobacteria, bifidobacterial postbiotic

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2622 Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of a Texture-Modified Beef- Based 3D Printed Functional Product

Authors: Elvan G. Bulut, Betul Goksun, Tugba G. Gun, Ozge Sakiyan Demirkol, Kamuran Ayhan, Kezban Candogan

Abstract:

Dysphagia, difficulty in swallowing solid foods and thin liquids, is one of the common health threats among the elderly who require foods with modified texture in their diet. Although there are some commercial food formulations or hydrocolloids to thicken the liquid foods for dysphagic individuals, there is still a need for developing and offering new food products with enriched nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics to safely nourish these patients. 3D food printing is an appealing alternative in creating personalized foods for this purpose with attractive shape, soft and homogenous texture. In order to modify texture and prevent phase separation, hydrocolloids are generally used. In our laboratory, an optimized 3D printed beef-based formulation specifically for people with swallowing difficulties was developed based on the research project supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK Project # 218O017). The optimized formulation obtained from response surface methodology was 60% beef powder, 5.88% gelatin, and 0.74% kappa-carrageenan (all in a dry basis). This product was enriched with powders of freeze-dried beet, celery, and red capia pepper, butter, and whole milk. Proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents), pH value, CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), and color difference (ΔE*) values were determined. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast, total coliforms were conducted, and detection of coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were performed. The 3D printed products had 60.11% moisture, 16.51% fat, 13.68% protein, and 1.65% ash, and the pH value was 6.19, whereas the ΔE* value was 3.04. Counts of TMAB, LAB, mold and yeast and total coliforms before and after 3D printing were 5.23-5.41 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, 2.39-2.15 log EMS/g, respectively. Coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the products. The data obtained from this study based on determining some important product characteristics of functional beef-based formulation provides an encouraging basis for future research on the subject and should be useful in designing mass production of 3D printed products of similar composition.

Keywords: beef, dysphagia, product characteristics, texture-modified foods, 3D food printing

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2621 Task Based Functional Connectivity within Reward Network in Food Image Viewing Paradigm Using Functional MRI

Authors: Preetham Shankapal, Jill King, Kori Murray, Corby Martin, Paula Giselman, Jason Hicks, Owen Carmicheal

Abstract:

Activation of reward and satiety networks in the brain while processing palatable food cues, as well as functional connectivity during rest has been studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain in various obesity phenotypes. However, functional connectivity within the reward and satiety network during food cue processing is understudied. 14 obese individuals underwent two fMRI scans during viewing of Macronutrient Picture System images. Each scan included two blocks of images of High Sugar/High Fat (HSHF), High Carbohydrate/High Fat (HCHF), Low Sugar/Low Fat (LSLF) and also non-food images. Seed voxels within seven food reward relevant ROIs: Insula, putamen and cingulate, precentral, parahippocampal, medial frontal and superior temporal gyri were isolated based on a prior meta-analysis. Beta series correlation for task-related functional connectivity between these seed voxels and the rest of the brain was computed. Voxel-level differences in functional connectivity were calculated between: first and the second scan; individuals who saw novel (N=7) vs. Repeated (N=7) images in the second scan; and between the HC/HF, HSHF blocks vs LSLF and non-food blocks. Computations and analysis showed that during food image viewing, reward network ROIs showed significant functional connectivity with each other and with other regions responsible for attentional and motor control, including inferior parietal lobe and precentral gyrus. These functional connectivity values were heightened among individuals who viewed novel HS/HF images in the second scan. In the second scan session, functional connectivity was reduced within the reward network but increased within attention, memory and recognition regions, suggesting habituation to reward properties and increased recollection of previously viewed images. In conclusion it can be inferred that Functional Connectivity within reward network and between reward and other brain regions, varies by important experimental conditions during food photography viewing, including habituation to shown foods.

Keywords: fMRI, functional connectivity, task-based, beta series correlation

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2620 The Consumption of Sodium and Fat from Processed Foods

Authors: Pil Kyoo Jo, Jee Young Kim, Yu Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Young Ha Joo, Hye Suk Kim, Semi Kang

Abstract:

When convenience drives daily food choices, the increased consumption of processed foods may be associated with the increased intakes of sodium and fat and further with the onset of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of sodium, saturated fat, and calories intakes through processed foods and the dietary patterns among adult populations in South Korea. We used the nationally representative data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) and a cross-sectional survey on the eating behaviors among university students(N=893, 380 men, 513 women) aged from 20 to 24 years. Results showed that South Koreans consumed 43.5% of their total food consumption from processed foods. The 24-hour recalls data showed that 77% of sodium, 60% of fats, 59% of saturated fat, and 44% of calories were consumed from processed food. The intake of processed foods increased by 1.7% in average since 2008 annually. Only 33% of processed food that respondents consumed had nutrition labeling. The data from university students showed that students selected processed foods in convenience store when eating alone compared to eating with someone else. Given the convenience and lack of time, more people will consume processed foods and it may impact their overall dietary intake and further their health. In order to help people to make healthier food choices, regulations and policies to reduce the potentially unhealthy nutrients of processed foods should be strengthened. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea for 2011 Korea-Japan Basic Scientific Cooperation Program. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015S1A5B6037369).

Keywords: sodium, fat, processed foods, diet trends

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2619 Aquafaba Derived from Korean Soybean Cultivars: A Novel Vegan Egg Replacer

Authors: Yue He, Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin J. T. Reaney

Abstract:

Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. Aquafaba) has been used as an important and cost-effective alternative to eggs in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. The aquafaba (AQ) is primarily due to its excellent ability to stabilize foams and emulsions in foods. However, the functional ingredients of this excellent AQ are usually discarded with the compound release. This study developed a high-functional food material, AQ, using functional soybean AQ that has not been studied in Korea. A zero-waste and cost-effective hybrid process were used to produce oil emulsifiers from Korean soybeans. The treatment technique was implemented using a small number of efficient steps. Aquafaba from Backtae had the best emulsion properties (92%) and has the potential to produce more stable food oil emulsions. Therefore, this study is expected to be utilized in the development of the first gluten-free, vegan product for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies, utilizing wastewater from cooked soybeans as a source of plant protein that can replace animal protein.

Keywords: aquafaba, soybean, chickpea, emulsifiers, egg replacer, egg-free products

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2618 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

Abstract:

The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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2617 Supermarket Shoppers Perceptions to Genetically Modified Foods in Trinidad and Tobago: Focus on Health Risks and Benefits

Authors: Safia Hasan Varachhia, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh

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Genetic modification of food is an innovative technology that offers a host of benefits and advantages to consumers. Consumer attitudes towards GM food and GM technologies can be identified a major determinant in conditioning market force and encouraging policy makers and regulators to recognize the significance of consumer influence on the market. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the extent of consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks and benefit in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. The specific objectives of this study were to (determine consumer awareness to GM foods, ascertain their perspectives on health and safety risks and ethical issues associated with GM foods and determine whether labeling of GM foods and ingredients will influence consumers’ willingness to purchase GM foods. A survey comprising of a questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, both open-ended and close-ended was administered to 240 shoppers in small, medium and large-scale supermarkets throughout Trinidad between April-May, 2015 using convenience sampling. This survey investigated consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks/benefits. The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. One-way ANOVA investigated the effects categories of supermarkets and knowledge scores on shoppers’ awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods. Linear Regression tested whether demographic variables (category of supermarket, age of consumer, level of were useful predictors of consumer’s knowledge of GM foods). More than half of respondents (64.3%) were aware of GM foods and GM technologies, 28.3% of consumers indicated the presence of GM foods in local supermarkets and 47.1% claimed to be knowledgeable of GM foods. Furthermore, significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (age, income, and education), and consumer knowledge of GM foods. Also, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (education, gender, and income) and consumer knowledge of GM foods. In addition, age, education, gender and income (P < 0.05) were useful predictors of consumer knowledge of GM foods. There was a contradiction as whilst 35% of consumers considered GM foods safe for consumption, 70% of consumers were wary of the unknown health risks of GM foods. About two-thirds of respondents (67.5%) considered the creation of GM foods morally wrong and unethical. Regarding GM food labeling preferences, 88% of consumers preferred mandatory labeling of GM foods and 67% of consumers specified that any food product containing a trace of GM food ingredients required mandatory GM labeling. Also, despite the declaration of GM food ingredients on food labels and the reassurance of its safety for consumption by food safety and regulatory institutions, the majority of consumers (76.1%) still preferred conventionally produced foods over GM foods. The study revealed the need to inform shoppers of the presence of GM foods and technologies, present the scientific evidence as to the benefits and risks and the need for a policy on labeling so that informed choices could be taken.

Keywords: genetically modified foods, income, labeling consumer awareness, ingredients, morality and ethics, policy

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2616 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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2615 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa

Abstract:

The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

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2614 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

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The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

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2613 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad, William Aalbersberg

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Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: iron, bioavailability, Fiji foods, in vitro technique, human nutrition

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2612 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead

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Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: indigenous complementary food, infant, iron, vitamin A

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
2611 Oat Grain Functional Ingredient Characterization

Authors: Vita Sterna, Sanita Zute, Inga Jansone, Linda Brunava, Inara Kantane

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Grains, including oats (Avena sativa L.), have been recognized functional foods, because provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases.Oats are good source of soluble fibre, essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Oat breeders have developed oat varieties and improved yielding ability potential of oat varieties. Therefore, the aim of investigation was to analyze the composition of perspective oat varieties and breeding lines grains grown in different conditions and evaluate functional properties. In the studied samples content of protein, starch, β - glucans, total dietetic fibre, composition of amino acids and vitamin E were determined. The results of analysis showed that protein content depending of varieties ranged 9.70 –17.30% total dietary fibre 13.66-30.17 g100g-1, content of β-glucans 2.7-3.5 g100g-1, amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) determined from 4 to 9.9 mg kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in oat grain samples were determined from 31.63 to 54.90 gkg-1. Concluded that amino acids composition of husked and naked oats grown in organic or conventional conditions is close to optimal.

Keywords: dietetic fibre, amino acids, scores, nutrition value

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
2610 Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan

Authors: Muneshia Maheshwar, Kanwal Gul, Shakira Fareed, Ume-Amama Areeb Gul

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Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.

Keywords: health consciousness, attitude, intention to purchase, environmental concern, organic food knowledge

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2609 Rheological Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Supplemented with Flaxseed

Authors: A. Albaridi Najla

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Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is well known to have beneficial effect on health. The seeds are rich in protein, α-linolenic fatty acid and dietary fiber. Bakery products are important part of our daily meals. Functional food recently received considerable attention among consumers. The increase in bread daily consumption leads to the production of breads with functional ingredients such as flaxseed The aim of this Study was to improve the nutritional value of bread by adding flaxseed flour and assessing the effect of adding 0, 5, 10 and 15% flaxseed on whole wheat bread rheological and sensorial properties. The total consumer's acceptability of the flaxseed bread was assessed. Dough characteristics were determined using Farinograph (C.W. Brabender® Instruments, Inc). The result shows no change was observed in water absorption between the stander dough (without flaxseed) and the bread with flaxseed (67%). An Increase in the peak time and dough stickiness was observed with the increase in flaxseed level. Further, breads were evaluated for sensory parameters, colour and texture. High flaxseed level increased the bread crumb softness. Bread with 5% flaxseed was optimized for total sensory evaluation. Overall, flaxseed bread produced in this study was highly acceptable for daily consumption as a functional foods with a potentially health benefits.

Keywords: bread, flaxseed, rheological properties, whole-wheat bread

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2608 Monotonicity of the Jensen Functional for f-Divergences via the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law

Authors: Neda Lovričević, Đilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić

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The Jensen functional in its discrete form is brought in relation to the Csiszar divergence functional, this time via its monotonicity property. This approach presents a generalization of the previously obtained results that made use of interpolating Jensen-type inequalities. Thus the monotonicity property is integrated with the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and applied to f-divergences for probability distributions that originate from the Csiszar divergence functional: Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance, chi-square divergence, total variation distance. The Zipf-Mandelbrot and the Zipf law are widely used in various scientific fields and interdisciplinary and here the focus is on the aspect of the mathematical inequalities.

Keywords: Jensen functional, monotonicity, Csiszar divergence functional, f-divergences, Zipf-Mandelbrot law

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2607 Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: Samwel Boaz Otieno, Fred Were, Ephantus Kabiru, Kaunda Waza

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A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p<0.000}, and that most of them (91.2%) had up to college level education {χ2.(1, N=386) p<0.000}, while the number of males and females were not significantly different {χ (1, N=386) p=0.263} and 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000}. The study showed that adults take on average 2.68 meals a day (N=382, SD=0.603), while children take 3.02 meals (N=386, SD=1.031) a day, and that in most households (82.6%) food is prepared by the women {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000} and further that 50% of foods eaten in that community are purchased {χ2 (1, N=386)=0.1818, p=0.6698}. The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Sorghum bicolour, 64.1% vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food, and further that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-locations varies with traditional vegetables having higher levels of selenium; for example, Laurnea cornuta (148.5 mg/kg), Cleome gynandra (121.5 mg/kg), Vignia ungulata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51 mg/kg), Lates niloticus (0), Oreochromis niloticus (0) Sorgum bicolour (19.97 mg/kg), and Sorgum bicolour (0). The study showed that there is an inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels {RR=1.21, p=0.000}, with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium. The four soil types identified in the study area had varying selenium levels with pleat loam (13.3 mg/kg), sandy loam (10.7 mg/kg), clay (2.8 mg/kg) and loam (4.8 mg/kg). It was concluded from this study that for the foods eaten by most of the respondents the selenium levels were below Daily Reference Intake.

Keywords: determinants, HIV, food, fishing, Selenium

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