Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: cataract

29 Validity of Simlified Javal’s Rule in 147 Pre-Operation Cataract Eyes

Authors: Mohammad Ghandehari Motlagh


Purpose: To evaluate validity of simplified Javal’s rule (Total Ast=Corneal [email protected]) in 147 pre-op cataract eyes. Methods: Due to change in lens tissue and structure in a cataract crystalline lens, we conceive the simplified javal’s rule may not be valid in cataract cases.In this cross-sectional study,147 pre-op cataract eyes without oblique astigmatism were enrolled in this study. Ocular biometry (with IOL master 500)and keratometry and refraction findings were recorded. Results: Mean age of our patients was 64.95 yrs/old (SD+_9.86) that confirms on senile cataract. Mean Axial length and average keratometry were respectively 23.86 and 44.62.Prevalence of systemic diseases diabet and high blood pressure were respectively 43 (29.25%) and 44 (29.93%)and shows importance of these diseases. The Corneal astigmatism axis is correlated with refractive astigmatism in cataract eyes (R=0.493). Simplified Javal’s rule is valid in cataract eyes (P<0.001). Conclusion: Simplified Javal’s rule is a valid formula in pre-op cataract eyes and can be used for keratometry results confirmation.

Keywords: javals rule, cataract, keratometry, ocular axial length

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28 Preventive and Attenuative Effect of Vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Rat

Authors: Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh, Mehdi Tavana


Cataract is the most common cause of blindness worldwide and its incidence will increase as the World’s population ages. Even in modern ophthalmology, there is no effective medical treatment for cataract except surgery. Development of a drug which could prevent or delay the onset of cataract will lessen this burden and reduce the number of blind patients waiting for cataract surgery. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Sprague-dawely rats. Cataracts were induced in rats by administration of sodium selenite. On postpartum day ten, in group I, saline was injected subcutaneously. Group II rat pups received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. Group III and IV rat pups received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (13mg/kg B.W.) at day 10 postpartum. Group IV also received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. The development of cataract in rats was assessed clinically by slit-lamp biomicroscope from day 14 up to postpartum day 28. After sacrifice, extricated pup lenses were analyzed for total and soluble protein concentrations and eletrophoretic pattern (SDS-PAGE). There was no opacification of lens in Group I and II. There was mature cataract in 95% of Group III. In group IV, 55% of rats developed sub capsular or cortical cataract. Cataractous and biochemical changes of the crystalline lens proteins due to selenite can be retard or prevented by vitamin E.

Keywords: preventive effect, selenite-induced cataract, vitamin E, rat

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27 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

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26 Correlation between Diabetic Cataract, HBA1C and Gurakhu, a Clinical Study in Chhattisgarh State

Authors: A. Bhattacharya, Sanjay Gupta, S. H. Bodakhe


HbA1c is form of the haemoglobin that is used to measure the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Guraku’s basic components are nicotine and jaggery, jaggery is made up of sugarcane so can have a diabetogenic potential which is exacerbated in presence of nicotine. This work had done with the aim to find correlation between Diabetic cataract, HbA1c and Guraku. Subjects were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study total 75 subjects were included. In the study it was found that people consuming Guraku had a high level of HbA1c thus are more prone to the development of diabetic cataract. Male subjects are the more than female subjects. Most of the subjects belong to the lower socioeconomical class and not very educated. It could be concluded that this type of study could be useful in indentifying number of subjects suffering from diabetic cataract whose condition get worse by use of nicotine product like Guraku and preventive measure to be taken in prevention of this type of diabetic complication.

Keywords: diabetic cataract, HbA1c, Guraku, diabetogenic potential

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25 Efficacy of Collagen Matrix Implants in Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C at One Year

Authors: Lalit Tejwani, Reetika Sharma, Arun Singhvi, Himanshu Shekhar


Purpose: To assess the efficacy of collagen matrix implant (Ologen) in phacotrabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC). Methods: A biodegradable collagen matrix (Ologen) was placed in the subconjunctival and subscleral space in twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with glaucoma and cataract who underwent combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy augmented with MMC. All of them were examined preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. They were followed for twelve months after surgery. Any intervention needed in follow-up period was noted. Any complication was recorded. The primary outcome measure was postoperative intraocular pressure at one year follow-up. Any additional postoperative treatments needed and adverse events were noted. Results: The mean age of patients included in the study was 57.77 ± 9.68 years (range=36 to 70 years). All the patients were followed for at least one year. Three patients had history of failed trabeculectomy. Fifteen patients had chronic angle closure glaucoma with cataract, five had primary open angle glaucoma with cataract, one had uveitic glaucoma with cataract, and one had juvenile open angle glaucoma with cataract. Mean preoperative IOP was 32.63 ± 8.29 mm Hg, eighteen patients were on oral antiglaucoma medicines. The mean postoperative IOP was 10.09 ± 2.65 mm Hg at three months, 10.36 ± 2.19 mm Hg at six months and 11.36 ± 2.72 mm Hg at one year follow up. No adverse effect related to Ologen was seen. Anterior chamber reformation was done in five patients, and three needed needling of bleb. Four patients needed additional antiglaucoma medications in the follow-up period. Conclusions: Combined phacotrabeculectomy with MMC with Ologen implantation appears to be a safe and effective option in glaucoma patients needing trabeculectomy with significant cataract. Comparative studies with longer duration of follow-up in larger number of patients are needed.

Keywords: combined surgery, ologen, phacotrabeculectomy, success

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24 Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM

Authors: Hadeer R. M. Tawfik, Rania A. K. Birry, Amani A. Saad


Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients. The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of 120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8% accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.

Keywords: cataract, classification, detection, feature extraction, grading, log-gabor, neural networks, support vector machines, wavelet

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23 Need for Eye Care Services, Clinical Characteristics, Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Predictors of Cataract in Adult Participants with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Yun-Shan Tsai, Si-Ping Lin, En-Chieh Lin, Xin-Hong Chen, Shin-Yun Ho, Shin-Hong Huang, Ching-ju Hsieh


Background and significance: Uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts are the main visually debilitating ophthalmological abnormalities in adult participants with intellectual disability (ID). However, not all adult participants with ID may receive a regular and timely ophthalmological assessment. Consequently, some of the ocular diseases may not be diagnosed until late, thereby causing unnecessary ocular morbidity. In addition, recent clinical practice and researches have also suggested that eye-care services for this group are neglected. Purpose: To investigate the unmet need for eye care services, clinical characteristics of cataract, visual function, surgical outcome and prognostic predictors in adult participants with ID at Taipei City Hospital in Taiwan. Methods: This is a one-year prospective clinical study. We recruited about 120 eyes of 60 adult participants with ID who were received cataract surgery. Caregivers of all participants received a questionnaire on current eye care services. Clinical demographic data, such as age, gender, and associated systemic diseases or syndromes, were collected. All complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed 1 month preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, including ocular biometry, visual function, refractive status, morphology of cataract, associated ocular features, anesthesia methods, surgical types, and complications. Morphology of cataract, visual and surgical outcome was analyzed. Results: A total of 60 participants with mean age 43.66 ± 13.94 years, including 59.02% male and 40.98% female, took part in comprehensive eye-care services. The prevalence of unmet need for eye care services was high (about 70%). About 50% of adult participants with ID have bilateral cataracts at the time of diagnosis. White cataracts were noted in about 30% of all adult participants with ID at the time of presentation. Associated ocular disorders were included myopic maculopathy (4.54%), corneal disorders (11.36%), nystagmus (20.45%), strabismus (38.64%) and glaucoma (2.27%). About 26.7% of adult participants with ID underwent extracapsular cataract extraction whereas a phacoemulsification was performed in 100% of eyes. Intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. The most common postoperative complication was posterior capsular opacification (30%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved from preoperatively (mean log MAR 0.48 ± 0.22) to at 3 months postoperatively (mean log MAR 0.045 ± 0.22) (p < .05). Conclusions: Regular follow up will help address the need for eye-care services in participants with ID. A high incidence of bilateral cataracts, as well as white cataracts, was observed in adult participants with ID. Because of early diagnosis and early intervention of cataract, the visual and surgical outcomes of cataract are good, but the visual outcomes are suboptimal due to associated ocular comorbidities.

Keywords: adult participants with intellectual disability, cataract, cataract surgery

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22 Effect of Cumulative Dissipated Energy on Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes after Uncomplicated Cataract Surgery

Authors: Palaniraj Rama Raj, Himeesh Kumar, Paul Adler


Purpose: To investigate the effect of ultrasound energy, expressed as cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), on short and long-term outcomes after uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. Methods: In this single-surgeon, two-center retrospective study, non-glaucomatous participants who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were investigated. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured at 3 separate time points: pre-operative, Day 1 and ≥1 month. Anterior chamber (AC) inflammation and corneal odema (CO) were assessed at 2 separate time points: Pre-operative and Day 1. Short-term changes (Day 1) in BCVA, IOP, AC and CO and long-term changes (≥1 month) in BCVA and IOP were evaluated as a function of CDE using a multivariate multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, gender, cataract type and grade, preoperative IOP, preoperative BCVA and duration of long-term follow-up. Results: 110 eyes from 97 non-glaucomatous participants were analysed. 60 (54.55%) were female and 50 (45.45%) were male. The mean (±SD) age was 73.40 (±10.96) years. Higher CDE counts were strongly associated with higher grades of sclerotic nuclear cataracts (p <0.001) and posterior subcapsular cataracts (p <0.036). There was no significant association between CDE counts and cortical cataracts. CDE counts also had a positive correlation with Day 1 CO (p <0.001). There was no correlation between CDE counts and Day 1 AC inflammation. Short-term and long-term changes in post-operative IOP did not demonstrate significant associations with CDE counts (all p >0.05). Though there was no significant correlation between CDE counts and short-term changes in BCVA, higher CDE counts were strongly associated with greater improvements in long-term BCVA (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Though higher CDE counts were strongly associated with higher grades of Day 1 postoperative CO, there appeared to be no detriment to long-term BCVA. Correspondingly, the strong positive correlation between CDE counts and long-term BCVA was likely reflective of the greater severity of underlying cataract type and grade. CDE counts were not associated with short-term or long-term postoperative changes in IOP.

Keywords: cataract surgery, phacoemulsification, cumulative dissipated energy, CDE, surgical outcomes

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21 To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh

Authors: Rajib Husain, Munirujzaman Osmani, Mohammad Shamsal Islam


Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with <10 Descemets folds for Phacoemulsification surgeries. For SICS surgeries, seven eyes (4.66%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.

Keywords: phacoemulsification, SICS, cataract, Bangladesh, visual outcome of SICS

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20 Anticataract Activity of Betulinic Acid in Chick Embryo Lens Model

Authors: Surendra Bodakhe


In this investigation, anticataract activity was determined using cataract formation in developing chick embryo by hydrocortisone. Lenses were evaluated firstly for the extent of opacity and secondly, for lens glutathione (GSH) levels. Betulinic acid was isolated from the chloroform fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata bark (SBE). Fourteen days old Australorp fertilized eggs were divided into different groups of six eggs each. After 24 hrs incubation in a humidified incubator (37οC), at 15 days of age; hydrocortisone (0.25µM/0.2ml/egg) was administered to the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos through a small hole in the egg shell on the air sack. Ascorbic acid (standard) or Betulinic acid (test) were administered at 3, 10 and 20 hr after hydrocortisone administration at a specified dose. The puncture was sealed with a cellophane tape and eggs were incubated for 48 hrs in a humidified incubator at 37οC. After 48 hrs, the lenses were isolated for the determination of the extent of opacity and Glutathione level. The betulinic acid prevented the opacification of the chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone. The betulinic acid also prevented the decline of GSH content caused by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that betulinic acid protect the cataract formation in chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone.

Keywords: betulinic acid, cataract, cloudiness, ovine

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19 Economic Evaluation of Cataract Eye Surgery by Health Attendant of Doctor and Nurse through the Social Insurance Board Cadr at General Hospital Anutapura Palu Central Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Sitti Rahmawati


Payment system of cataract surgery implemented by professional attendant of doctor and nurse has been increasing, through health insurance program and this has become one of the factors that affects a lot of government in the budget establishment. This system has been implemented in purpose of quality and expenditure control, i.e., controlling health overpayment to obtain benefit (moral hazard) by the user of insurance or health service provider. The increasing health cost becomes the main issue that hampers the society to receive required health service in cash payment-system. One of the efforts that should be taken by the government in health payment is by securing health insurance through society's health insurance. The objective of the study is to learn the capability of a patient to pay cataract eye operation for the elders. Method of study sample population in this study was patients who obtain health insurance board card for the society that was started in the first of tri-semester (January-March) 2015 and claimed in Indonesian software-Case Based Group as a purposive sampling of 40 patients. Results of the study show that total unit cost analysis of surgery service unit was obtained $75 for unit cost without AFC and salary of nurse and doctor. The operation tariff that has been implemented today at Anutapura hospitals in eye department is tariff without AFC and the salary of the employee is $80. The operation tariff of the unit cost calculation with double distribution model at $65. Conclusion, the calculation result of actual unit cost that is much greater causes incentive distribution system provided to an ophthalmologist at $37 and nurse at $20 for one operation. The surgery service tariff is still low; consequently, the hospital receives low revenue and the quality of health insurance in eye operation department is relatively low. In purpose of increasing the service quality, it requires adequately high cost to equip medical equipment and increase the number of professional health attendant in serving patients in cataract eye operation at hospital.

Keywords: economic evaluation, cataract operation, health attendant, health insurance system

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18 Comparison of Visual Acuity Outcome and Complication after Phacoemulsification between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand

Authors: Luksanaporn Krungkraipetch


One hundred cataract patients with phacoemulsification were enrolled in the study to compare of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand. Fifty patients were diabetic (type II) group and 50 patients were non-diabetic group. All cases were operated by one doctor with the same pre-operative care, operation (phacoemulsification), and post-operative care. Visual acuity and complication after surgery were assessed after the operation for two years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. The visual outcome values ≥ 2 lines and ≥ 20/40 had no significant differences between two groups after two years of surgery. The complication rate in diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 16%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, uveitis 2 %, and 2% endophthalmitis. The non-diabetic group had cystoid macular edema 12%, rupture posterior capsule 8%, uveitis 2%, posterior capsule opacity 2%, and 2% wound leak. Comparison of visual acuity outcome and complication after phacoemulsification between diabetic and non-diabetic patients had no statistical significant differences between these two groups. It was found that cystoid macular edema was the most common complication in both groups and 10% of retinopathy progression was seen.

Keywords: cataract, visual acuity, cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, diabetic retinopathy

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17 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich


Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

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16 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad


Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: NCD, well-being, older person, India

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15 Ophthalmic Services Covered by Albasar International Foundation in Sudan

Authors: Mohammad Ibrahim


The study was conducted at Albasar international foundation ophthalmic hospitals in Sudan to study the burden and patterns of ophthalmic disorder in the sector. Review of the hospitals records revealed that the total number of patient examined in the hospitals and outreached camps conducted by the hospitals is 10,513,874, the total number of surgeries is 694,015 and the total number of pupils at school program is 230,382. The organization working with the highest management system and standards and quality result based planning. The study yielded that the ophthalmic problem in Sudan are of great percentage and the temporal blindness disorder are high since major cases and surgeries were Cataract (57.8%). Retinal problem (2.9%), Glaucoma (2.4%), Orbit and Occulo-plastic disorders (2.2%) other disorders are refractive errors, squint and strabismus, Corneal, Pediatrics and minor ophthalmic disorders.

Keywords: hospitals and outreach ophthalmic services, largest coverage of ophthalmic services, nonprofitable ophthalmic services, strong management system and standards

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14 Indoor Air Pollution: A Major Threat to Human Health

Authors: Pooja Rawat, Rakhi Tyagi


Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, dung and crop residues) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fire give rise to major pollutants. Women are primarily affected by these pollutants as they spend most of their time in the house. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimates that indoor air pollution (IAP) is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide and 3.7% in high mortality developing countries. Indoor air pollution has the potential to not only impact health, but also impact the general economic well-being of the household. Exposure to high level of household pollution lead to acute and chronic respiratory conditions (e.g.: pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and cataract). There has been many strategies for reducing IAP like subsidize cleaner fuel technologies, for example use of kerosene rather than traditional biomass fuels. Another example is development, promotion of 'improved cooking stoves'. India, likely ranks second- distributing over 12 million improved stoves in the first seven years of a national program to develop. IAP should be reduced by understanding the welfare effects of reducing IAP within households and to understanding the most cost effective way to reduce it.

Keywords: open fire, indoor pollution, lung diseases, indoor air pollution

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13 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi


Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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12 Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State-Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi O.J, Simon-Oke I.A., Oniya M.O., Okaka C.E.


River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology that involve the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was used to assess clinical signs from the respondents and skin snip test was used to evaluate the prevalence of the disease. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated and expressed in percentages. One hundred and ninety-two (192) out of the 384 respondents examined, showed various signs of river blindness. However, it was only 108 (28.1%) respondents with the clinical signs that demonstrated Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in their skin snips. The clinical signs observed among the respondents include skin depigmentation such as dermatitis, leopard skin, papules, pruritus and self-inflicted injury, while ocular symptoms include cataract, ocular lesion and partial blindness. Among these clinical signs, papules, and pruritus were the most dominant in the community. The prevalence of the clinical signs was observed to vary significantly among the age groups and gender (P<0.05). The efficacy of the drug after 6 and 12 months of treatments shows that the drug is more effective at age groups 10-50 years than the age groups 51-90 years. Ivermectin is observed to be efficacious in the treatment of the disease. However, to achieve eradication of the disease, the drug may be administered at 0.15mg/kg twice a year.

Keywords: riverblindness, clinical signs, ivermectin, Idogun

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11 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El


Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

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10 Causes of Blindness and Low Vision among Visually Impaired Population Supported by Welfare Organization in Ardabil Province in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Maeiyat, Ali Maeiyat Ivatlou, Rasul Fani Khiavi, Abouzar Maeiyat Ivatlou, Parya Maeiyat


Purpose: Considering the fact that visual impairment is still one of the countries health problem, this study was conducted to determine the causes of blindness and low vision in visually impaired membership of Ardabil Province welfare organization. Methods: The present study which was based on descriptive and national-census, that carried out in visually impaired population supported by welfare organization in all urban and rural areas of Ardabil Province in 2013 and Collection of samples lasted for 7 months. The subjects were inspected by optometrist to determine their visual status (blindness or low vision) and then referred to ophthalmologist in order to discover the main causes of visual impairment based on the international classification of diseases version 10. Statistical analysis of collected data was performed using SPSS software version 18. Results: Overall, 403 subjects with mean age of years participated in this study. 73.2% were blind, 26.8 % were low vision and according gender grouping 60.50 % of them were male, 39.50 % were female that divided into three groups with the age level of lower than 15 (11.2%) 15 to 49 (76.7%), and 50 and higher (12.1%). The age range was 1 to 78 years. The causes of blindness and low vision were in descending order: optic atrophy (18.4%), retinitis pigmentosa (16.8%), corneal diseases (12.4%), chorioretinal diseases (9.4%), cataract (8.9%), glaucoma (8.2%), phthisis bulbi (7.2%), degenerative myopia (6.9%), microphtalmos ( 4%), amblyopia (3.2%), albinism (2.5%) and nistagmus (2%). Conclusion: in this study the main causes of visual impairments were optic atrophy and retinitis pigmentosa, thus specific prevention plans can be effective in reducing the incidence of visual disabilities.

Keywords: blindness, low vision, welfare, ardabil

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9 Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves

Authors: Emmanuel O Ajani, Sabiu S, Mariam Zakari, Fisayo A Bamisaye


Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cataract, free radical, flavonoids, hydrocotyl bonariensis

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8 A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE

Authors: Tahra AlMahmoud, Sameeha Mohamed Al Hadhrami, Mohamed Elhanan, Hanan Naser Alshamsi, Fikri Abu-Zidan


Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.

Keywords: epidemiology, Middle Eastern area, occupational injury, ocular traumas

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7 In vitro Modeling of Aniridia-Related Keratopathy by the Use of Crispr/Cas9 on Limbal Epithelial Cells and Rescue

Authors: Daniel Aberdam


Haploinsufficiency of PAX6 in humans is the main cause of congenital aniridia, a rare eye disease characterized by reduced visual acuity. Patients have also progressive disorders including cataract, glaucoma and corneal abnormalities making their condition very challenging to manage. Aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), caused by a combination of factors including limbal stem-cell deficiency, impaired healing response, abnormal differentiation, and infiltration of conjunctival cells onto the corneal surface, affects up to 95% of patients. It usually begins in the first decade of life resulting in recurrent corneal erosions, sub-epithelial fibrosis with corneal decompensation and opacification. Unfortunately, current treatment options for aniridia patients are currently limited. Although animal models partially recapitulate this disease, there is no in vitro cellular model of AKT needed for drug/therapeutic tools screening and validation. We used genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9 technology) to introduce a nonsense mutation found in patients into one allele of the PAX6 gene into limbal stem cells. Resulting mutated clones, expressing half of the amount of PAX6 protein and thus representative of haploinsufficiency were further characterized. Sequencing analysis showed that no off-target mutations were induced. The mutated cells displayed reduced cell proliferation and cell migration but enhanced cell adhesion. Known PAX6 targets expression was also reduced. Remarkably, addition of soluble recombinant PAX6 protein into the culture medium was sufficient to activate endogenous PAX6 gene and, as a consequence, rescue the phenotype. It strongly suggests that our in vitro model recapitulates well the epithelial defect and becomes a powerful tool to identify drugs that could rescue the corneal defect in patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the homeotic transcription factor Pax6 is able to be uptake naturally by recipient cells to function into the nucleus.

Keywords: Pax6, crispr/cas9, limbal stem cells, aniridia, gene therapy

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6 Success of Trabeculectomy: May Not Always Depend on Mitomycin C

Authors: Sushma Tejwani, Shoruba Dinakaran, Rupa Rokhade, K. Bhujang Shetty


Introduction and aim: One of the major causes for failure of trabeculectomy is fibrosis and scarring of subconjunctival tissue around the bleb, and hence intra operative usage of anti-fibrotic agents like Mitomycin C (MMC) has become very popular. However, the long term effects of MMC like thin, avascular bleb, hypotony, bleb leaks and late onset endophthalmitis cannot be ignored, and may preclude its usage in routine trabeculectomy. In this particular study we aim to study the outcomes of trabeculectomy with and without MMC in uncomplicated glaucoma patients. Methods: Retrospective study of series of patients that underwent trabeculectomy with or without cataract surgery in glaucoma department of a tertiary eye care centre by a single surgeon for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), angle closure glaucoma (PACG), Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXF glaucoma). Patients with secondary glaucoma, juvenile and congenital glaucoma were excluded; also patients undergoing second trabeculectomy were excluded. The outcomes were studied in terms of IOP control at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year and were analyzed separately for surgical outcomes with and without MMC. Success was considered if IOP was < 16 mmHg on applanation tonometry. Further, the necessity of medication, 5 fluorouracil (5FU) postoperative injections, needling post operatively was noted. Results: Eighty nine patient’s medical records were reviewed, of which 58 patients had undergone trabeculectomy without MMC and 31 with MMC. Mean age was 62.4 (95%CI 61- 64), 34 were females and 55 males. MMC group (n=31): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.1mmHg (95% CI: 17.6 -24.6), and 22 patients had IOP > 16. Three out of 33 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=27) mean IOP was 12.4 mmHg (CI: 10.7-14), and 31/33 had success. At 6 months (n=18) mean IOP was 13mmHg (CI: 10.3-14.6) and 16/18 had good outcome, however at 1 year only 11 patients were available for follow up and 91% (10/11) had success. Overall, 3 patients required medication and one patient required postoperative injection of 5 FU. No MMC group (n=58): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.9 mmHg (CI: 19.8-24.2), and 42 had IOP > 16 mmHg. 12 out of 58 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=52) mean IOP was14.6mmHg (CI: 13.2-15.9), and 45/ 58 had IOP < 16mmHg. At 6 months (n=31) mean IOP was 13.5 mmHg (CI: 11.9-15.2) and 26/31 had success, however at 1 year only 23 patients came for follow up and of these 87% (20/23) patients had success. Overall, 1 patient required needling, 5 required 5 FU injections and 5 patients required medication. The success rates at each follow up visit were not significantly different in both the groups. Conclusion: Intra-operative MMC usage may not be required in all patients undergoing trabeculectomy, and the ones without MMC also have fairly good outcomes in primary glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma filtration surgery, mitomycin C, outcomes of trabeculectomy, wound modulation

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5 Sustainable Model of Outreach Eye Camps: A Case Study from Reputed Eye Hospital of Central India

Authors: Subramanyam Devarakonda Hanumantharao, Udayendu Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Garg


Introduction: Gomabai Netralaya a reputed eye hospital is located in Neemuch a small city of Madhya Pradesh, India. The hospital is established in 1992 by Late. G.D Agrawal a renowned educationist, freedom fighter and philanthropist. The eye hospital was established to serve all sections of the society in affordable manner. To provide comprehensive eye care services to the rural poor the hospital started organizing outreach camps since 1994. Purpose: To study the cost effectiveness of outreach eye camps for addressing the sustainability issues of the outreach program. Methods: One year statistics of outreach eye camps were collected from Hospital Management Information System software to analyze the productivity of camps. Income and expenses report was collected from outreach department records to analyze per camp expenses and per patient expenses against the income generated. All current year records were analyzed to have accuracy of information and results. Information was collected in two ways: 1)Actual camp performance records and expenses from book of accounts. 2)Cross verification was done through one to one discussion with outreach staff. Results: Total 17534 outpatients were examined through 52 outreach eye camps. Total 6042 (34% of total outpatients) patients were advised with cataracts and 4651 (77% of advice) operations were performed. The average OPD per camp was 337 and per camp 116 patients was advised for cataract surgery and 89 surgeries were performed per camp. Total 18200 US$ incurred on organizing 52 outreach camps in the radius of 100 Considering the total outpatients screened through camps the screening cost per patient was 1.00 US$ and considering the surgical output the per surgery expenses was 4.00 US$. The cost recovery of the total expenses was through Government grant of US$ 16.00 per surgery (that includes surgical grant). All logistics cost of camps and patients transportation cost was taken care by local donors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that with people’s participation, successful high volume outreach eye camps can be organized. The cost effectiveness of the outreach camps is totally depended on volume of outpatient’s turn-up at camp site and per camp surgical output. The only solution to sustainability of outreach eye camps is sharing of cost with local donors and increasing productivity.

Keywords: camps, outreach, productivity, sustainable

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4 Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection

Authors: Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Fang Lin, Tzu-Huei Wu, Chih-Hsiang Ko, Wing P. Chan


Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye. Patients who underwent health examinations were selectively enrolled in this study in compliance with the protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Joint Institutional Review Board at Taipei Medical University. Participants’ brains were scanned with a water-based marker simultaneously by a multislice CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash) under a fixed tube current-time setting or automatic tube current modulation (TCM). The lens dose was measured by Gafchromic films, whose dose response curve was previously fitted using thermoluminescent dosimeters, with or without barium sulfate or bismuth-antimony shield laid above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. The application of barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shields decreased 24% and 47% of the lens dose on average, respectively. Under topogram-based TCM, the dose saving power of bismuth-antimony shield was mitigated whereas that of barium sulfate shield was enhanced. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images were decreased separately by barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shield, resulting in an overall reduction of the CNR. In contrast, the integration of topogram-based TCM elevated signal difference between the ROIs on the zygomatic bones and eyeballs while preferentially decreasing the signal-to-noise ratios upon the use of barium sulfate shield. The results of this study indicate that the balance between eye exposure and image quality can be optimized by combining eye shields with topogram-based TCM on the multislice scanner. Eye shielding could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield. The application of both shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.

Keywords: computed tomography, barium sulfate shield, dose saving, image quality

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3 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal


Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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2 Age-Related Health Problems and Needs of Elderly People Living in Rural Areas in Poland

Authors: Anna Mirczak


Introduction: In connection with the aging of the population and the increase in the number of people with chronic illnesses, the priority objective for public health has become not only lengthening life, but also improving quality of life in older persons, as well as maintenance of their relative independence and active participation in social life. The most important determinant of a person’s quality of life is health. According to the literature, older people with chronic illness who live in rural settings are at greater risk for poor outcomes than their urban counterparts. Furthermore research characterizes the rural elderly as having a higher incidence of sickness, dysfunction, disability, restricted mobility, and acute and chronic conditions than their urban citizens. It is dictated by the overlapping certain specific socio-economic factors typical for rural areas which include: social and geography exclusion, limited access to health care centers, and low socioeconomic status. Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to recognize health status and needs of older people living in selected rural areas in Poland and evaluate the impacts of working in the farm on their health status. Material and methods: The study was performed personally, using interviews based on the structural questionnaires, during the period from March 2011 to October 2012. The group of respondents consisted 203 people aged 65 years and over living in selected rural areas in Poland. The analysis of collected research material was performed using the statistical package SPSS 19 for Windows. The level of significance for the tested the hypotheses assumed value of 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 75,5 years (SD=5,7) range from 65 to 94 years. Most of the interviewees had children (89.2%) and grandchildren (83.7) and lived mainly with family members (75.9%) mostly in double (46.8%) and triple (20.8%) household. The majority of respondents (71,9%) were physical working on the farm. At the time of interview, each of the respondents reported that they had been diagnosed with at least one chronic diseases by their GP. The most common were: hypertension (67,5%), osteoarthritis (44,8%), atherosclerosis (43,3%), cataract (40,4%), arrhythmia (28,6%), diabetes mellitus (19,7%) and stomach or duodenum ulcer diseases (17,2%).The number of diseases occurring of the sample was dependent on gender and age. Significant associations were observed between working on the farm and frequency of occurrence cardiovascular diseases, the gastrointestinal tract dysfunction and sensory disorders. Conclusions: The most common causes of disability among older citizens were: chronic diseases, malnutrition and complaints about access to health services (especially to cardiologist and an ophthalmologist). Health care access and health status are a particular concern in rural areas where the population is older, has lower education and income levels, and is more likely to be living in medically underserved areas than is the case in urban areas.

Keywords: ageing, health status, older people, rural

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1 Culture and Health Equity: Unpacking the Sociocultural Determinants of Eye Health for Indigenous Australian Diabetics

Authors: Aryati Yashadhana, Ted Fields Jnr., Wendy Fernando, Kelvin Brown, Godfrey Blitner, Francis Hayes, Ruby Stanley, Brian Donnelly, Bridgette Jerrard, Anthea Burnett, Anthony B. Zwi


Indigenous Australians experience some of the worst health outcomes globally, with life expectancy being significantly poorer than those of non-Indigenous Australians. This is largely attributed to preventable diseases such as diabetes (prevalence 39% in Indigenous Australian adults > 55 years), which is attributed to a raised risk of diabetic visual impairment and cataract among Indigenous adults. Our study aims to explore the interface between structural and sociocultural determinants and human agency, in order to understand how they impact (1) accessibility of eye health and chronic disease services and (2) the potential for Indigenous patients to achieve positive clinical eye health outcomes. We used Participatory Action Research methods, and aimed to privilege the voices of Indigenous people through community collaboration. Semi-structured interviews (n=82) and patient focus groups (n=8) were conducted by Indigenous Community-Based Researchers (CBRs) with diabetic Indigenous adults (> 40 years) in four remote communities in Australia. Interviews (n=25) and focus groups (n=4) with primary health care clinicians in each community were also conducted. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using grounded theory, comparative analysis and Nvivo 10. Preliminary analysis occurred in tandem with data collection to determine theoretical saturation. The principal investigator (AY) led analysis sessions with CBRs, fostering cultural and contextual appropriateness to interpreting responses, knowledge exchange and capacity building. Identified themes were conceptualised into three spheres of influence: structural (health services, government), sociocultural (Indigenous cultural values, distrust of the health system, ongoing effects of colonialism and dispossession) and individual (health beliefs/perceptions, patient phenomenology). Permeating these spheres of influence were three core determinants: economic disadvantage, health literacy/education, and cultural marginalisation. These core determinants affected accessibility of services, and the potential for patients to achieve positive clinical outcomes at every level of care (primary, secondary, tertiary). Our findings highlight the clinical realities of institutionalised and structural inequities, illustrated through the lived experiences of Indigenous patients and primary care clinicians in the four sampled communities. The complex determinants surrounding inequity in health for Indigenous Australians, are entrenched through a longstanding experience of cultural discrimination and ostracism. Secure and long term funding of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services will be valuable, but are insufficient to address issues of inequity. Rather, working collaboratively with communities to build trust, and identify needs and solutions at the grassroots level, while leveraging community voices to drive change at the systemic/policy level are recommended.

Keywords: indigenous, Australia, culture, public health, eye health, diabetes, social determinants of health, sociology, anthropology, health equity, aboriginal and Torres strait islander, primary care

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