Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Search results for: dehydration

105 Ultrathin NaA Zeolite Membrane in Solvent Recovery: Preparation and Application

Authors: Eng Toon Saw, Kun Liang Ang, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Solvent recovery process is receiving utmost attention in recent year due to the scarcity of natural resource and consciousness of circular economy in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Solvent dehydration process is one of the important process to recover and to purify the solvent for reuse. Due to the complexity of solvent waste or wastewater effluent produced in pharmaceutical industry resulting the wastewater treatment process become complicated, thus an alternative solution is to recover the valuable solvent in solvent waste. To treat solvent waste and to upgrade solvent purity, membrane pervaporation process is shown to be a promising technology due to the energy intensive and low footprint advantages. Ceramic membrane is adopted as solvent dehydration membrane owing to the chemical and thermal stability properties as compared to polymeric membrane. NaA zeolite membrane is generally used as solvent dehydration process because of its narrow and distinct pore size and high hydrophilicity. NaA zeolite membrane has been mainly applied in alcohol dehydration in fermentation process. At this stage, the membrane performance exhibits high separation factor with low flux using tubular ceramic membrane. Thus, defect free and ultrathin NaA membrane should be developed to increase water flux. Herein, we report a simple preparation protocol to prepare ultrathin NaA zeolite membrane supported on tubular ceramic membrane by controlling the seed size synthesis, seeding methods and conditions, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection and secondary growth conditions. The microstructure and morphology of NaA zeolite membrane will be examined and reported. Moreover, the membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported in isopropanol dehydration, ketone dehydration and ester dehydration particularly for the application in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, NaA zeolite, pharmaceutical industry, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
104 Modelling and Simulation of Diffusion Effect on the Glycol Dehydration Unit of a Natural Gas Plant

Authors: M. Wigwe, J. G Akpa, E. N Wami

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Mathematical models of the absorber of a glycol dehydration facility was developed using the principles of conservation of mass and energy. Models which predict variation of the water content of gas in mole fraction, variation of gas and liquid temperatures across the parking height were developed. These models contain contributions from bulk and diffusion flows. The effect of diffusion on the process occurring in the absorber was studied in this work. The models were validated using the initial conditions in the plant data from Company W TEG unit in Nigeria. The results obtained showed that the effect of diffusion was noticed between z=0 and z=0.004 m. A deviation from plant data of 0% was observed for the gas water content at a residence time of 20 seconds, at z=0.004 m. Similarly, deviations of 1.584% and 2.844% were observed for the gas and TEG temperatures.

Keywords: separations, absorption, simulation, dehydration, water content, triethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
103 COSMO-RS Prediction for Choline Chloride/Urea Based Deep Eutectic Solvent: Chemical Structure and Application as Agent for Natural Gas Dehydration

Authors: Tayeb Aissaoui, Inas M. AlNashef

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In recent years, green solvents named deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been found to possess significant properties and to be applicable in several technologies. Choline chloride (ChCl) mixed with urea at a ratio of 1:2 and 80 °C was the first discovered DES. In this article, chemical structure and combination mechanism of ChCl: urea based DES were investigated. Moreover, the implementation of this DES in water removal from natural gas was reported. Dehydration of natural gas by ChCl:urea shows significant absorption efficiency compared to triethylene glycol. All above operations were retrieved from COSMOthermX software. This article confirms the potential application of DESs in gas industry.

Keywords: COSMO-RS, deep eutectic solvents, dehydration, natural gas, structure, organic salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
102 Polymer Impregnated Sulfonated Carbon Composite as a Solid Acid Catalyst for the Dehydration of Xylose to Furfural

Authors: Praveen K. Khatri, Neha Karanwal, Savita Kaul, Suman L. Jain

Abstract:

Conversion of biomass through green chemical routes is of great industrial importance as biomass is considered to be most widely available inexpensive renewable resource that can be used as a raw material for the production of bio fuel and value-added organic products. In this regard, acid catalyzed dehydration of biomass derived pentose sugar (mainly D-xylose) to furfural is a process of tremendous research interest in current scenario due to the wider industrial applications of furfural. Furfural is an excellent organic solvent for refinement of lubricants and separation of butadiene from butene mixture in synthetic rubber fabrication. In addition it also serve as a promising solvent for many organic materials, such as resins, polymers and also used as a building block for synthesis of various valuable chemicals such as furfuryl alcohol, furan, pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and THF. Here in a sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite solid acid catalyst (P-C-SO3H) was prepared by the pyrolysis of a polymer matrix impregnated with glucose followed by its sulfonation and used for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. The developed catalyst exhibited excellent activity and provided almost quantitative conversion of xylose with the selective synthesis of furfural. The higher catalytic activity of P-C-SO3H may be due to the more even distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated from incomplete carbonization of glucose along the polymer matrix network, leading to more available sites for sulfonation which resulted in greater sulfonic acid density in P-C-SO3H as compared to sulfonated carbon catalyst (C-SO3H). In conclusion, we have demonstrated sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite (P-C-SO3H) as an efficient and selective solid acid catalyst for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered and reused for several runs without noticeable loss in its activity and selectivity.

Keywords: Solid acid , Biomass conversion, Xylose Dehydration, Heterogeneous catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
101 Effect of Convective Dryness Combined with Osmotic Dehydration, Blanching, Microwave and Ultrasonic Treatment on Bioactive Compounds and Rehydration Capacity of Dried Plums

Authors: Elena Corina Popescu, Magda Gabriela Bratu

Abstract:

Increasing interest in keeping bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, vitamin C) and dried fruit quality has motivated the researchers to investigate new combined drying technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of convective dryness combined with osmotic dehydration, blanching, microwave treatment and ultrasonic treatment on the quality of dried plums. Osmotic dehydration was achieved by maintaining plums for 1 h in sucrose solution (300Brix). For microwave treatment, the plums were kept at 400 W for 80 sec. For ultrasonic treatment, plums were immersed in distilled water and sonicated for 30 minutes at 40 kHz and 200 W. The blanching consists of immersing plums in hot water at 90°C for 20 seconds and cooling them rapidly. Conventional drying was carried out at 70°C for 630 minutes. Drying curves, drying rate, anthocyanin and vitamin C stability, acidity variation (expressed as malic acid), reducing sugar content, and rehydration capacity of dried plums were analyzed. Blanching led to the largest amount of evaporated water. Blanched plums have had 13.36% less water than sonicated ones. The lowest anthocyanal loss of 34.5% was obtained in osmotically dehydrated plums, and 2.93% vitamin C is found in the plums sonicated. There were no significant differences in regards acidity and reducing sugar. The plums blanched before drying have had a high capacity of rehydration.

Keywords: anthocyanin, dried plums, pretreatments, vitamin C

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
100 Prussian Blue/Chitosan Mixed-Matrix Membranes with Improved Separation Performance of Ethanol/Water Mixtures

Authors: Ting-YuLiu, Yi-Feng Lin

Abstract:

Porous Prussian Blue (PB) nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form PB/CS mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) and the as-prepared PB/CS MMMs were used to dehydration of ethanol at 25 oC in the pervaporation process. The effect of PB loading in CS matrix on pervaporation performance was investigated. The FESEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD measurements were also used for the characterization of the PB/CS MMMs. The PB/CS membranes with 30 wt% PB loading show the best performance with the permeate flux of 614 g/m2h and the separation factor of 1472. The pervaporation using the PB/CS membranes exhibits outstanding performance as compared with the previously reported CS based membranes and MMMs. The present work demonstrates good pervaporation performance of the PB/CS MMMs for the separation of 90wt% ethanol aqueous solution, moreover, it has an opportunity for dehydration of bioethanol in this system of pervaporation.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, Prussian blue, mixed-matrix membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
99 Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein with Solid Acid Catalysts

Authors: Lin Huang, Bo Wang, Armando Borgna

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Dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was conducted with solid acid catalysts in liquid phase in a batch reactor and in gas phase in a fix-bed reactor, respectively. In the liquid-phase reaction, ZSM-5, H3PO4-modified ZSM-5 and heteropolyacids including H3PW12O40•xH2O (HPW) and Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (CsPW) were studied as catalysts. High temperatures and high boiling point solvents such as sulfolane improved the selectivity to acrolein through suppressing the formation of polyglycerols and coke. Catalytic results and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia showed that the yield of acrolein increased with increasing catalyst acidity within the range of weak acid strength. Weak acid sites favored the selectivity to acrolein whereas strong acid sites promoted the formation of coke. ZSM-5 possessing only acid sites led to a high acrolein yield, while heteropolyacid catalysts with strong acid sites produced a low acrolein yield. In the gas-phase reaction, HPW and CsPW supported on metal oxides such as SiO2, γ-Al2O3, SiO2-Al2O3, ZrO2 and silicate TUD-1 were studied as catalysts. HPW/TUD-1 was most active for the production of acrolein, followed by HPW/SiO2. An acrolein yield of 61 % was obtained over HPW/TUD-1. X-ray diffraction study suggested that HPW and CsPW were stable and more dispersed on SiO2, silicate TUD-1 and SiO2-Al2O3. It was found that the structures of HPW and CsPW were destroyed by interaction with γ-Al2O3 and ZrO2. Compared to CsPW/TUD-1, the higher acrolein yield with HPW/TUD-1 may be attributed to more Brønsted acid sites on HPW/TUD-1, based on preliminary pyridine adsorption IR study.

Keywords: dehydration, glycerol, acrolein, solid acid catalysts, gas-phase, liquid-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
98 Hydrocarbons and Diamondiferous Structures Formation in Different Depths of the Earth Crust

Authors: A. V. Harutyunyan

Abstract:

The investigation results of rocks at high pressures and temperatures have revealed the intervals of changes of seismic waves and density, as well as some processes taking place in rocks. In the serpentinized rocks, as a consequence of dehydration, abrupt changes in seismic waves and density have been recorded. Hydrogen-bearing components are released which combine with carbon-bearing components. As a result, hydrocarbons formed. The investigated samples are smelted. Then, geofluids and hydrocarbons migrate into the upper horizons of the Earth crust by the deep faults. Then their differentiation and accumulation in the jointed rocks of the faults and in the layers with collecting properties takes place. Under the majority of the hydrocarbon deposits, at a certain depth, magmatic centers and deep faults are recorded. The investigation results of the serpentinized rocks with numerous geological-geophysical factual data allow understanding that hydrocarbons are mainly formed in both the offshore part of the ocean and at different depths of the continental crust. Experiments have also shown that the dehydration of the serpentinized rocks is accompanied by an explosion with the instantaneous increase in pressure and temperature and smelting the studied rocks. According to numerous publications, hydrocarbons and diamonds are formed in the upper part of the mantle, at the depths of 200-400km, and as a consequence of geodynamic processes, they rise to the upper horizons of the Earth crust through narrow channels. However, the genesis of metamorphogenic diamonds and the diamonds found in the lava streams formed within the Earth crust, remains unclear. As at dehydration, super high pressures and temperatures arise. It is assumed that diamond crystals are formed from carbon containing components present in the dehydration zone. It can be assumed that besides the explosion at dehydration, secondary explosions of the released hydrogen take place. The process is naturally accompanied by seismic phenomena, causing earthquakes of different magnitudes on the surface. As for the diamondiferous kimberlites, it is well-known that the majority of them are located within the ancient shield and platforms not obligatorily connected with the deep faults. The kimberlites are formed at the shallow location of dehydrated masses in the Earth crust. Kimberlites are younger in respect of containing ancient rocks containing serpentinized bazites and ultrbazites of relicts of the paleooceanic crust. Sometimes, diamonds containing water and hydrocarbons showing their simultaneous genesis are found. So, the geofluids, hydrocarbons and diamonds, according to the new concept put forward, are formed simultaneously from serpentinized rocks as a consequence of their dehydration at different depths of the Earth crust. Based on the concept proposed by us, we suggest discussing the following: -Genesis of gigantic hydrocarbon deposits located in the offshore area of oceans (North American, Mexican Gulf, Cuanza-Kamerunian, East Brazilian etc.) as well as in the continental parts of different mainlands (Kanadian-Arctic Caspian, East Siberian etc.) - Genesis of metamorphogenic diamonds and diamonds in the lava streams (Guinea-Liberian, Kokchetav, Kanadian, Kamchatka-Tolbachinian, etc.).

Keywords: dehydration, diamonds, hydrocarbons, serpentinites

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
97 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev

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Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: crystal structure, magnetic properties, manganese oxalate, thermal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
96 Waste from Drinking Water Treatment: The Feasibility for Application in Building Materials

Authors: Marco Correa

Abstract:

The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources supplying most municipalities, as well as the rising demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of water treatment plants generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows alternatives for sludge dehydration from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, it is presented a case study for drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sledge drainage tanks from WTP of the city of Rio Verde. Aiming to the reutilization of drained water from the sledge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to in the production of building materials.

Keywords: dehydration, effluent discharges, re-use, sludge, WTP sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
95 The Optimisation of Salt Impregnated Matrices as Potential Thermochemical Storage Materials

Authors: Robert J. Sutton, Jon Elvins, Sean Casey, Eifion Jewell, Justin R. Searle

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Thermochemical storage utilises chemical salts which store and release energy a fully reversible endo/exothermic chemical reaction. Highly porous vermiculite impregnated with CaCl2, LiNO3 and MgSO4 (SIMs – Salt In Matrices) are proposed as potential materials for long-term thermochemical storage. The behavior of these materials during typical hydration and dehydration cycles is investigated. A simple moisture experiment represents the hydration, whilst thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) represents the dehydration. Further experiments to approximate the energy density and to determine the peak output temperatures of the SIMs are conducted. The CaCl2 SIM is deemed the best performing SIM across most experiments, whilst the results of MgSO4 SIM indicate difficulty associated with energy recovery.

Keywords: hydrated states, inter-seasonal heat storage, moisture sorption, salt in matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
94 Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian Thompson

Abstract:

The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.

Keywords: bio-fuel, nano composite catalyst, DME, Cu-Al2O3

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
93 Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize

Authors: Olakunle M. Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.

Keywords: starch flour, maize, dehydration, cabinet dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
92 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi

Abstract:

An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
91 Dehydration of Residues from WTP for Application in Building Materials and Reuse of Water from the Waste Treatment: A Feasible Solution to Complete Treatment Systems

Authors: Marco Correa, Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque

Abstract:

The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources which supply most municipalities, as well as the continued rise of demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of the water treatment plants, generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows an alternative for the dehydration of sludge from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, we present a case study for a drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sludge drainage tanks from WTP of the Rio Verde City. Aiming to the reutilization the water drained from the sludge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to production of building materials.

Keywords: re-use, residue, sustainable, water treatment plants, sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
90 Effect of Microstructure of Graphene Oxide Fabricated through Different Self-Assembly Techniques on Alcohol Dehydration

Authors: Wei-Song Hung

Abstract:

We utilized pressure, vacuum, and evaporation-assisted self-assembly techniques through which graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on modified polyacrylonitrile (mPAN). The fabricated composite GO/mPAN membranes were applied to dehydrate 1-butanol mixtures by pervaporation. Varying driving forces in the self-assembly techniques induced different GO assembly layer microstructures. XRD results indicated that the GO layer d-spacing varied from 8.3 Å to 11.5 Å. The self-assembly technique with evaporation resulted in a heterogeneous GO layer with loop structures; this layer was shown to be hydrophobic, in contrast to the hydrophilic layer formed from the other two techniques. From the pressure-assisted technique, the composite membrane exhibited exceptional pervaporation performance at 30 C: concentration of water at the permeate side = 99.6 wt% and permeation flux = 2.54 kg m-2 h-1. Moreover, the membrane sustained its operating stability at a high temperature of 70 C: a high water concentration of 99.5 wt% was maintained, and a permeation flux as high as 4.34 kg m-2 h-1 was attained. This excellent separation performance stemmed from the dense, highly ordered laminate structure of GO.

Keywords: graphene oxide, self-assembly, alcohol dehydration, polyacrylonitrile (mPAN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
89 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour

Abstract:

Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: rive sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid or polymer, characteristics, treatments, valorisation, road construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
88 Studies on the Effect of Dehydration Techniques, Treatments, Packaging Material and Methods on the Quality of Buffalo Meat during Ambient Temperature Storage

Authors: Tariq Ahmad Safapuri, Saghir Ahmad, Farhana Allai

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect dehydration techniques (polyhouse and tray drying), different treatment (SHMP, SHMP+ salt, salt + turmeric), different packaging material (HDPE, combination film), and different packaging methods (air, vacuum, CO2 Flush) on quality of dehydrated buffalo meat during ambient temperature storage. The quality measuring parameters included physico-chemical characteristics i.e. pH, rehydration ratio, moisture content and microbiological characteristics viz total plate content. It was found that the treatment of (SHMP, SHMP + salt, salt + turmeric increased the pH. Moisture Content of dehydrated meat samples were found in between 7.20% and 5.54%.the rehydration ratio of salt+ turmeric treated sample was found to be highest and lowest for controlled meat sample. the bacterial count log TPC/g of salt + turmeric and tray dried was lowest i.e. 1.80.During ambient temperature storage ,there was no considerable change in pH of dehydrated sample till 150 days. however the moisture content of samples increased in different packaging system in different manner. The highest moisture rise was found in case of controlled meat sample HDPE/air packed while the lowest increase was reported for SHMP+ Salt treated Packed by vacuum in combination film packed sample. Rehydration ratio was found considerably affected in case of HDPE and air packed sample dehydrated in polyhouse after 150 days of ambient storage. While there was a very little change in the rehydration ratio of meat samples packed in combination film CO2 flush system. The TPC was found under safe limit even after 150 days of storage. The microbial count was found to be lowest for salt+ turmeric treated samples after 150 days of storage.

Keywords: ambient temperature, dehydration technique, rehydration ratio, SHMP (sodium hexa meta phosphate), HDPE (high density polyethelene)

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
87 Blood Ketones as a Point of Care Testing in Paediatric Emergencies

Authors: Geetha Jayapathy, Lakshmi Muthukrishnan, Manoj Kumar Reddy Pulim , Radhika Raman

Abstract:

Introduction: Ketones are the end products of fatty acid metabolism and a source of energy for vital organs such as the brain, heart and skeletal muscles. Ketones are produced in excess when glucose is not available as a source of energy or it cannot be utilized as in diabetic ketoacidosis. Children admitted in the emergency department often have starvation ketosis which is not clinically manifested. Decision on admission of children to the emergency room with subtle signs can be difficult at times. Point of care blood ketone testing can be done at the bedside even in a primary level care setting to supplement and guide us in our management decisions. Hence this study was done to explore the utility of this simple bedside parameter as a supplement in assessing pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department. Objectives: To estimate blood ketones of children admitted in the emergency department. To analyze the significance of blood ketones in various disease conditions. Methods: Blood ketones using point of care testing instrument (ABOTTprecision Xceed Pro meters) was done in patients getting admitted in emergency room and in out-patients (through sample collection centre). Study population: Children aged 1 month to 18 years were included in the study. 250 cases (In-patients) and 250 controls (out-patients) were collected. Study design: Prospective observational study. Data on details of illness and physiological status were documented. Blood ketones were compared between the two groups and all in patients were categorized into various system groups and analysed. Results: Mean blood ketones were high in in-patients ranging from 0 to 7.2, with a mean of 1.28 compared to out-patients ranging from 0 to 1.9 with a mean of 0.35. This difference was statistically significant with a p value < 0.001. In-patients with shock (mean of 4.15) and diarrheal dehydration (mean of 1.85) had a significantly higher blood ketone values compared to patients with other system involvement. Conclusion: Blood ketones were significantly high (above the normal range) in pediatric patients who are sick requiring admission. Patients with various forms of shock had very high blood ketone values as found in diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketone values in diarrheal dehydration were moderately high correlating to the degree of dehydration.

Keywords: admission, blood ketones, paediatric emergencies, point of care testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
86 Study the Effects of Increasing Unsaturation in Palm Oil and Incorporation of Carbon Nanotubes on Resinous Properties

Authors: Muhammad R. Islam, Mohammad Dalour H. Beg, Saidatul S. Jamari

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Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties 0.5 wt% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, etc. Structural elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the cured films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability and hardness of the films as well.

Keywords: alkyd resin, nano-coatings, dehydration, palm oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
85 Re-Engineering of Traditional Indian Wadi into Ready-to-Use High Protein Quality and Fibre Rich Chunk

Authors: Radhika Jain, Sangeeta Goomer

Abstract:

In the present study an attempt has been made to re-engineer traditional wadi into wholesome ready-to-use cereal-pulse-based chunks rich in protein quality and fibre content. Chunks were made using extrusion-dehydration combination. Two formulations i.e., whole green gram dhal with instant oats and washed green gram dhal with whole oats were formulated. These chunks are versatile in nature as they can be easily incorporated in day-to-day home-made preparations such as pulao, potato curry and kadhi. Cereal-pulse ratio was calculated using NDpCal%. Limiting amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and threonine were calculated for maximum amino acid profile in cereal-pulse combination. Time-temperature combination for extrusion at 130oC and dehydration at 65oC for 7 hours and 15 minutes were standardized to obtain maximum protein and fibre content. Proximate analysis such as moisture, fat and ash content were analyzed. Protein content of formulation was 62.10% and 68.50% respectively. Fibre content of formulations was 2.99% and 2.45%, respectively. Using a 5-point hedonic scale, consumer preference trials of 102 consumers were conducted and analyzed. Evaluation of chunks prepared in potato curry, kadi and pulao showed preferences for colour 82%, 87%, 86%, texture and consistency 80%, 81%, 88%, flavour and aroma 74%, 82%, 86%, after taste 70%, 75%, 86% and overall acceptability 77%, 75%, 88% respectively. High temperature inactivates antinutritional compounds such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, saponins etc. Hence, availability of protein content was increased. Developed products were palatable and easy to prepare.

Keywords: extrusion, NDpCal%, protein quality, wadi

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
84 Osmotic Dehydration of Fruit Slices in Concentrated Sugar Solution

Authors: Neda Amidi Fazli, Farid Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Enriched fruits by minerals provide minerals which are needed to human body the minerals are used by body cells for daily activities. This paper indicates the result of mass transfer in fruit slices in 55% sucrose syrup in presence of calcium and phosphorus ions. Osmosis agent 55% (w/w) was prepared by solving sucrose in deionized water and adding calcium or phosphorus in 1 and 2% concentration. Dry matter, solid gain, water loss as well as weight reduction were calculated. Results showed that by increasing of calcium concentration in osmosis solution solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were increased in short experiment time in kiwi fruit but the parameters decreased in long experiment time by concentration increasing and rise of calcium concentration caused decrease of osmosis parameters in banana. In the case of phosphorus, increasing of ion concentration had adverse effect on all treatments, this may be due to different osmosis force that is created by two types of ions. The mentioned parameters decreased in all treatments by increasing of ion concentration. Highest mass transfer in kiwi fruit occurs when 1% calcium solution applied for 60 minutes, values obtained for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were 42.60, 51.97, and 9.37 respectively. In the case of banana, when 2% phosphorus concentration was applied as osmosis agent for 60 minutes highest values for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction obtained as 21, 25.84, and 4.84 respectively.

Keywords: calcium, concentration, osmotic dehydration, phosphorus

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83 One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Hexose Sugar over Chromium Impregnated Zeolite Based Catalyst, Cr/H-ZSM-5

Authors: Samuel K. Degife, Kamal K. Pant, Sapna Jain

Abstract:

The world´s population and industrialization of countries continued to grow in an alarming rate irrespective of the security for food, energy supply, and pure water availability. As a result, the global energy consumption is observed to increase significantly. Fossil energy resources that mainly comprised of crude oil, coal, and natural gas have been used by mankind as the main energy source for almost two centuries. However, sufficient evidences are revealing that the consumption of fossil resource as transportation fuel emits environmental pollutants such as CO2, NOx, and SOx. These resources are dwindling rapidly besides enormous amount of problems associated such as fluctuation of oil price and instability of oil-rich regions. Biomass is a promising renewable energy candidate to replace fossil-based transportation fuel and chemical production. The present study aims at valorization of hexose sugars (glucose and fructose) using zeolite based catalysts in imidazolium based ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [BMIM] Cl) reaction media. The catalytic effect chromium impregnated H-ZSM-5 (Cr/H-ZSM-5) was studied for dehydration of hexose sugars. The wet impregnation method was used to prepare Cr/H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The characterization of the prepared catalyst was performed using techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and BET-surface area analysis. The dehydration product, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cr/H-ZSM-5 was effective in dehydrating fructose with 87% conversion and 55% yield 5-HMF at 180 oC for 30 min of reaction time compared with H-ZSM-5 catalyst which yielded only 31% of 5-HMF at identical reaction condition.

Keywords: chromium, hexose, ionic liquid, , zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
82 Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Application (HHP) and Osmotic Dehydration (DO) as a Pretreatment to Hot –Air Drying of Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) Cubes

Authors: Teresa Roco, Mario Perez Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Sebastian Pizarro

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure application (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of abalone cubes. The drying time was reduced to 6 hours at 60ºC as compared to the abalone drying by only a 15% NaCl osmotic pretreatment and at an atmospheric pressure that took 10 hours to dry at the same temperature. This was due to the salt and HHP saturation since osmotic pressure increases as water loss increases, thus needing a more reduced time in a convective drying, so water effective diffusion in drying plays an important role in this research. Different working conditions as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time ( 5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl 15% and drying temperature (40-60ºC) will be optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model (Table 1). The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Logarithmic and Midilli-Kucuk, but the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data (Figure 1). The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.54 – to 9.95x10-9 m2/s for the 8 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples (neither DO nor HHP) varied among 4.35 and 5.60x10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively and as to drying by osmotic pretreatment at 15% NaCl from 3.804 to 4.36x10-9 m2/s at the same temperatures. Finally as to energy and efficiency consumption values for drying process (control and pretreated samples) it was found that they would be within a range of 777-1815 KJ/Kg and 8.22–19.20% respectively. Therefore, a knowledge concerning the drying kinetic as well as the consumption energy, in addition to knowledge about the quality of abalones subjected to an osmotic pretreatment (DO) and a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: abalone, convective drying, high pressure hydrostatic, pretreatments, diffusion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
81 Blood Analysis of Diarrheal Calves Using Portable Blood Analyzer: Analysis of Calves by Age

Authors: Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Suhee Kim, Dohyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park

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Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is a major cause of death in young calves. This causes great economic damage to the livestock industry. These diarrhea cause dehydration, decrease blood flow, lower the pH and degrade enzyme function. In the past, serum screening was not possible in the field. However, now with the spread of portable serum testing devices, it is now possible to conduct tests directly on field. Thus, accurate serological changes can be identified and used in the field of large animals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The test groups were calves from 1 to 44 days old. The status of the feces was divided into four grade to determine the severity of diarrhea (grade 0,1,2,3). Grade 0, 1 is considered to have no diarrhea. Grade 2, 3 is considered to diarrhea positive group. One or more viruses were detected in this group. Diarrhea negasitive group consisted of 57 calves (Asan=30, Samrye=27). Diarrhea positive group consisted of 34 calves (Kimje=27, Geochang=7). The feces of all calves were analyzed by PCR Test. Blood sample was measured using an automatic blood analyzer(i-STAT, Abbott inc. Illinois, US). Calves were divided into 3 groups according to age. Group 1 is 1 to 14 days old. Group 2 is 15 to 28 days old. Group 3 is more than 28 days old. Findings: Diarrhea caused an increase in HCT due to dehydration. The difference from normal was highest in 15 to 28 days old (p < 0.01). At all ages, bicarbonate decreased compared to normal, and therefore pH decreased. Similar to HCT, the largest difference was observed between 15 and 28 days (p < 0.01). The pCO₂ decreases to compensate for the decrease in pH. Conclusion and Significance: At all ages, HCT increases, and bicarbonate, pH, and pCO₂ decrease in diarrhea calves. The calf from 15 days to 28 days shows the most difference from normal. Over 28 days of age, weight gain and homeostasis ability increase, diarrhea is seen in the stool, there are fewer hematologic changes than groups below 28 days of age.

Keywords: calves, diarrhea, hematological changes, i-STAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
80 Expression Level of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding/DREB Gene of Some Local Corn Cultivars from Kisar Island-Maluku Indonesia Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

Authors: Hermalina Sinay, Estri L. Arumingtyas

Abstract:

The research objective was to determine the expression level of dehydration responsive element binding/DREB gene of local corn cultivars from Kisar Island Maluku. The study design was a randomized block design with single factor consist of six local corn cultivars obtained from farmers in Kisar Island and one reference varieties wich has been released by the government as a drought-tolerant varieties and obtained from Cereal Crops Research Institute (ICERI) Maros South Sulawesi. Leaf samples were taken is the second leaf after the flag leaf at the 65 days after planting. Isolation of total RNA from leaf samples was carried out according to the protocols of the R & A-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit and was used as a template for cDNA synthesis. The making of cDNA from total RNA was carried out according to the protocol of One-Step Reverse Transcriptase PCR Premix Kit. Real Time-PCR was performed on cDNA from reverse transcription followed the procedures of Real MODTM Green Real-Time PCR Master Mix Kit. Data obtained from the real time-PCR results were analyzed using relative quantification method based on the critical point / Cycle Threshold (CP / CT). The results of gene expression analysis of DREB gene showed that the expression level of the gene was highest obtained at Deep Yellow local corn cultivar, and the lowest one was obtained at the Rubby Brown Cob cultivar. It can be concluded that the expression level of DREB gene of Deep Yellow local corn cultivar was highest than other local corn cultivars and Srikandi variety as a reference variety.

Keywords: expression, level, DREB gene, local corn cultivars, Kisar Island, Maluku

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79 Study of White Salted Noodles Air Dehydration Assisted by Microwave as Compared to Conventional Air Dried Process

Authors: Chiun-C. R. Wang, I-Yu Chiu

Abstract:

Drying is the most difficult and critical step to control in the dried salted noodles production. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method for the noodle preparation. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted and conventional air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There is very few research associated with the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional air and microwave-assisted air drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, and sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no significant difference of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles between low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted salted noodles and control set. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave was applied or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated in the preparation of salted noodles. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. Meanwhile, the higher power of microwave-assisted air dried noodles indicated the larger air cell inside the noodles and appeared little burnt stripe on the surface of noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and overall acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased with the increases of rice bran proportion in the salted noodles. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and more acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: white salted noodles, microwave-assisted air drying processing, cooking yield, appearance, texture profiles, scanning electrical microscopy, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
78 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian

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Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
77 The Use of Food Industry Bio-Products for Sustainable Lactic Acid Bacteria Encapsulation

Authors: Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vita Krungleviciute, Elena Bartkiene

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microbial supplements that increase the nutritional, therapeutic, and safety value of food and feed. Often LAB strains are incubated in an expensive commercially available de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium; the cultures are centrifuged, and the cells are washing with sterile water. Potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products are industrial wastes which may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. Due to their low cost and good chemical composition, potato juice and apple juice production bio- products could have a potential application in LAB encapsulation. In this study, pure LAB (P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus) were multiplied in a crushed potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products medium. Before using, bio-products were sterilized and filtered. No additives were added to mass, except apple juice industry bioproducts were diluted with sterile water (1/5; v/v). The tap of sterilised mass, and LAB cell suspension (5 mL), containing of 8.9 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL of the P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus was used to multiply the LAB for 72 h. The final colony number in the potato juice and apple juice bio- products substrate was on average 9.60 log10 cfu/g. In order to stabilize the LAB, several methods of dehydration have been tested: lyophilisation (MilrockKieffer Lane, Kingston, USA) and dehydration in spray drying system (SD-06, Keison, Great Britain). Into the spray drying system multiplied LAB in a crushed potato juice and apple juice bio-products medium was injected in peristaltic way (inlet temperature +60 °C, inlet air temperature +150° C, outgoing air temperature +80 °C, air flow 200 m3/h). After lyophilisation (-48 °C) and spray drying (+150 °C) the viable cell concentration in the fermented potato juice powder was 9.18 ± 0.09 log10 cfu/g and 9.04 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and in apple mass powder 8.03 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g and 7.03 ± 0.03 log10 cfu/g, respectively. Results indicated that during the storage (after 12 months) at room temperature (22 +/- 2 ºC) LAB count in dehydrated products was 5.18 log10 cfu/g and 7.00 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized potato juice powder, respectively), and 3.05 log10 cfu/g and 4.10 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized apple juice industry bio-products powder, respectively). According to obtained results, potato juice could be used as alternative substrate for P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus cultivation, and by drying received powders can be used in food/feed industry as the LAB starters. Therefore, apple juice industry by- products before spray drying and lyophilisation should be modified (i. e. by using different starches) in order to improve its encapsulation.

Keywords: bio-products, encapsulation, lactic acid bacteria, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
76 Kinetic Modelling of Drying Process of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus Gigas) Slices Subjected to an Osmotic Pretreatment under High Pressure

Authors: Mario Perez-Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Constanza Olivares-Rivera, Fernanda Marin-Monardez

Abstract:

This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) cubes. The drying time was reduced to 2 hours at 60ºC and 5 hours at 40°C as compared to the jumbo squid samples untreated. This one was due to osmotic pressure under high-pressure treatment where increased salt saturation what caused an increasing water loss. Thus, a more reduced time during convective drying was reached, and so water effective diffusion in drying would play an important role in this research. Different working conditions such as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time (5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl (10 y 15%) and drying temperature (40-60ºC) were optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model. The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Page and Logarithmic models, however, the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data. The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.82 to 6.59x10-9 m2/s for the 16 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples obtained a value of 1.76 and 5.16×10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively. On the other hand, quality characteristics such as color, texture, non-enzymatic browning, water holding capacity (WHC) and rehydration capacity (RC) were assessed. The L* (lightness) color parameter increased, however, b * (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased for the DO+HHP treated samples, indicating treatment prevents sample browning. The texture parameters such as hardness and elasticity decreased, but chewiness increased with treatment, which resulted in a product with a higher tenderness and less firmness compared to the untreated sample. Finally, WHC and RC values of the most treatments increased owing to a minor damage in tissue cellular compared to untreated samples. Therefore, a knowledge regarding to the drying kinetic as well as quality characteristics of dried jumbo squid samples subjected to a pretreatment of osmotic dehydration under high hydrostatic pressure is extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: diffusion coefficient, drying process, high pressure, jumbo squid, modelling, quality aspects

Procedia PDF Downloads 138