Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3065

Search results for: plant pathogens

3065 Exploitation of Endophytes for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Authors: N. P. Eswara Reddy, S. Thahir Basha

Abstract:

Here, we report the success stories of potential leaf, seed and root endophytes against soil borne as well as foliar plant pathogens which are nutritionally adequate and safe for consumption. Endophytes are the microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants are a robust source of potential biocontrol agents and it is presumed that the survival ability of endophytes may be better when compared to phylloplane microflora. Of all the 68 putative leaf endophytes, the endophytes viz., EB9 (100%), and EB35 (100%) which were superior in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were identified as Brevundimonas bullata (EB09) and Bacillus thuringiensis (EB35) and further delayed in ripening of mango fruits up to 21 days. As a part, the seed endophyte GSE-4 was identified as Archoromobacter spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut and the root endophyte REB-8 against Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Both recorded least percent disease incidence (PDI) and increased plant growth promotion, respectively. Further, the novel Bacillus subtilis (SEB-2) against Macrophomina pahseolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower provides an ample scope for exploring the endophytes at large scale. The talc-based formulations of these endophytes developed can be commercialized after toxicological studies. At the bottom line these unexplored endophytes are the need of the hour against aggressive plant pathogens and to maintain the quality and abundance of food and feed and also to fetch marginal economy to the farmers will be discussed.

Keywords: endophytes, plant pathogens, commercialization, abundance of food

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3064 Management of Fungal Diseases of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Using Plant Extracts

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav, R. S. Saler

Abstract:

Onion is most Important Vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but the fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extract (Datura metel, Pongamia pinnata, Ipomoea palmata) at five different concentration Viz, 10,25,50,75 and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning techniquie. Detura metal gave 94.73% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentraton and 26.31% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium, and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Pongamia pinnata L. at 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and at 100% extract concentration 36.84% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was observed. Stemphylium vesicarium give good in inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporium. Ipomoea palmata in 10% extract concentration 92% growth and in 100% extract concentration 40% growth of Fusarium oxysporium was recorded. Fusarium oxysporium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and, Stemphylium vesicarium.

Keywords: pathogen, onion, plant extract, Allium cepa L.

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3063 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: RNA interference, application, crop Improvement, agricultural production

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3062 Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav

Abstract:

Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: pathogen, onion, plant, extract

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3061 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst, cell death, plant defense

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3060 Molecular Implication of Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Phylloplane of Tomato

Authors: Shilpi, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul

Abstract:

Cultivation and consumption of organically grown fruits and vegetables have increased by several folds. However, the presence of Human Enteric Pathogens on the surface of organically grown vegetables causing Gastro-intestinal diseases, are most likely due to contaminated water and fecal matter of farm animals. Human Enteric Pathogens are adapted to colonize the human gut, and also colonize plant surface. Microbes on plant surface communicate with each other to establish quorum sensing. The cross talk study is important because the enteric pathogens on phylloplane have been reported to mask the beneficial resident bacteria of plant. In the present study, HEPs and bacterial colonizers were identified using 16s rRNA sequencing. Microbial colonization patterns after interaction between Human Enteric Pathogens and natural bacterial residents on tomato phylloplane was studied. Tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions were inoculated with a mixture of Serratia fonticola and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The molecules involved in cross-talk between Human Enteric Pathogens and regular bacterial colonizers were isolated and identified using molecular techniques and HPLC. The colonization pattern was studied by leaf imprint method after 48 hours of incubation. The associated protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm was studied by use of crosslinkers. From treated leaves the crosstalk molecules and interaction proteins were separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. The study is critical in understanding the molecular aspects of HEP’s adaption to phylloplane. The study revealed human enteric pathogens aggressively interact among themselves and resident bacteria. HEPs induced establishment of a signaling cascade through protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm. The study revealed that the adaptation of Human Enteric Pathogens on phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum involves the establishment of complex molecular interaction between the microbe and the host including microbe-microbe interaction leading to an establishment of quorum sensing. The outcome will help in minimizing the HEP load on fresh farm produce, thereby curtailing incidences of food-borne diseases.

Keywords: crosslinkers, human enteric pathogens (HEPs), phylloplane, quorum sensing

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3059 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

Abstract:

This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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3058 Antibacterial Activity of Salvadora persica Extracts against Oral Cavity Bacteria

Authors: Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Abd El-Latif Hesham

Abstract:

Despite medical progress worldwide, dental caries are still widespread. Miswak is derived from the plant arak (Salvadora persica). It is used by Muslim people as a natural product for the cleansing of teeth, to ensure oral and dental hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol, methanol, and ethanol/methanol extracts of miswak against three bacterial pathogens of the oral cavity. The pathogens were isolated from the oral cavity of volunteers/patients and were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification data. Sequence comparisons were made with 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the GenBank database. The results of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis identified the three pathogens as being Staphylococcus aureus strain KKU-020, Enterococcus faecalis strain KKU-021 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KKU-022. All miswak extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activity against the three pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition (40.67±0.88 mm) was observed against E. faecalis with ethanolic extracts whilst methanolic extracts showed the minimum zone of inhibition (10.33±0.88 mm) against K. pneumonia KKU-022. Based on the significant effects of the miswak extracts against the oral cavity pathogens in our study, we recommend that miswak is to be used as a dental hygiene method to prevent tooth caries.

Keywords: antibacterial, miswak, Salvadora persica, oral cavity pathogens

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3057 Antifungal Potential of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Infecting Kidney Beans

Authors: Zhazira Shemsheyeva, Zhanara Suleimenova, Olga Shemshura, Gulnaz Mombekova, Zhanar Rakhmetova

Abstract:

Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). They not only provide nutrients to the plants (direct plant growth promotion) and protect plants against the phytopathogens (indirect plant growth promotion) but also increase the soil fertility. Indirectly PGPRs improve the plant growth by becoming a biocontrol agent for a fungal pathogen. The antifungal activities of the PGPrhizobacteria were assayed against different species of phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, and Botrytis cinerea. Pseudomonas putidaSM-1, Azotobacter sp., and Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strains have been used in experimental tests on growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi infecting Kidney beans. Agar well diffusion method was used in this study. Diameters of the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. It was found that Bacillus thuringiensis AKS/16 strain showed the lowest antifungal activity against all fungal pathogens tested. Zones of inhibition were 15-18 mm. In contrast, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 exhibited good antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium tricinctum by producing 29-30 mm clear zones of inhibition. The moderate inhibitory effect was shown by Azotobacter sp. against all fungal pathogens tested with zones of inhibition from24 to 26 mm. In summary, Pseudomonas putida SM-1 strain demonstrated the potential of controlling root rot diseases in kidney beans.

Keywords: PGPR, pseudomonas putida, kindey beans, antifungal activity

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3056 Proteomics Associated with Colonization of Human Enteric Pathogen on Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Neha Bhadauria, Indu Gaur, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul

Abstract:

The aerial surface of plants colonized by Human Enteric Pathogens ()has been implicated in outbreaks of enteric diseases in humans. Practice of organic farming primarily using animal dung as manure and sewage water for irrigation are the most significant source of enteric pathogens on the surface of leaves, fruits and vegetables. The present work aims to have an insight into the molecular mechanism of interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens or their metabolites with cell wall receptors in plants. Tomato plants grown under aseptic conditions at 12 hours L/D photoperiod, 25±1°C and 75% RH were inoculated individually with S. fonticola and K. pneumonia. The leaves from treated plants were sampled after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. The cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted and isocratically separated on 1D SDS-PAGE. The sampled leaves were also subjected to formaldehyde treatment prior to isolation of cytoplasmic proteins to study protein-protein interactions induced by Human Enteric Pathogens. Protein bands extracted from the gel were subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS analysis. The foremost interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens on the plant surface was found to be cell wall bound receptors which possibly set ups a wave a critical protein-protein interaction in cytoplasm. The study revealed the expression and suppression of specific cytoplasmic and cell wall-bound proteins, some of them being important components of signaling pathways. The results also demonstrated HEP induced rearrangement of signaling pathways which possibly are crucial for adaptation of these pathogens to plant surface. At the end of the study, it can be concluded that controlling the over-expression or suppression of these specific proteins rearrange the signaling pathway thus reduces the outbreaks of food-borne illness.

Keywords: cytoplasmic protein, cell wall-bound protein, Human Enteric Pathogen (HEP), protein-protein interaction

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3055 Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems Treating Domestic and Hospital Effluents

Authors: Thobela Conco, Sheena Kumari, Chika Nnadozie, Mahmoud Nasr, Thor A. Stenström, Mushal Ali, Arshad Ismail, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

The discharge of antibiotics and its residues into the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP’s) create a conducive environment for the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This presents a risk of potential dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to study the level of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG’s) among bacterial pathogens that proliferate in biological wastewater treatment systems. In the current study, metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequences of samples collected from the influents, secondary effluents and post chlorinated effluents of three wastewater treatment plants treating domestic and hospital effluents in Durban, South Africa, were analyzed for profiling of ARG’s among bacterial pathogens. Results show that a variety of ARG’s, mostly, aminoglycoside, β-lactamases, tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes were harbored by diverse bacterial genera found at different stages of treatment. A significant variation in diversity of pathogen and ARGs between the treatment plant was observed; however, treated final effluent samples from all three plants showed a significant reduction in bacterial pathogens and detected ARG’s. Both pre- and post-chlorinated samples showed the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGE’s), indicating the inefficiency of chlorination to remove of ARG’s integrated with MGE’s. In conclusion, the study showed the wastewater treatment plant efficiently caused the reduction and removal of certain ARG’s, even though the initial focus was the removal of biological nutrients.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants

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3054 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti

Abstract:

High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Tithonia diversifolia

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3053 Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma sp. against Macrophomina phaseolina

Authors: Jayarama Reddy, Anand S., H., Sundaram, Jeldi Hemachandran

Abstract:

Forty two strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from cultivated lands around Bangalore and analyzed for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina. The potential of biocontrol agents ultimately lies in their capacity to control pathogens in vivo. Bioefficacy studies were hence conducted using chickpea (Cicer arientum c.v. Annigeri) as an experimental plant by the roll paper towel method. Overall the isolates T6, T35, T30, and T25 showed better antagonistic potential in addition to enhancing plant growth. The production of chitinases to break down the mycelial cell walls of fungal plant pathogens has been implicated as a major cause of biocontrol activity. In order to study the mechanism of biocontrol against Macrophomina phaseolina, ten better performing strains were plated on media, amended with colloidal chitin and Sclerotium rolfsii cell wall extract. All the isolates showed chitinolytic activity on day three as well as day five. Production of endochitinase and exochitinase were assayed in liquid media using colloidal chitin amended broth. Strains T35 and T6 displayed maximum endochitinase and exochitinase activity. Although all strains exhibited cellulase activity, the quantum of enzyme produced was higher in T35 and T6. The results also indicate a positive correlation between enzyme production and bioefficacy.

Keywords: biocontrol, bioefficacy, cellulase, chitinase

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3052 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asif Jamal, Asad Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali

Abstract:

The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus spp, fungal pathogens, agriculture

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3051 Biocontrol Potential of Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria against Root Rot of Chili and Enhancement of Plant Growth

Authors: Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar, Sehrish Iftikhar, Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Ahmad Ali Shahid

Abstract:

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been extensively studied and applied for the biocontrol of many soilborne diseases. These rhizobacteria are very efficient against root rot and many other foliar diseases associated with solanaceous plants. These bacteria may inhibit the growth of various pathogens through direct inhibition of target pathogens or indirectly by the initiation of systemic resistance (ISR) which is active all over the complete plant. In the present study, 20 different rhizobacterial isolates were recovered from the root zone of healthy chili plants. All soil samples were collected from various chili-growing areas in Punjab. All isolated rhizobacteria species were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against Phytophthora capsici. Different species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas were tested for the antifungal activity against P. capsici the causal organism of Root rot disease in different crops together with chili. Dual culture and distance culture bioassay were carried out to study the antifungal potential of volatile and diffusible metabolites secreted from rhizobacteria. After seven days of incubation at 22°C, growth inhibition rate was recorded. Growth inhibition rate depended greatly on the tested bacteria and screening methods used. For diffusible metabolites, inhibition rate was 35-62% and 20-45% for volatile metabolites. The screening assay for plant growth promoting and disease inhibition potential of chili associated PGPR indicated 42-100% reduction in disease severity and considerable enhancement in roots fresh weight by 55-87%, aerial parts fresh weight by 35-65% and plant height by 65-76% as compared to untreated control and pathogen-inoculated plants. Pseudomonas flourescene, B. thuringiensis, and B. subtilis were found to be the most efficient isolates in inhibiting P. capsici radial growth, increase plant growth and suppress disease severity.

Keywords: rhizobacteria, chili, phytophthora, root rot

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3050 Antimicrobial Activity of the Cyanobacteria spp. against Fish Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: I. Tulay Cagatay

Abstract:

Blue-green microalgae cyanobacteria, which are important photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems, are the primary sources of many bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and enzymes that can be used as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Some of these organisms are nowadays used directly in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, or in aquaculture and biotechnological approaches like biofuel or drug therapy. Finding the effective, environmental friendly chemotropic and antimicrobial agents to control fish pathogens are crucial in a country like Turkey which has a production capacity of about 240 thousand tons of cultured fish and has 2377 production farms and which is the second biggest producer in Europe. In our study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacterium spp. against some fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri that are important pathogens for rainbow trout farms. Agar disk diffusion test method was used for studying antimicrobial activity on pathogens. Both tested microorganisms have shown antimicrobial activity positively as the inhibition zones were 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm respectively.

Keywords: fish pathogen, cyanobacteria, antimicrobial activity, trout

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3049 Nanoderma: Ecofriendly Nano Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Alexei R. Khokhlov

Abstract:

Studies on bioefficacy (in vitro and in vivo) and mode of action of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt and Russia might assist in the goal of sustainable agriculture. To our knowledge, few researchers have evaluated the combined antimicrobial effect of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with bioorganic pesticides for controlling plant pathogens in the greenhouse and open field, decontrol investigated synergistic effect. In the current project, we will develop eco-friendly alternative management strategies including the use of heavy nanometal-tolerant Trichoderma strains and the main effective material in conventional fungicides (curpic, sulfur, phosphorus and zinc) for controlling plant diseases. Studies on bioefficacy and the mechanism of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt were evaluated. There is a growing need to establish mechanisms of action for nano bio and/or fungicides to assist the design of new compounds or combinations of compounds, in order to understand resistance mechanisms and to provide a focus for toxicological attention. Nanofungicides represent an emerging technological development that could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used.

Keywords: biohybrids, biocides, bioagent, plant pathogenic fungi

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3048 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: cassava, biopesticides, in vitro, in vivo, pathogens, plant extracts

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3047 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asad Ali, Asif Jamal

Abstract:

The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: bacillus species, biocontrol agent, biopesticides, phytopathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
3046 The Molecular Analysis of Effect of Phytohormones and Spermidine on Tomato Growth under Biotic Stress

Authors: Rumana Keyani, Haleema Sadia, Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Humaira Yasmin, Sidra Zahoor

Abstract:

Tomato is a significant crop of the world and is one of the staple foods of Pakistan. A vast number of plant pathogens from simple viruses to complex parasites cause diseases in tomatoes but fungal infection in our country is quite high. Sometimes the symptoms are too harsh destroying the crop altogether. Countries like our own with continuously increasing massive population and limited resources cannot afford such an economic loss. There is an array of morphological, genetic, biochemical and molecular processes involved in plant resistance mechanisms to biotic stress. The study of different metabolic pathways like Jasmonic acid (JA) pathways and most importantly signaling molecules like ROS/RNS and their redoxin enzymes i.e. TRX and NRX is crucial to disease management, contributing to healthy plant growth. So, improving tolerance in crop plants against biotic stresses is a dire need of our country and world as whole. In the current study, fungal pathogenic strains Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani were used to inoculate tomatoes to check the defense responses of tomato plant against these pathogens at molecular as well as phenotypic level with jasmonic acid and spermidine pretreatment. All the growth parameters (root and shoot length, dry and weight root, shoot weight measured 7 days post-inoculation, exhibited that infection drastically declined the growth of the plant whereas jasmonic acid and spermidine assisted the plants to cope up with the infection. Thus, JA and Spermidine treatments maintained comparatively better growth factors. Antioxidant assays and expression analysis through real time quantitative PCR following time course experiment at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals also exhibited that activation of JA defense genes and a polyamine Spermidine helps in mediating tomato responses against fungal infection when used alone but the two treatments combined mask the effect of each other.

Keywords: fungal infection, jasmonic acid defence, tomato, spermidine

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3045 Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Pig and Cattle Carcass Samples Collected from Korean Slaughterhouses

Authors: Kichan Lee, Kwang-Ho Choi, Mi-Hye Hwang, Young Min Son, Bang-Hun Hyun, Byeong Yeal Jung

Abstract:

Recently, worldwide food safety authorities have been strengthening food hygiene in order to curb foodborne illness outbreaks. The hygiene status of Korean slaughterhouses has been monitored annually by Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency and provincial governments through foodborne pathogens investigation using slaughtered pig and cattle meats. This study presented the prevalence of food-borne pathogens from 2014 to 2016 in Korean slaughterhouses. Sampling, microbiological examinations, and analysis of results were performed in accordance with ‘Processing Standards and Ingredient Specifications for Livestock Products’. In total, swab samples from 337 pig carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 135 samples in 2015, 102 samples in 2016) and 319 cattle carcasses (100 samples in 2014, 119 samples in 2015, 100 samples in 2016) from twenty slaughterhouses were examined for Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, serotypes O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O128 and O145) as foodborne pathogens. The samples were analyzed using cultural and PCR-based methods. Foodborne pathogens were isolated in 78 (23.1%) out of 337 pig samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=17) was predominant, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=7), C. perfringens (n=2) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, C. coli (n=14) was the most prevalent, followed by L. monocytogenes (n=4), S. aureus (n=3), and C. perfringens (n=2). In 2016, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by C. coli (n=13), L. monocytogenes (n=2) and C. perfringens (n=1). In case of cattle carcasses, foodborne bacteria were detected in 41 (12.9%) out of 319 samples. In 2014, S. aureus (n=16) was the most prevalent, followed by Y. enterocolitica (n=3), C. perfringens (n=3) and L. monocytogenes (n=2). In 2015, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4 samples, S. aureus from three, C. perfringens, Y. enterocolitica and Salmonella spp. from one, respectively. In 2016, L. monocytogenes (n=6) was the most prevalent, followed by C. perfringens (n=3) C. jejuni (n=1), respectively. It was found that 10 carcass samples (4 cattle and 6 pigs) were contaminated with two bacterial pathogen tested. Interestingly, foodborne pathogens were more detected from pig carcasses than cattle carcasses. Although S. aureus was predominantly detected in this study, other foodborne pathogens were also isolated in slaughtered meats. Results of this study alerted the risk of foodborne pathogen infection for humans from slaughtered meats. Therefore, the authors insisted that it was important to enhance hygiene level of slaughterhouses according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point.

Keywords: carcass, cattle, foodborne, Korea, pathogen, pig

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3044 Ethnobotany and Antimicrobial Effects of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Lesotho

Authors: Sandy Van Vuuren, Lerato Kose, Annah Moteetee

Abstract:

Lesotho, a country surrounded by South Africa has one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s) in the world. In fact, the country ranks third highest with respect to infections related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite the high prevalence of STI’s, treatment has been a challenge due to limited accessibility to health facilities. An estimated 77% of the population lives in rural areas and more than 60% of the country is mountainous. Therefore, many villages remain accessible only by foot or horse-back. Thus, the Basotho (indigenous people from Lesotho) have a rich cultural heritage of plant use. The aim of this study was to determine what plant species are used for the treatment of STI’s and which of these have in vitro efficacy against pathogens such as Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Oligella ureolytica, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A total of 34 medicinal plants were reported by traditional practitioners for the treatment of STI’s. Sixty extracts, both aqueous and organic (mixture of methanol and dichloromethane), from 24 of the recorded plant species were assessed for antimicrobial activity using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) micro-titre plate dilution assay. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 19424) was found to be the most susceptible among the test pathogens, with the majority of the extracts (21) displaying noteworthy activity (MIC values ≤ 1 mg/ml). Helichrysum caespititium was found to be the most antimicrobially active species (MIC value of 0.01 mg/ml). The results of this study support, to some extent, the traditional medicinal uses of the evaluated plants for the treatment of STI’s, particularly infections related to gonorrhoea.

Keywords: Africa, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Oligella urealytica

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
3043 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Abstract:

Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: bacteria, eco-friendly management, organic, pear, plant extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3042 Screening of Indigenous Rhizobacteria for Growth Promoting and Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Oxysporoum in Tomato

Authors: Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammad M. Zalloum

Abstract:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and/or reduce plant damage due to soil-borne pathogens. Tomato is the highest consumable vegetable world-wide including Jordan. Fusarium oxysporum is a pathogen that causes well-known damages and losses to many vegetable crops including tomato. In this study, purification of 112 isolates of PGPR strains from rhizosphere environment of different regions in Jordan was accomplished. All bacterial isolates were In-vitro screened for antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum. The eleven most effective isolates that caused 30%-50% in-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum were selected. 8 out of 11 of these isolates were collected from Al-Halabat (arid-land). 7 isolates of Al-Halabat exerted 40-54% In-vitro growth reduction of F. oxysporum. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivar (Anjara, the most susceptible indigenous cultivar to F. oxysporum) treated with PGPR5 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), and exposed to F. oxysporum, showed no disease symptoms and no significant changes in biomasses or chlorophyll contents indicating a non-direct mechanism of action of PGPR on tomato plants. However PGPR3 (Bacillus sp.), PGPR4 (Bacillus cereus), and PGPR38 (Paenibacillus sp.) treated plants or PGPR treated and exposed to F. oxysporum showed a significant increasing growth of shoot and root biomasses as well as chlorophyll contents of leaves compared to control untreated plants or plants exposed to the fungus without PGPR treatment. A significant increase in number of flowers per plant was also recorded in all PGPR treated plants. The characterization of rhizobacterial strains were accomplished using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in addition to microscopic characterization. Further research is necessary to explore the potentiality of other collected PGPR isolates on tomato plants in addition to investigate the efficacy of the identified isolates on other plant pathogens and then finding a proper and effective methods of formulation and application of the successful isolates on selected crops.

Keywords: antagonism, arid land, growth promoting, rhizobacteria, tomato

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3041 Characterization of Common Maize Ear Rot Pathogens in Ilesa Nigeria and Their Potential Control Using Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Olumayowa M. Olowe, Michael D. Asemoloye Odunayo J. Olawuyi, Hilda Vasanthakaalam

Abstract:

Poor management of maize ear rot caused by fungal infection in Nigeria affected the quantity and quality of maize. This study, therefore, aims at characterizing and controlling Fusarium strains using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Maize ear showing rot symptoms were obtained from some selected farms located at Ilesa East and West using random sampling technique. Isolation of Fusarium pathogen from infected maize grain was done using direct pour plate method on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and was characterized based on morphological and molecular ITS-amplification methods. The reaction of PVASYN8F2, T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1, and T2LCOMP4 maize varieties, to the Fusarium ear rot pathogens and biocontrol efficacy of the mycorrhizal fungi were assessed on growth, yield, agronomic parameters and symptoms observed. The strains; olowILH1 and olowILH2 identified as Fusarium napiforme were the most dominant and virulent pathogens associated with the maize. They showed genetic similarity with documented ear rot pathogens on NCBI with accession numbers Fusarium proliferatum KT224027, KT224023, and Fusarium sp AY237110. They both exhibited varying inhibitory effects on the three maize varieties compare to control (uninfected plant) which had better growth characteristics. It was also observed that strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2. T2LCOMP4 was generally more susceptible to both fungal strains compared to the other two maize (T2LCOMP1STR SYN-W-1 and T2LCOMP4 ). In all, strain olowILH1 was more virulent than olowILH2, and Glomus clarum had higher inhibitory pathogenic effect against Fusarium strains compared to G. deserticola.

Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, disease management, Fusarium strains, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3040 Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections and Related Ailments in South Africa

Authors: T. C. Machaba, S. M. Mahlo

Abstract:

The current study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from selected medicinal plant species. Eight plant species used by the traditional healers and local people to treat fungal infections were selected for further phytochemical analysis and biological assay. The selected plant species were extracted with solvent of various polarities such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. Leaf, roots and bark extracts of Maerua juncea Pax, Albuca seineri (Engl & K. Krause) J.C Manning & Goldblatt, Senna italica Mill., Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels, Indigofera circinata Benth., Schinus molle L., Asparagus buchananii Bak., were screened for antifungal activity against three animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans). All plant extracts were active against the tested microorganisms. Acetone, dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol extracts of Senna italica and Elephantorrhiza elephantine had excellent activity against Candida albicans and A. fumigatus with the lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml. Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds presence in the plant extracts. No active compounds were observed in plant extracts of Indigofera circinnata, Schinus molle and Pentarrhinum insipidum with good antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus indicating possible synergism between separated metabolites.

Keywords: antifungal activity, bioautography, ethnobotanical survey, minimum inhibitory concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3039 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3038 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
3037 Impact on Soil Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Farhan Ali

Abstract:

Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals, which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. The study highlighted that there is a large accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, which is irrigated with industrial wastewater Laden and people consume vegetables grown in soil irrigated with sewage water to absorb a large amount of these metals. This accumulation of heavy metals in food cause possible health risks for the consumer. Regular monitoring of the levels of pathogens and heavy metals from the waste water drain which effluent are used for growing vegetables and other foodstuffs is essential to monitor excessive accumulation of these metals in the food chain.

Keywords: pathogens, wastewater, concentration, effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3036 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka

Abstract:

We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above 'mist labeling'. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: viruses, sampler, mist, detection, fluorescent dyes, microreaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 229