Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3318

Search results for: urban farming

3318 Urban Roof Farming: A Smart City Solution Leading to Sustainability

Authors: Phibankhamti Ryngnga

Abstract:

It is a common phenomenon worldwide that farmland has been gradually converted for urban development particularly in the 21st century keeping in mind the population increase on the other hand. Since food demand and supply are not in equilibrium in urban set up, therefore, there is a need for alternative to feed the hungry urban settlers worldwide. In this regard, urban rooftop farming is the only way out to meet the growing demand for food production with the extra benefits of making our urban areas and cities greener and when the populace is exposed to nature and vegetation, it in turn provides an array of psychological benefits, from decreased anxiety to increased productivity. Bare roofs in cities absorb and then radiate heat — a phenomenon known as the “heat island effect. This increases energy usage and contributes to the poor air quality that often plagues big cities. But Urban rooftop farming do provide many solutions to help cool buildings, ultimately reducing carbon emissions, and by growing food in the communities they serve, rooftop farmers lessen the environmental impact of food transportation. This paper will emphasise the significance of Urban roof farming in the present century which in itself a multi-solution to various city problems.

Keywords: urban, roof farming, smart solution, sustainability

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3317 Sky Farming: The Alternative Concept of Green Building Using Vertical Landscape Model in Urban Area as an Effort to Achieve Sustainable Development

Authors: Nadiah Yola Putri, Nesia Putri Sharfina, Traviata Prakarti

Abstract:

This paper is a literature review presented descriptively to review the concept of green building to face the challenge of sustainable development and food in urban areas. In this paper, researchers initiated the concept of green building with sky farming method. Sky farming use vertical landscape system in order to realizing food self-sufficient green city. Sky farming relying on plantings and irrigation system efficiency in the building which is adopted the principles of green building. Planting system is done by applying hydroponic plants with Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) using energy source of solar cell and grey water from the processing of waste treatment plant. The application of sky farming in urban areas can be a recommendation for the design of environmental-friendly construction. In order to keep the land and distance efficiency, this system is a futuristic idea that would be the connector of human civilization in the future.

Keywords: green building, urban area, sky farming, vertical landscape

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3316 Study of the Benefit Analysis Using Vertical Farming Method in Urban Renewal within the Older City of Taichung

Authors: Hsu Kuo-Wei, Tan Roon Fang, Chao Jen-chih

Abstract:

Cities face environmental challenges, including over-urbanization issues, air and water quality issues, lack of green space, excess heat capture, polluted storm water runoff and lack of ecological biodiversity. The vertical farming holds the condition of technology addressing these issues by enabling more food to be produced with finite less resources use and space. Most of the existing research regarding to technology Industry of agriculture between plant factory and vertical greening, which with high costs and high-technology. Relative research developed a sustainable model for construction and operation of the vertical farm in urban housing which aims to revolutionize our daily life of food production and urban development. However, those researches focused on quantitative analysis. This study utilized relative research for key variables of benefits of vertical farming. In the second stage, utilizes Fuzzy Delphi Method to obtain the critical factors of benefits of vertical farming using in Urban Renewal by interviewing the foregoing experts. Then, Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to find the importance degree of each criterion as the measurable indices of the vertical farming method in urban renewal within the older city of Taichung.

Keywords: urban renewal, vertical farming, urban agriculture, benefit analysis, the older city of Taichung

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3315 Unveiling the Potential of Hydroponics as a Climate-Smart Technology for Small-Scale Farming and Food Security in Africa

Authors: Margaret S. Gumisiriza, Ernest. R. Mbega, Patrick Ndakidemi, Businge K. Edward

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper was to assess existing literature regarding hydroponics in both the developing and developed countries. Furthermore, relate it to the context of African countries, how they can implement it and benefit from it in the face of climate change, high population growth rates, and reduced food production. Agriculture remains the major economic activity for a number of African countries. It is the source of income for most peasants, and still contributes to the Gross Domestic Product in most of these African countries. Unfortunately, climate change coupled with the increasing rates of population growth; rural-urban migration; and urbanization have led to food insecurity due to a reduction of available land for agriculture. This has further intensified the food security dilemma in Africa, especially in urban areas, where land is already limited. Considering the aforementioned state of affairs, there is an increasing demand for interventions that can help farmers in Africa to cope with climate change and increase food production. This review explores hydroponic farming and how it can be used as a climate-smart farming system in Africa’s rural and urban areas. Specifically, the review focuses on hydroponics, requirements for hydroponic farming and the state of hydroponic farming in LDCs and Developed countries (DCs). From the review, it was observed that African countries especially those that receive a lot of sunlight would highly benefit from the solar-powered hydroponic farming systems. Further, still, this farming system will help African countries cope with the challenges of high population pressure in urban areas and climate change as it qualifies to be an urban farming system.

Keywords: Africa, climate-smart agriculture, solar-powered-hydroponics, urban-farming

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3314 Developing Indoor Enhanced Bio Composite Vertical Smart Farming System for Climbing Food Plant

Authors: S. Mokhtar, R. Ibrahim, K. Abdan, A. Rashidi

Abstract:

The population in the world are growing in very fast rate. It is expected that urban growth and development would create serious questions of food production and processing, transport, and consumption. Future smart green city policies are emerging to support new ways of visualizing, organizing and managing the city and its flows towards developing more sustainable cities in ensuring food security while maintaining its biodiversity. This is a survey paper analyzing the feasibility of developing a smart vertical farming system for climbing food plant to meet the need of food consumption in urban cities with an alternative green material. This paper documents our investigation on specific requirement for farming high valued climbing type food plant suitable for vertical farming, development of appropriate biocomposite material composition, and design recommendations for developing a new smart vertical farming system inside urban buildings. Results include determination of suitable specific climbing food plant species and material manufacturing processes for reinforcing natural fiber for biocomposite material. The results are expected to become recommendations for developing alternative structural materials for climbing food plant later on towards the development of the future smart vertical farming system. This paper contributes to supporting urban farming in cities and promotes green materials for preserving the environment. Hence supporting efforts in food security agenda especially for developing nations.

Keywords: biocomposite, natural reinforce fiber, smart farming, vertical farming

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3313 Communities And Local Food Systems In The Post Pandemic World: Lessons For Kerala

Authors: Salimah Hasnah, Namratha Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Communities play a vital role in mobilizing people and resources for the benefit of all. Since time immemorial, communities have been spear heading different activities ranging from disaster management, palliative care, local economic development and many more with laudable success. Urban agriculture is one such activity where communities can prove to make a real difference. Farming activities in cities across different developed countries have proved to have favorable outcomes in the form of increased food security, neighborhood revitalization, health benefits and local economic growth. However, urban agriculture in the developing nations have never been prioritized as an important planning tool to cater to the basic needs of the public. Urban agricultural practices are being carried out in a fragmented fashion without a formal backing. The urban dwellers rely heavily on their far-off rural counterparts for daily food requirements. With the onset of the pandemic and the recurring lockdowns, the significance of geographic proximity and its impact on the availability of food to the public are gradually being realized around the globe. This warrants a need for localized food systems by shortening the distance between production and consumption of food. The significance of communities in realizing these urban farming benefits is explored in this paper. A case-study approach is adopted to understand how different communities have overcome barriers to urban farming in cities. The applicability of these practices is validated against the state of Kerala in India wherein different community centered approaches have been successful in the past. The existing barriers are assessed and way forward to achieve a self-sufficient localized food systems is formulated with the key lessons from the case studies. These recommendations will be helpful to successfully establish and sustain farming activities in urban areas by leveraging the power of communities.

Keywords: community-centric, COVID-19, drivers and barriers, local food system, urban agriculture

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3312 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

Abstract:

In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: agricultural production systems, geography, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban, urban

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3311 Revolutionizing Traditional Farming Using Big Data/Cloud Computing: A Review on Vertical Farming

Authors: Milind Chaudhari, Suhail Balasinor

Abstract:

Due to massive deforestation and an ever-increasing population, the organic content of the soil is depleting at a much faster rate. Due to this, there is a big chance that the entire food production in the world will drop by 40% in the next two decades. Vertical farming can help in aiding food production by leveraging big data and cloud computing to ensure plants are grown naturally by providing the optimum nutrients sunlight by analyzing millions of data points. This paper outlines the most important parameters in vertical farming and how a combination of big data and AI helps in calculating and analyzing these millions of data points. Finally, the paper outlines how different organizations are controlling the indoor environment by leveraging big data in enhancing food quantity and quality.

Keywords: big data, IoT, vertical farming, indoor farming

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3310 Low-Cost Monitoring System for Hydroponic Urban Vertical Farms

Authors: Francesco Ruscio, Paolo Paoletti, Jens Thomas, Paul Myers, Sebastiano Fichera

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a low-cost monitoring system for a hydroponic urban vertical farm, enabling its automation and a quantitative assessment of the farm performance. Urban farming has seen increasing interest in the last decade thanks to the development of energy efficient and affordable LED lights; however, the optimal configuration of such systems (i.e. amount of nutrients, light-on time, ambient temperature etc.) is mostly based on the farmers’ experience and empirical guidelines. Moreover, even if simple, the maintenance of such systems is labor intensive as it requires water to be topped-up periodically, mixing of the nutrients etc. To unlock the full potential of urban farming, a quantitative understanding of the role that each variable plays in the growth of the plants is needed, together with a higher degree of automation. The low-cost monitoring system proposed in this paper is a step toward filling this knowledge and technological gap, as it enables collection of sensor data related to water and air temperature, water level, humidity, pressure, light intensity, pH and electric conductivity without requiring any human intervention. More sensors and actuators can also easily be added thanks to the modular design of the proposed platform. Data can be accessed remotely via a simple web interface. The proposed platform can be used both for quantitatively optimizing the setup of the farms and for automating some of the most labor-intensive maintenance activities. Moreover, such monitoring system can also potentially be used for high-level decision making, once enough data are collected.

Keywords: automation, hydroponics, internet of things, monitoring system, urban farming

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3309 Comparative Analysis of Integrated and Non-Integrated Fish Farming in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: B. G. Abiona

Abstract:

This study compared profitability analysis of integrated and non-integrated fish farming in Ogun State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide. Random sampling techniques was used to select 133 non-integrated fish farmers (NIFF) and 216 integrated fish farmers (IFF) (n = 349) from the study area. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, T-test and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed that 92.5% of NIFF was male compared to IFF (90.7%). Also, 96.8% of IFF and 79.7% of NIFF were married. The mean ages of sampled farmers were 44 years (NIFF) and 46 years (IFF) while the mean fish farming experiences were 4 years (NIFF) and 5 years (IFF). Also, the average net profit per year of integrated fish farmers was ₦162,550 compared to NIFF (₦61,638). The chi-square analyses showed that knowledge of fish farming had significant relationship with respondents sex (χ2 = 9.44, df = 2, p < 0.05), age (r = 0.20, p< 0.05) and farming experience (r = p = 0.05). Significant differences exist between integrated and non-integrated fish farming, considering their knowledge of fish farming (t = 21.5, χ = 43.01, p < 0.05). The study concluded that IFF are more profitable compared to NIFF. It was recommended that private investors and NGOs should sponsor short training and courses which will enhance efficiency of fish farming to boost productivity among fish farmers.

Keywords: profitability analysis, farms, integration

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3308 Urban Agriculture in a Scandinavian Context as a Tool for Climate Adaption and for Empowering Communities through Food Production

Authors: Signe Voltelen, Kristin Astrup Aas

Abstract:

In the Scandinavian cities, there is a raised focus on the potential of using urban agriculture in city development, both as a tool for handling challenges provoked by climate change and to develop new, and stronger social communities. During the last couple of years, Copenhagen has experienced an increase in extreme weather resulting in dramatical floods with huge humanitarian and economic consequences. As an approach for climate adaption and mitigation the government has made a strategy for changing a significant amount of the cities hard surfaces into green and absorbing surfaces. Including urban farms and gardens. In close collaboration with the municipality, it has been possible to implement citizen-run gardens under the different concepts climate adaption and food literacy. Like other European cities, Copenhagen has a historical tradition of small-scale farming for food security inside the city, and in the outskirts of the urban area. Lately, this tradition has gotten new relevance, and new initiatives are popping up. In addition to providing local food, the urban farm becomes a semi-public, semi-private room that invites to community and integration across ethnicity, social background, and age. The direct interaction in the process of farming creates a connection between the urban and the rural and are educational for people growing up and living their whole life in the dense city. In the paper, three local example models of urban agriculture are presented, and the experiences of their potential as tools for developing social and environmental sustainable cities is examined.

Keywords: city development, climate mitigation, community building, urban agriculture, urban- rural transition, food security

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3307 Mobile Application Set to Empower SME Farmers in Peri-Urban Sydney Region

Authors: A. Hol

Abstract:

Even in the well developed countries like Australia, Small to Medium Farmers do not often have the power over the market prices as they are more often than not set by the farming agents. This in turn creates problems as farmers only get to know for how much their produce has been sold for by the agents three to four weeks after the sale has taken the place. To see and identify if and how peri-urban Sydney farmers could be assisted, carefully selected group of peri-urban Sydney farmers of the stone fruit has been interviewed. Following the case based interviews collected data was analyzed in detail using the Scenario Based Transformation principles. Analyzed data was then used to create a most common transformation case. The case identified that a mobile web based system could be develop so that framers can monitor agent earnings and in turn gain more power over the markets. It is expected that after the system has been in action for six months to a year, farmers will become empowered and they will gain means to monitor the market and negotiate agent prices.

Keywords: mobile applications, farming, scenario-based analysis, scenario-based transformation, user empowerment

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3306 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

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3305 Crop Production and Food Sufficiency Level of Family Farmers

Authors: Prakash Chandra Subedi

Abstract:

Family farming is the family based farming activities, where the farmers cultivate their farm themselves and all the members of the family are engaged in farming as per their skill, age, and physical strength. This study was conducted to examine the food sufficiency level of family farmers and, was carried in the four VDCs of Kavrepalanchowk district -Jaisithok Mandan, Mahadevsthan Mandan and Gairi Bisouna Deupur. A total of 115 households determined as the sample size from each of the four VDCs were randomly visited for interview in the study. The size of land holding was found to be very small and fragmented. The quality of soil was fertile and could yield high production if irrigation existed. The labour used patterns were significant number of family labour but due to high youth migration there were labour shortage. The rate of adoption of agri-technology was low but the households adopting insectides/pesticides and chemical fertilizers were found to be high without any knowledge regarding its using techniques. In conclusion, the study highpoint that the crop production and food sufficiency level of the family farmers of the Kavrepalanchowk district is decreasing. Many farmers were leaving their farming and started seeking opportunity to go for foreign employment or engaged in non-agricultural activities in urban areas. If no action is taken timely, there may come situation that we will have to depend on imports for all the food requirements. Thus, the study reveals that the family farming could act as an agent for ensuring food sufficiency for all, if proper policies is promoted to family farmers with legal titles to their land or promoted with sustainable agriculture methods or provided with proper agri-technology or given their share of respect and responsibilities that farming as honorable profession.

Keywords: family farming, technology transfer, crop production, food sufficiency

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3304 A Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Traditional and Climate-smart Farming: A Case of Dhanusha District, Nepal

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Geoff Cockfield

Abstract:

This paper examines the emission potential of different farming practices that the farmers have adopted in Dhanusha District of Nepal and scope of these practices in climate change mitigation. Which practice is more climate-smarter is the question that this aims to address through a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The LCA was performed to assess if there is difference in emission potential of broadly two farming systems (agroforestry–based and traditional agriculture) but specifically four farming systems. The required data for this was collected through household survey of randomly selected households of 200. The sources of emissions across the farming systems were paddy cultivation, livestock, chemical fertilizer, fossil fuels and biomass (fuel-wood and crop residue) burning. However, the amount of emission from these sources varied with farming system adopted. Emissions from biomass burning appeared to be the highest while the source ‘fossil fuel’ caused the lowest emission in all systems. The emissions decreased gradually from agriculture towards the highly integrated agroforestry-based farming system (HIS), indicating that integrating trees into farming system not only sequester more carbon but also help in reducing emissions from the system. The annual emissions for HIS, Medium integrated agroforestry-based farming system (MIS), LIS (less integrated agroforestry-based farming system and subsistence agricultural system (SAS) were 6.67 t ha-1, 8.62 t ha-1, 10.75 t ha-1 and 17.85 t ha-1 respectively. In one agroforestry cycle, the HIS, MIS and LIS released 64%, 52% and 40% less GHG emission than that of SAS. Within agroforestry-based farming systems, the HIS produced 25% and 50% less emissions than those of MIS and LIS respectively. Our finding suggests that a tree-based farming system is more climate-smarter than a traditional farming. If other two benefits (carbon sequestered within the farm and in the natural forest because of agroforestry) are to be considered, a considerable amount of emissions is reduced from a climate-smart farming. Some policy intervention is required to motivate farmers towards adopting such climate-friendly farming practices in developing countries.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, greenhouse gas, climate change, farming systems, Nepal

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3303 Some Factors Affecting to Farm Size of Duck Farming

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to know some factors affecting farm size of duck farming (case study in Pinrang district, South Sulawesi). This research was conducted in 2013. Total sample was 45 duck farmers which were selected from 6 regions in Mattiro Sompe sub district, Pinrang district, South Sulawesi province through stratified random sampling. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires and observation. Multiple regression equation was used to analyze the data. Dependent variable was duck population, while age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level as independent variables. This research revealed that R2 was 0.920. Simultaneously, age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level significantly influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%). Only income influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%).

Keywords: duck, dry system, factors, farm-size

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3302 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

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3301 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell

Abstract:

Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: land uses, urban agriculture, agriculture, food engineering

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3300 Application of Sustainable Agriculture Based on LEISA in Landscape Design of Integrated Farming

Authors: Eduwin Eko Franjaya, Andi Gunawan, Wahju Qamara Mugnisjah

Abstract:

Sustainable agriculture in the form of integrated farming with its LEISA (Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture) concept has brought a positive impact on agriculture development and ambient amelioration. But, most of the small farmers in Indonesia did not know how to put the concept of it and how to combine agricultural commodities on the site effectively and efficiently. This research has an aim to promote integrated farming (agrofisheries, etc) to the farmers by designing the agricultural landscape to become integrated farming landscape as medium of education for the farmers. The method used in this research is closely related with the rule of design in the landscape architecture science. The first step is inventarization for the existing condition on the research site. The second step is analysis. Then, the third step is concept-making that consists of base concept, design concept, and developing concept. The base concept used in this research is sustainable agriculture with LEISA. The concept design is related with activity base on site. The developing concept consists of space concept, circulation, vegetation and commodity, production system, etc. The fourth step as the final step is planning and design. This step produces site plan of integrated farming based on LEISA. The result of this research is site plan of integrated farming with its explanation, including the energy flow of integrated farming system on site and the production calendar of integrated farming commodities for education and agri-tourism opportunity. This research become the right way to promote the integrated farming and also as a medium for the farmers to learn and to develop it.

Keywords: integrated farming, LEISA, planning and design, site plan

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3299 Profit Comparative of Fisheries in East Aceh Regency Aceh Province

Authors: Mawardati Mawardati

Abstract:

This research was carried out on the traditional milkfish and shrimp culture cultivation from March to May 2018 in East Aceh District. This study aims to to analyze the differences between traditional milkfish cultivation and shrimp farming in East Aceh District, Aceh Province. The analytical method used is acquisition analysis and Independent Sample T test analysis. The results showed a significant difference between milkfish farming and shrimp farming in East Aceh District, Aceh Province. Based on the results of the analysis, the average profit from shrimp farming is higher than that of milkfish farming. This demand exceeds market demand for exports. Thus the price of shrimp is still far higher than the price of milk fish.

Keywords: comparative, profit, shrimp, milkfish

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3298 Assessing the Financial Potential of an Agroforestry-Based Farming Practice in a Labor Scarce Subsistence Economy

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Rajesh Kumar Rai

Abstract:

Agroforestry is long practiced in Nepal as a means of subsistence livelihoods. Given its potential to climate change mitigation, this practice is being recommended as a climate-smart farming practice in the recent years. However, the financial attractiveness of this practice is not well-documented in a labor scarce economy such as Nepal. This study attempts to examine the financial suitability of an agroforestry-based farming practice in the present socio-economic context of Nepal where labor is in short supply. A total of 200 households were randomly selected for household surveys in Dhanusha district during April to July 2015. Two farming practices were found to be dominant in the study area: 1) conventional farming (field crops only) in which at least two field crops are annually grown, and 2) agroforestry-based farming (agroforest, home garden and field crops combined) practice (ABFP). The ABFP was found to be less labor intensive than the conventional farming (137 Man days/yr/ha vs 218 Man days/yr/ha). The ex-ante financial analysis indicated that both the farming practices generated positive NPVs (Net Present Values) and B/C (Benefit-Cost) ratios greater than one, indicating both are financially attractive farming enterprises under the base discount rate of 12%. However, the ABFP generated higher NPV and greater B/C ratio than the conventional farming, indicating the former was financially more attractive than the later. The sensitivity analysis showed that the conventional farming was more sensitive to change in labor wage rate than that of the ABFP. Up to the 24% discount rate, the ABFP generated higher NPV and in case of B/C ratio, the ratio was found greater for ABFP even in 50% discount rate.

Keywords: agroforestry, benefit-cost analysis, conventional farming, net present value

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3297 Existing Situation on Labour Use, Health Management and Problems of Buffalo Farming in Thailand

Authors: Chonlawit Yuwajitaa, Suttipong Pruangkab

Abstract:

Existing situation on labour use, health management and problems, and ancillary work done along with buffalo farming in Thailand was studied, There were 52 farms had been interviewed during August to September 2014. The study revealed that 100 percent of labor use was family labors themselves and all of farmers reared their buffaloes and grew rice simultaneously. The farmers valued veterinary service and advice as the most important problem (40.40%) and buffalo farming health problems was found 7.69% of dystocia, retain placenta and abortion. The major problem that should be taken into account was officials involved and buffalo farming should be continually promoted by government sectors to help solving economic problems as a whole.

Keywords: buffalo, labor use, health management, Thailand

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3296 The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Strengthening Goat Farm Competitiveness in Banjarnegara District, Indonesia

Authors: Mochamad Sugiarto, Yusmi Nw

Abstract:

Goat farming became an important alternative in eradicating poverty in Banjarnegara District. The success of goat farming in delivering products through efficient business management will improve business competitiveness. Entrepreneurship based farming has been able to survive in an ever-changing and increasingly complex global economy. Entrepreneurial farmers characterized by the ability to provide products of goats by applying the principles of efficient business. To achieve, this requires an understanding and a positive outlook related to entrepreneurship involving the values of courage to take risks, creativity and innovation as well as management's ability to find and read the opportunities. Entrepreneurial orientation owned by farmers is an important spirit of farmers to make decision for developing the goat farming. Entrepreneurial orientation is the view of farmers against the values of confidence, result-oriented, future-oriented, and creativity/innovation in goat farming. This study aims to (1) identify the entrepreneurial orientation of goat farmers in Banjarnegara District (2) analyze business competitiveness (cost efficiency) of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District and (3) analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial perception and cost efficiency of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District. 178 respondents (goat farmers) were taken using stratified random sampling based on altitude. Banjarnegara district with heterogeneous topography grouped into areas of high ( > 1500m), moderate (500m-1000m) and low ( < 500m). The goat farmers in Banjarnegara District has a moderate entrepreneurial orientation. The manage their goat farming efficiently by having R/C = 2.58. Strengthening the entrepreneurial orientation will significantly increase the cost efficiency, which has an impact on strengthening the competitiveness of goat farming in Banjarnegara District.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, cost efficiency, farm competitiveness, goat farming

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3295 Credit Risk Evaluation of Dairy Farming Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: R. H. Fattepur, Sameer R. Fattepur, D. K. Sreekantha

Abstract:

Dairy Farming is one of the key industries in India. India is the leading producer and also the consumer of milk, milk-based products in the world. In this paper, we have attempted to the replace the human expert system and to develop an artificial expert system prototype to increase the speed and accuracy of decision making dairy farming credit risk evaluation. Fuzzy logic is used for dealing with uncertainty, vague and acquired knowledge, fuzzy rule base method is used for representing this knowledge for building an effective expert system.

Keywords: expert system, fuzzy logic, knowledge base, dairy farming, credit risk

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3294 Communication Layer Security in Smart Farming: A Survey on Wireless Technologies

Authors: Hossein Mohammadi Rouzbahani, Hadis Karimipour, Evan Fraser, Ali Dehghantanha, Emily Duncan, Arthur Green, Conchobhair Russell

Abstract:

Human population growth has driven rising demand for food that has, in turn, imposed huge impacts on the environment. In an effort to reconcile our need to produce more sustenance while also protecting the world’s ecosystems, farming is becoming more reliant on smart tools and communication technologies. Developing a smart farming framework allows farmers to make more efficient use of inputs, thus protecting water quality and biodiversity habitat. Internet of Things (IoT), which has revolutionized every sphere of the economy, is being applied to agriculture by connecting on-farm devices and providing real-time monitoring of everything from environmental conditions to market signals through to animal health data. However, utilizing IoT means farming networks are now vulnerable to malicious activities, mostly when wireless communications are highly employed. With that in mind, this research aims to review different utilized communication technologies in smart farming. Moreover, possible cyber-attacks are investigated to discover the vulnerabilities of communication technologies considering the most frequent cyber-attacks that have been happened.

Keywords: smart farming, Internet of Things, communication layer, cyber-attack

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3293 Choice Experiment Approach on Evaluation of Non-Market Farming System Outputs: First Results from Lithuanian Case Study

Authors: A. Novikova, L. Rocchi, G. Startiene

Abstract:

Market and non-market outputs are produced jointly in agriculture. Their supply depends on the intensity and type of production. The role of agriculture as an economic activity and its effects are important for the Lithuanian case study, as agricultural land covers more than a half of country. Positive and negative externalities, created in agriculture are not considered in the market. Therefore, specific techniques such as stated preferences methods, in particular choice experiments (CE) are used for evaluation of non-market outputs in agriculture. The main aim of this paper is to present construction of the research path for evaluation of non-market farming system outputs in Lithuania. The conventional and organic farming, covering crops (including both cereal and industrial crops) and livestock (including dairy and cattle) production has been selected. The CE method and nested logit (NL) model were selected as appropriate for evaluation of non-market outputs of different farming systems in Lithuania. A pilot survey was implemented between October–November 2018, in order to test and improve the CE questionnaire. The results of the survey showed that the questionnaire is accepted and well understood by the respondents. The econometric modelling showed that the selected NL model could be used for the main survey. The understanding of the differences between organic and conventional farming by residents was identified. It was revealed that they are more willing to choose organic farming in comparison to conventional farming.

Keywords: choice experiments, farming system, Lithuania market outputs, non-market outputs

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3292 Environmental Impacts on Urban Agriculture in Algiers

Authors: Sara Bouzekri, Said Madani

Abstract:

In many Mediterranean cities such as Algiers, the human activity, the strong mobility the urban sprawl, the air pollution, the problems of waste management, the wasting of the resources and the degradation of the environment weaken in an unquestionable way the farming. The question of sustainable action vis-a-vis these threats arises then in order to maintain a level of desired local development. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria method based on the AFOM diagnosis, which classifies agricultural strength indicators and those of threat, according to an analytical approach. In a sustainable development perspective, it will be appropriate to link the threat factors of the case study with the factors of climate change to see their impact on the future of agriculture. This will be accompanied by a SWOT analysis, which crosses the most significant criteria to arrive at the necessary recommendations based on future projects for urban agriculture.

Keywords: Algiers, environment, urban agriculture, threat factors

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3291 The Scale of Farms and Development Perspectives in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili, E. Kharaishvili, G. Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The article presents the development trends of farms, estimates on the optimal scope of farming, as well as the experience of local and foreign countries in this area. As well, the advantages of small and large farms are discussed; herewith, the scales of farms are compared to the local reality. The study analyzes the results of farm operations and the possibilities of diversification of farms. The indicators of an effective use of land resources and land fragmentation are measured; also, a comparative analysis with other countries is presented, in particular, the measurements of agricultural lands for farming, as well as the indicators of population ensuring. The conducted research shows that most of the farms in Georgia are small and their development is at the initial stage, which outlines that the country has a high resource potential to increase the scale of the farming industry and its full integration into market relations. On the basis of the obtained results, according to the research on the scale of farming in Georgia and the identification of hampering factors of farming development, the conclusions are presented and the relevant recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: farm cooperatives.farms, farm scale, land fragmentation, small and large farms

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3290 Organic Farming Profitability: Evidence from South Korea

Authors: Saem Lee, Thanh Nguyen, Hio-Jung Shin, Thomas Koellner

Abstract:

Land-use management has an influence on the provision of ecosystem service in dynamic, agricultural landscapes. Agricultural land use is important for maintaining the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, in Korea, intensive farming activities in this highland agricultural zone, the upper stream of Soyang has led to contaminated soil caused by over-use pesticides and fertilizers. This has led to decrease in water and soil quality, which has consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Conventional farming has still high percentage in this area and there is no special measure to prevent low water quality caused by farming activities. Therefore, the adoption of environmentally friendly farming has been considered one of the alternatives that lead to improved water quality and increase in biomass production. Concurrently, farm households with environmentally friendly farming have occupied still low rates. Therefore, our research involved a farm household survey spanning conventional farming, the farm in transition and organic farming in Soyang watershed. Another purpose of our research was to compare economic advantage of the farmers adopting environmentally friendly farming and non-adaptors and to investigate the different factors by logistic regression analysis with socio-economic and benefit-cost ratio variables. The results found that farmers with environmentally friendly farming tended to be younger than conventional farming and farmer in transition. They are similar in terms of gender which was predominately male. Farmers with environmentally friendly farming were more educated and had less farming experience than conventional farming and farmer in transition. Based on the benefit-cost analysis, total costs that farm in transition farmers spent for one year are about two times as much as the sum of costs in environmentally friendly farming. The benefit of organic farmers was assessed with 2,800 KRW per household per year. In logistic regression, the factors having statistical significance are subsidy and district, residence period and benefit-cost ratio. And district and residence period have the negative impact on the practice of environmentally friendly farming techniques. The results of our research make a valuable contribution to provide important information to describe Korean policy-making for agricultural and water management and to consider potential approaches to policy that would substantiate ways beneficial for sustainable resource management.

Keywords: organic farming, logistic regression, profitability, agricultural land-use

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3289 Integrated Livestock and Cropping System and Sustainable Rural Development in India: A Case Study

Authors: Nizamuddin Khan

Abstract:

Integrated livestock and cropping system is very old agricultural practice since antiquity. It is an eco-friendly and sustainable farming system in which both the resources are optimally and rationally utilized through the recycling and re-utilization of their by-products. Indian farmers follow in- farm integrated farming system unlike in developed countries where both farm and off-farm system prevailed. The data on different components of the integrated farming system is very limited and that too is not widely available in published form. The primary source is the only option for understanding the mechanism, process, evaluation and performance of integrated livestock cropping system. Researcher generated data through the field survey of sampled respondents from sampled villages from Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. The present paper aims to understand the component group of system, degree, and level of integration, level of generation of employment, income, improvement in farm ecology, the economic viability of farmers and check in rural-urban migration. The study revealed that area witnessed intra farm integration in which both livestock and cultivation of crops take place on the same farm. Buffalo, goat, and poultry are common components of integration. Wheat, paddy, sugarcane and horticulture are among the crops. The farmers are getting 25% benefit more than those who do not follow the integrated system. Livestock husbandry provides employment and income through the year, especially during agriculture offseason. 80% of farmers viewed that approximately 35% of the total expenditure incurred is met from the livestock sector. Landless, marginal and small farmers are highly benefited from agricultural integration. About 70% of farmers acknowledged that using wastes of animals and crops the soil ecology is significantly maintained. Further, the integrated farming system is helpful in reducing rural to urban migration. An incentive with credit facilities, assured marketing, technological aid and government support is urgently needed for sustainable development of agriculture and farmers.

Keywords: integrated, recycle, employment, soil ecology, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 80