Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: humor

40 Investigation of Perception of Humor in Older Adults

Authors: Ng Ziyi Zoe, Yow Wei Quin

Abstract:

Humor plays a pivotal role in our interaction with people. According to the age-related positivity effect, older adults (OA) demonstrate more positive emotions and are better able to modulate negative emotional states than younger adults (YA), suggesting an increase in humor appreciation with age. However, different types of humor might show different patterns of change in appreciation with age (e.g., incongruity-resolution humor, aggressive humor, self-vs.-other-deprecating humor). Thus, we aim to explore age-related effects in the perception of different types of humor in a single study, including the impact of local slang in humor appreciation. Twenty OA aged 60-and-above and 24 YA aged 13-20 were watched four short videos (i.e., benign, violent, satire+local slang, and others-deprecating humor) and rated how funny the videos were (from a scale of 1-not funny-at-all to 5-very funny). Participants were also asked to rank the videos in the order of most- to least-entertaining. Repeated measures of ANOVA found significant main effects of age, F(3,39)=12,88, p < .001, where OA gave higher ratings than YA (M=3.20 vs. 2.63), and humor type, F(3,123)=19.66, p < .001. Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant linear contrast where benign and violent humor had the lowest ratings while others-deprecating humor had the highest ratings. No significant interaction effect was found. The distribution of ranking ratings also differed between OA and YA (e.g., preferred satire+local slang and others-deprecating humor vs. overwhelmingly preferred other-deprecating humor, respectively). Overall, OA displayed a greater appreciation across various types of humor than YA. Humor perception will be discussed in the larger context of cognitive, societal, and cultural implications.

Keywords: humor, older adults, perception, age differences

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39 Students' Perspectives about Humor and the Process of Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

Authors: Samuel Marínez González

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In the last decades, the studies about humor have been increasing significantly in all areas. In the field of education and, specially, in the second language teaching, most research has concentrated on the beneficial effects that the introduction of humor in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language, as well as its impact on teachers and students. In the following research, we will try to know the learners’ perspectives about humor and its use in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classes. In order to do this, a different range of students from the Spanish courses at the University of Cape Town will participate in a survey that will reveal their beliefs about the frequency of humor in their daily lives and their Spanish lessons, their reactions to humorous situations, and the main advantages or disadvantages, from their point of view, to the introduction of humor in the teaching of Spanish as a Foreign Language.

Keywords: education, foreign languages, humor, pedagogy, Spanish as a Foreign Language, students’ perceptions

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38 Workplace Humor and Creativity in It Teams: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Hima Elizabeth Mathew, V. VijayalakshmI

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All of us know what it is like to experience humor. Humor and laughter are universal aspects of human experience, occurring in all cultures and virtually in all individuals throughout the world. For people today, the workplace is associated more with the cubicles they sit, than with the co-workers around them. With reference to the current generation and the work context, the paper aims to understand the concept of humor at the workplace and its influence on team creativity in organizations. Humor is a multi-disciplinary topic that has been investigated for many years by researchers from fields such as anthropology, psychology, physiology and linguistics but significantly less thoroughly by management researchers. Researchers in the field of creativity also had their initial focus on the individual differences leading to creativity. Although the studies yielded some important findings regarding creative people, it provided the little help to practitioners in helping people develop creativity and almost ignored the role of social environment in enhancing creativity. After a review the relevant literature of the key variables, a theoretical framework is proposed linking workplace humor, emotional contagion, and team creativity. The findings of the study are expected to help academicians gain clarity on Workplace Humor for future research.

Keywords: emotional contagion, humor, team creativity, workplace humor

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37 Development and Validation of Sense of Humor Questionnaire in China

Authors: Yunshi Peng, Shanshan Gao, Sang Qin

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The sense of humor is an integration of cognition, emotion and behavioral tendencies in the process of expressing humor. Previous studies evidenced the positive impact of sense of humor on promoting mental health. However, very few studies investigated this with Chinese populations. The absence of a validated questionnaire limits empirical research on sense of humor in China. This study aimed to develop a Chinese instrument to examine the sense of humor among college students in China. A pool of 72 items was developed by conducting a series of qualitative methods including open-ended questionnaire, individual interviews and literature analysis, followed by an expert rating. A total of 500 college students were recruited from 7 provinces in China to complete all 72 items. The factor structure of sense of humor was established and 25 items were eventually formed by utilizing the exploratory factor analyses (EFA). The questionnaire composed 4 subscales: humor comprehension, humor creativity, attitudes towards humor and optimism level. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) from a follow-up study with a different sample of 1200 colleges students showed good model fit. All subscales and the overall questionnaire display satisfying internal consistency. Correlations with criterion variables demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. The sense of humor questionnaire is a psychometrically-sound instrument for the population of college students in China. This is applicable for future studies to identify the structure of sense of humor and evaluate the levels of humor for individuals.

Keywords: college students, EFA and CFA, questionnaire, sense of humor

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36 The Relationship among Attachment Styles, Humor Styles and Communication Patterns in Female Married Students

Authors: Elham Fathi, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Abolfazl Hatami Varzane

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The present study aimed to determine predict capacity of the relationship among attachment styles, humor styles and communication patterns in female married students. Statistical population consisted of female married students from Allameh Tabataba’i University. The research sample consisted of 104 married students selected through convenience sampling. They responded to study instruments that consisted of attachment styles, humor styles and Communication patterns questionnaires. Data was analyzed by means of correlation method. The results indicated significant positive relationship between secure attachment styles with adaptive humor styles, and anxious attachment styles with maladaptive humor styles. Also a negative relationship between avoidant attachment with affiliative humor, and anxious attachment with self-enhancing humor was found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between self- enhancing humor styles with demand – withdraw communication pattern, and between affiliative humor with mutual avoidant communication pattern and a positive relationship between affiliative humor with mutual constructive communication pattern was observed. The relationship between secure attachment with mutual constructive communication pattern was positive, while relationship between avoidant attachment to mutual constructive communication pattern was negative and significant and its relation with mutual avoidant communication pattern was significantly positive. The result of regression analysis indicated that affliative humor style and secure attachment style, positively predicted mutual constructive communication pattern. Avoidant attachment style positively and affliative humor style negatively predicted the mutual avoidant communication pattern. And self-enhancing humor style negatively predicted the demand – withdraw communication pattern style.

Keywords: attachment styles, communication patterns, humor styles, female married students

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35 Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

Authors: Vandana Maurya

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Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.

Keywords: ethical performance, humor, organizational citizenship behavior, PsyCap, work engagement

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34 Humor and Public Hygiene: A Critical Social Semiotic Analysis of Singapore’s National Campaigns

Authors: Kelsi Matwick, Keri Matwick

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This presentation focuses on national campaigns as a government tactic of social behavior and order. Focusing on one of Singapore’s first national campaigns, Keep Singapore Clean (1968), particularly its iterations of public hygiene in recent years: Keep the Toilets Clean (2012-2019) and UnLittering with Mary Chongo (2019), the study examines how humor and the use of multimodality reflect contemporary practices in political practice. A critical social semiotic analysis involving the textual (linguistic and visual design) and material (print cartoons and videos) is undertaken to show how these messages are communicated. Incongruity and parody are humorous mechanisms used to project the government as likeable, effectively capture the public attention, and instill individual responsibility for the greater community. In focusing on public hygiene national campaigns, the study further illustrates how humor offers a polite way to address crude behavior while providing models of exemplary behavior.

Keywords: communication strategies, critical social semiotics, humor, national campaigns

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33 Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

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In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.

Keywords: eye, heat-transfer, keratoplasty laser, surgery

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32 Human Intraocular Thermal Field in Action with Different Boundary Conditions Considering Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

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In this study, a validated 3D finite volume model of human eye is developed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in the human eye at steady state conditions. For this purpose, discretized bio-heat transfer equation coupled with Boussinesq equation is analyzed with different anatomical, environmental, and physiological conditions. It is demonstrated that the fluid circulation is formed as a result of thermal gradients in various regions of eye. It is also shown that posterior region of the human eye is less affected by the ambient conditions compared to the anterior segment which is sensitive to the ambient conditions and also to the way the gravitational field is defined compared to the geometry of the eye making the circulations and the thermal field complicated in transient states. The effect of variation in material and boundary conditions guides us to the conclusion that thermal field of a healthy and non-healthy eye can be distinguished via computer simulations.

Keywords: bio-heat, boussinesq, conduction, convection, eye

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31 Neural Correlates of Diminished Humor Comprehension in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Authors: Przemysław Adamczyk, Mirosław Wyczesany, Aleksandra Domagalik, Artur Daren, Kamil Cepuch, Piotr Błądziński, Tadeusz Marek, Andrzej Cechnicki

Abstract:

The present study aimed at evaluation of neural correlates of humor comprehension impairments observed in schizophrenia. To investigate the nature of this deficit in schizophrenia and to localize cortical areas involved in humor processing we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study included chronic schizophrenia outpatients (SCH; n=20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n=20). The task consisted of 60 stories (setup) of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible (yes/no) and how funny it was (1-9 Likert-type scale). fMRI was performed on a 3T scanner (Magnetom Skyra, Siemens) using 32-channel head coil. Three contrasts in accordance with the three stages of humor processing were analyzed in both groups: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution; funny vs neutral - elaboration. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately in order to further differentiate the areas involved in incongruity resolution processing. Statistical analysis for behavioral data used U Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni’s correction, fMRI data analysis utilized whole-brain voxel-wise t-tests with 10-voxel extent threshold and with Family Wise Error (FWE) correction at alpha = 0.05, or uncorrected at alpha = 0.001. Between group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in: the right superior temporal gyrus in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns (nonsensical > neutral); the left medial frontal gyrus in case of incongruity resolution processing of funny puns (funny > nonsensical) and the interhemispheric ACC in case of elaboration of funny puns (funny > neutral). Additionally, the SCH group revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, the medial frontal gyrus, the angular and the supramarginal gyrus, and the right temporal pole. In comprehension ratings the SCH group showed suppressed activity in the left superior and medial frontal gyri. Interestingly, these differences were accompanied by protraction of time in both types of rating responses in the SCH group, a lower level of comprehension for funny punchlines and a higher funniness for absurd punchlines. Presented results indicate that, in comparison to healthy controls, schizophrenia is characterized by difficulties in humor processing revealed by longer reaction times, impairments of understanding jokes and finding nonsensical punchlines more funny. This is accompanied by attenuated brain activations, especially in the left fronto-parietal and the right temporal cortices. Disturbances of the humor processing seem to be impaired at the all three stages of the humor comprehension process, from incongruity detection, through its resolution to elaboration. The neural correlates revealed diminished neural activity of the schizophrenia brain, as compared with the control group. The study was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant no 2014/13/B/HS6/03091).

Keywords: communication skills, functional magnetic resonance imaging, humor, schizophrenia

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30 Effect of Humor on Pain and Anxiety in Patients with Rheumatoi̇d Arthri̇ti̇s: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Burcu Babadağ Savaş, Nihal Orlu, Güler Balcı Alparslan, Ertuğrul Çolak, Cengiz Korkmaz

Abstract:

Introduction/objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of humor on pain and state anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving biologic intravenous (IV) infusion therapy. Method: The study sample consisted of 36 patients who met the classification criteria for RA and inclusion criteria in a rheumatology outpatient clinic at a university hospital between September 2020 and November 2021. Two sample groups were formed: the intervention group (watching a comedy movie) (n=18) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group consisted of the patient watching a comedy movie of his/her choice from an archive created by the researchers during the biological IV infusion therapy (approximately 90-120 minutes). The data collection instruments used before and after the test were the descriptive identification form, the visual analog scale (VAS), and the state anxiety scale. Results: The mean VAS scores of patients in the intervention group were 5.05 ± 2.01 in the pre-test and 2.61 ± 1.91 in the post-test. The mean state anxiety scores of patients in the intervention group were 45.94 ± 9.97 in the pre-test and 34.22 ± 6.57 in the post-test. Thus, patients who watched comedy movies during biologic IV infusion therapy in the infusion center had a greater reduction in pain scores than the control group and the effect size was small. Although there was a decrease in state anxiety scores in both groups, there was no significant difference between groups and the effect size was not relevant. Conclusions: During IV infusion therapy, watching comedy movies is recommended as a nursing care intervention for reducing pain in patients with RA in cooperation with other health professionals.

Keywords: watching comedy movie, humor, pain, anxiety, nursing, care

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29 The Different Types of French Language in the Processes of Acquisition: Specifically about The Humor

Authors: Akbarnejad Neda

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A foreign language acquisition occurs when we can tell a joke and understand it. Most jokes are told in slang and common language. In the process of foreign language acquisition, an autonomous learner try to learn the standard language. But there is a colossal divergence between the usage of the different types of language in society. Here, we investigate the french slang and common language and examine the accurate perception of their usage. We illuminate the slang language in the french literature that provide considerably different types of language for an autonomous learner. We provide furthermore evidence from the french novels that demonstrate properly the different types of language and give in one sentence its social meanings. For example, the famous Queneau expression « Doukipudonktant » present the impact of slang language in society. The characters in the novel transfer the slang and the common language and their accurate usages. We present that the language of the autonomous learner depends on the language of the text that is read. Because literature is a vehicle of the culture and the expression demonstrate their real significations and usage in the culture, slang and common language have a crucial role in the culture and all of them are manifested in the oral language.

Keywords: common language, french, humor, slang language

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28 The Diminished Online Persona: A Semantic Change of Chinese Classifier Mei on Weibo

Authors: Hui Shi

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This study investigates a newly emerged usage of Chinese numeral classifier mei (枚) in the cyberspace. In modern Chinese grammar, mei as a classifier should occupy the pre-nominal position, and its valid accompanying nouns are restricted to small, flat, fragile inanimate objects rather than humans. To examine the semantic change of mei, two types of data from Weibo.com were collected. First, 500 mei-included Weibo posts constructed a corpus for analyzing this classifier's word order distribution (post-nominal or pre-nominal) as well as its accompanying nouns' semantics (inanimate or human). Second, considering that mei accompanies a remarkable number of human nouns in the first corpus, the second corpus is composed of mei-involved Weibo IDs from users located in first and third-tier cities (n=8 respectively). The findings show that in the cyber community, mei frequently classifies human-related neologisms at the archaic post-normal position. Besides, the 23 to 29-year-old females as well as Weibo users from third-tier cities are the major populations who adopt mei in their user IDs for self-description and identity expression. This paper argues that the creative usage of mei gains popularity in the Chinese internet due to a humor effect. The marked word order switch and semantic misapplication combined to trigger incongruity and jocularity. This study has significance for research on Chinese cyber neologism. It may also lay a foundation for further studies on Chinese classifier change and Chinese internet communication.

Keywords: Chinese classifier, humor, neologism, semantic change

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27 Intervention Guide for Holistic Needs and Coping Strategies of Cancer Patients

Authors: Arvin Baes

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This study was conducted to assess the holistic needs of cancer patients in terms of physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual needs and to determine how they respond through coping. It was conducted from January-April 2018 from various hospitals in Laguna, with 20 respondents. It utilized a survey descriptive type of research, a checklist type of questionnaire, and purposive sampling in selecting the respondents. It was found out that in terms of physiological needs, fatigue is the most common symptoms they experienced. In terms of psychological, social, and spiritual needs, most of the patients experienced a significant concern. Meanwhile, in coping, religion dominates among the 14 strategies followed by Use of Emotional Support and Positive Reframing, and Substance Use obtained the lowest response. Most of the respondents were female, and its significant relationship in terms of Positive Reframing agrees significantly. In coping and civil status, Positive Reframing and Humor are significant among married respondents. In coping and stage of cancer, 'Positive Reframing' and 'Humor' are significant with the stage of cancer. In coping and treatment modalities, Active Coping, Use of Emotional Support, and Religion are significantly related to patients’ treatment modalities. There is also a significant relationship between Active Coping and Physiological Needs, Religion and Psychological Needs, and Self-blaming and Psychological, Social, and Spiritual Needs. Thus, it is concluded that holistic needs and coping are essential to each other to meet the wholeness of cancer patients. A formulated care intervention program would be beneficial among this group of patients.

Keywords: coping strategies, cancer, cancer patients, holistic needs

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26 A Case Study on Effectiveness of Hijamah (Wet Cupping) on Numbness of Foot in Diabetic Patient

Authors: Nafdha Thajudeen

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Hijamah therapy is one of the leading alternative & complementary modalities in the World. It is a kind of detoxification, rejuvenation, and blood purification method. It comes under Ilaj bil Tadbeer (Regimental therapy) in the Unani medical system. In diabetes, hands and foot care in people is very important because of slow blood circulation, where blood sometimes is not able to fully penetrate the capillaries. Hijamah therapy works upon the following two principles- Tanqiyae Mawad (Evacuation of morbid humor) and Imalae Mawad (Diversion of humor). The aim of this study was to find out the effectiveness of hijamah therapy on the numbness of legs in a diabetic patient. This case study was carried out in Ayurvedic Research Hospital (Non-Communicable Diseases), Ninthavur, Sri Lanka. A 63 years old female diabetic patient came to the clinic with the complain of numbness in both feet for one year. The treatment history of the patient revealed that she had taken western medicine for her complaints for 7 months. In her first visit, wet cupping was done on local and distal points. The patient said there was a remarkable improvement; internal medicines were given to keep the sugar level in normal with some external applications. Every week, wet cupping was done on the same points, with repeating the same medicines. Foot numbness was fully cured within one month. The finding of this study shows that the complaint of numbness in the diabetic patient was treated with hijamah therapy with internal & external medicine. This case study can be concluded as hijamah therapy is very effective in treating diabetic numbness. This single case study may be the entrance for future clinical studies

Keywords: Hijamah therapy, Ilaj bil thadbeer, diabetes, numbness

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25 Coping Strategies Used by Pregnant Women in India to Overcome the Psychological Impact of COVID-19

Authors: Harini Atturu, Divyani Byagari, Bindhu Rani Thumkunta, Sahitya Bammidi, Manasa Badveli

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Introduction: Biological, psychological and social domains influence the outcomes of pregnancy. The COVID19 pandemic had a significant effect on the psychological and social domains of pregnant women all over the world. Everyone has inherent coping mechanisms which ultimately determine the actual impact of such external stimulus on outcomes of pregnancy. This study aims to understand the coping strategies used by pregnant women to overcome the psychological impact of the first wave of the COVID 19 pandemic. Methods: Institutional ethics permission was sought. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the institution during September 2020 were included in the study. Brief-COPE, a self-rated questionnaire, was provided to understand the coping strategies used by them. The Questionnaire consists of 28 questions that fall into 14 themes. These 14 themes were mapped into four domains consisting of Approaching coping (APC) styles, Avoidant Coping (AVC) styles, Humor and Religion. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Factor analysis was performed to identify themes that are most frequently used. Results: 162 pregnant women were included in the study. The majority of the women were aged between 18 and 30 (90.1%). 60.9% of the respondents were having their first pregnancy and were in the 2nd trimester (59.6%). The majority of them were living in the city (74%), belonged to the middle class (77.6%) and were not working (70.1%). 56 respondents (34.6%) reported that they had contact with suspected or Covid positive patients. Many were worried that their pregnancy might be complicated (43%), their baby may contract COVID (45%) and their family members could get COVID during the hospital visits for antenatal check-ups. 33.6% of women admitted missing their regular antenatal check-ups because of the above concerns. All respondents used various coping strategies to overcome the psychological impact of COVID 19. Out of the 4 coping strategies, participants scored high on Religion with a mean of 5.471.45 followed by Approaching Coping (APC) styles (5.131.25), Humor (4.592.07) and Avoidant Coping (AVC) styles (4.130.88). Religion as a coping strategy scored high for all respondents irrespective of age, parity, trimester, social and employment status. Exploratory Factor analysis revealed two cluster groups that explained 68% of the variance, with Component 1 contributing to 58.9% and component 2 contributing 9.13% of the variance. Humor, Acceptance, Planning, and Religion were the top 4 factors that showed strong loadings. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant women were worried about the negative impact of COVID 19 on the outcomes of their pregnancy. Religion and Approaching coping styles seem to be the predominant coping strategies used by them. Interventionists and policymakers should consider these factors while providing support to such women.

Keywords: coping strategies, pregnancy, COVID-19, brief-COPE

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24 Modeling of Drug Distribution in the Human Vitreous

Authors: Judith Stein, Elfriede Friedmann

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The injection of a drug into the vitreous body for the treatment of retinal diseases like wet aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common medical intervention worldwide. We develop mathematical models for drug transport in the vitreous body of a human eye to analyse the impact of different rheological models of the vitreous on drug distribution. In addition to the convection diffusion equation characterizing the drug spreading, we use porous media modeling for the healthy vitreous with a dense collagen network and include the steady permeating flow of the aqueous humor described by Darcy's law driven by a pressure drop. Additionally, the vitreous body in a healthy human eye behaves like a viscoelastic gel through the collagen fibers suspended in the network of hyaluronic acid and acts as a drug depot for the treatment of retinal diseases. In a completely liquefied vitreous, we couple the drug diffusion with the classical Navier-Stokes flow equations. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of the weak solution of the developed initial-boundary value problem describing the drug distribution in the healthy vitreous considering the permeating aqueous humor flow in the realistic three-dimensional setting. In particular, for the drug diffusion equation, results from the literature are extended from homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions to our mixed boundary conditions that describe the eye with the Galerkin's method using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and trace theorem. Because there is only a small effective drug concentration range and higher concentrations may be toxic, the ability to model the drug transport could improve the therapy by considering patient individual differences and give a better understanding of the physiological and pathological processes in the vitreous.

Keywords: coupled PDE systems, drug diffusion, mixed boundary conditions, vitreous body

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23 Examining the Dubbing Strategies Used in the Egyptian Dubbed Version of Mulan (1998)

Authors: Shaza Melies, Saadeya Salem, Seham Kareh

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Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience. Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience.

Keywords: domestication, dubbing, Mulan, translation theories

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22 Teaching Linguistic Humour Research Theories: Egyptian Higher Education EFL Literature Classes

Authors: O. F. Elkommos

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“Humour studies” is an interdisciplinary research area that is relatively recent. It interests researchers from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, medicine, nursing, in the work place, gender studies, among others, and certainly teaching, language learning, linguistics, and literature. Linguistic theories of humour research are numerous; some of which are of interest to the present study. In spite of the fact that humour courses are now taught in universities around the world in the Egyptian context it is not included. The purpose of the present study is two-fold: to review the state of arts and to show how linguistic theories of humour can be possibly used as an art and craft of teaching and of learning in EFL literature classes. In the present study linguistic theories of humour were applied to selected literary texts to interpret humour as an intrinsic artistic communicative competence challenge. Humour in the area of linguistics was seen as a fifth component of communicative competence of the second language leaner. In literature it was studied as satire, irony, wit, or comedy. Linguistic theories of humour now describe its linguistic structure, mechanism, function, and linguistic deviance. Semantic Script Theory of Verbal Humor (SSTH), General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH), Audience Based Theory of Humor (ABTH), and their extensions and subcategories as well as the pragmatic perspective were employed in the analyses. This research analysed the linguistic semantic structure of humour, its mechanism, and how the audience reader (teacher or learner) becomes an interactive interpreter of the humour. This promotes humour competence together with the linguistic, social, cultural, and discourse communicative competence. Studying humour as part of the literary texts and the perception of its function in the work also brings its positive association in class for educational purposes. Humour is by default a provoking/laughter-generated device. Incongruity recognition, perception and resolving it, is a cognitive mastery. This cognitive process involves a humour experience that lightens up the classroom and the mind. It establishes connections necessary for the learning process. In this context the study examined selected narratives to exemplify the application of the theories. It is, therefore, recommended that the theories would be taught and applied to literary texts for a better understanding of the language. Students will then develop their language competence. Teachers in EFL/ESL classes will teach the theories, assist students apply them and interpret text and in the process will also use humour. This is thus easing students' acquisition of the second language, making the classroom an enjoyable, cheerful, self-assuring, and self-illuminating experience for both themselves and their students. It is further recommended that courses of humour research studies should become an integral part of higher education curricula in Egypt.

Keywords: ABTH, deviance, disjuncture, episodic, GTVH, humour competence, humour comprehension, humour in the classroom, humour in the literary texts, humour research linguistic theories, incongruity-resolution, isotopy-disjunction, jab line, longer text joke, narrative story line (macro-micro), punch line, six knowledge resource, SSTH, stacks, strands, teaching linguistics, teaching literature, TEFL, TESL

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21 Exploring Coping Strategies among Caregivers of Children Who Have Survived Cancer

Authors: Noor Ismael, Somaya Malkawi, Sherin Al Awady, Taleb Ismael

Abstract:

Background/Significance: Cancer is a serious health condition that affects individuals’ quality of life during and after the course of this condition. Children who have survived cancer and their caregivers may deal with residual physical, cognitive or social disabilities. There is little research on caregivers’ health and wellbeing after cancer. To the authors’ best knowledge; there is no specific research about how caregivers cope with everyday stressors after cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the coping strategies that caregivers of children who have survived cancer utilize to overcome everyday stressors. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 103 caregivers, who visited the health and wellness clinic at a national cancer center (additional demographics are presented in the results). The sample included caregivers of children who were off cancer treatments for at least two years from the beginning of data collection. The institution’s internal review board approved this study. Caregivers who agreed to participate completed the survey. The survey collected caregiver reported demographic information and the Brief COPE which measures caregivers' frequency of engaging in certain coping strategies. The Brief COPE consisted of 14 coping sub-scales, which are self-distraction, active coping, denial, substance use, use of emotional support, use of instrumental support, behavioral disengagement, venting, positive reframing, planning, humor, acceptance, religion, and self-blame. Data analyses included calculating sub-scales’ scores for the fourteen coping strategies and analysis of frequencies of demographics and coping strategies. Results: The 103 caregivers who participated in this study were 62% mothers, 80% married, 45% finished high school, 50% do not work outside the house, and 60% have low family income. Result showed that religious coping (66%) and acceptance (60%) were the most utilized coping strategies, followed by positive reframing (45%), active coping (44%) and planning (43%). The least utilized coping strategies in our sample were humor (5%), behavioral disengagement (8%), and substance-use (10%). Conclusions: Caregivers of children who have survived cancer mostly utilize religious coping and acceptance in dealing with everyday stressors. Because these coping strategies do not directly solve stressors like active coping and planning coping strategies, it is important to support caregivers in choosing and implementing effective coping strategies. Knowing from our results that some caregivers may utilize substance use as a coping strategy, which has negative health effects on caregivers and their children, there must be direct interventions that target these caregivers and their families.

Keywords: caregivers, cancer, stress, coping

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20 Use of Visual, Animating Narrative in an Entrepreneurial Storytelling: A Case Study of Greenesignit! Card Game, Educational and Brainstorming Tool for Development of Sustainable Products

Authors: Maja S. Todorovic

Abstract:

This paper aims to promote entrepreneurial storytelling by exploring new ideas and learning practices. An entrepreneur needs to be a ‘storyteller’, an ‘epic hero’, capable of offering an emotional connection to his audience, a character with whom audience can identify with, rejoice, suffer, celebrate, fail – simply experience everything. In other words, a successful entrepreneur is giving tangible experience through his business story and that’s what makes his story and business alive. Use of mythology, eulogy, metaphor, epic, fairytales and cartoons, permeated with humor and sudden twists is a winning recipe for a business story that captures attention. In the business case of the Greenesignit! Card game, (educational and brainstorming tool for development of sustainable products) we will demonstrate how an entrepreneur successfully used visual narrative to communicate his story and at the same time as a vehicle to transmute his message in learning tool and product development.

Keywords: animating narrative, entrepreneur, Greeneisgnit! card game, visual storytelling

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19 Character Strengths and Military Leadership

Authors: Lobna Cherif, Valerie Wood

Abstract:

The importance of both character and resilience for military members has been emphasized at the highest levels of military leadership. Initial research suggests that the presence of character strengths might be relevant in predicting success and well-being for some military populations (e.g., recruits). In this presentation, we will first review our research investigating the perceived importance of character strengths for Canadian military cadet (N = 134) success, the top strengths endorsed by cadets, and, in a subset of cadets (n = 94), the relationships among core strengths and resilience. Participants first completed a survey comprised of a resilience measure and demographic items, then one month later completed a Values in Action (VIA) character strengths profile, questions related to character strengths (their personal top-five character strengths, and strengths they believed were important for military-related stressors and leadership, academic success, resilience, and completion of the military challenge). Findings indicated that military cadets consider (among others), perseverance, judgment, and teamwork to be most critical for bouncing back from stressors. However, the most frequently endorsed strengths that characterized cadets were bravery, honesty, and perseverance. Finally, perseverance, bravery, and humor were positively correlated with cadet resilience, while endorsement of love was negatively correlated with resilience.

Keywords: character strengths, leadership, positive psychology, resilience

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18 Skin Care through Ayurveda

Authors: K. L. Virupaksha Gupta

Abstract:

Ayurveda offers a holistic outlook regarding skin care. Most Initial step in Ayurveda is to identify the skin type and care accordingly which is highly personalized. Though dermatologically there are various skin type classifications such Baumann skin types (based on 4 parameters i) Oily Vs Dry ii) Sensitive Vs Resistant iii) Pigmented Vs Non-Pigmented iv) Wrinkled Vs Tight (Unwrinkled) etc but Skin typing in Ayurveda is mainly determined by the prakriti (constitution) of the individual as well as the status of Doshas (Humors) which are basically of 3 types – i.e Vata Pitta and Kapha,. Difference between them is mainly attributed to the qualities of each dosha (humor). All the above said skin types can be incorporated under these three types. The skin care modalities in each of the constitution vary greatly. Skin of an individual of Vata constitution would be lustreless, having rough texture and cracks due to dryness and thus should be given warm and unctuous therapies and oil massage for lubrication and natural moisturizers for hydration. Skin of an individual of Pitta constitution would look more vascular (pinkish), delicate and sensitive with a fair complexion, unctuous and tendency for wrinkles and greying of hair at an early age and hence should be given cooling and nurturing therapies and should avoid tanning treatments. Skin of an individual of kapha constitution will have oily skin, they are delicate and look beautiful and radiant and hence these individuals would require therapies to mainly combat oily skin. Hence, the skin typing and skin care in Ayurveda is highly rational and scientific.

Keywords: Ayurveda, dermatology, Dosha, skin types

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17 The Impact of Political Satire on the Balance of Political Powers in Egypt: The Case of El-Bernameg in Egypt

Authors: Sally Barsoum

Abstract:

This paper is providing a significant insight into the role of satire in Egyptian politics and how it has been received from the government and viewer’s point of view. It mainly sets out to test whether Bassem Youssef’s satirical program has played a significant role in Egypt recent politics and to investigate what is the nature and extent of this role. In order to test this hypothesis, the researcher chose to critically analyze one episode of Bassem Youssef’s satirical show, El Bernameg. This paper goes further to highlight that the aims of satire is to invite citizens to analyze, criticize and question people in power and the realm of politics rather than remain as untouched subjects by combining humor with critique in order to enhance citizens’ political awareness and perhaps even political engagement. Moreover it identifies that Bassem Youssef’s satire is to use laughter as a medium to communicate his political message. By first informing the public and secondly engaging them through laughter, satire plays a very constructive political role, which have been argued finally that Bassem Youssef has indeed played an important part in the Egyptian political scene of today and this can be measured by the degree of censorship that he has been subject to and the level of international and domestic reaction towards his satirical show. At the end, this paper is suggesting that the measure of a strong government is its ability not only to accommodate satire but also to learn from it.

Keywords: political satirist, Bassem Youssef, capital broadcasting center, TV channel, muslims brotherhood regime, ONTV Egyptian TV channel

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16 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi

Abstract:

Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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15 The Colombian Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Commercial Signs

Authors: Francia Martinez

Abstract:

This study documents and demonstrates the profound impact of the high status of American English and culture in Colombian commercial landscape due to the globalization and commodification of English. It also documents and describes how Colombian advertisers make use of various language and visual mechanisms in the commercial linguistic landscape to convey messages, create an image with which the target audience can identify, and build a relationship with that target audience. The data (in the form of pictures) were collected in different cities in Colombia and were classified and organized into different categories for the reliability and validity of the analysis. The research questions were: do the ubiquity and high status of American English and culture play a major role in the Colombian commercial linguistic landscape? If so, how?, what roles do national and local culture and language (Spanish) play in the commercial linguistic landscape?, and what different linguistic and visual strategies do Colombian advertisers employ to reach their target audience? Based on data analysis and results, American and local culture and icons play a major role when Colombian advertisers create and design their commercial logos and ads to get consumers’ attention and establish a rapport with them in a successful way. In order to achieve their objectives, Colombian advertisers rely on creative linguistic and visual techniques in their ads, such as puns, humor, irony, comparisons, metaphors, mocking, exaggeration, parody, personification, sarcasm, satire, allusion, onomatopoeias, and imitation (copycat or cloning).

Keywords: Colombian ads, linguistic landscape, rhetorical devices, sociolinguistics

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14 Being Funny is a Serious Business for Feminine Brands

Authors: Mohammed Murtuza Soofi

Abstract:

Purpose: Marketers and Researchers alike have simultaneously, yet in mutually exclusive instances, promote the use of humour by brands in their communication and gendering of brands, as both enhance brand equity and can generate positive attitudinal responses from customers. However, the gendering of brands comes with associated gendered stereotypical expectations. The current paper consolidates the long standing literature on gender role/stereotype theory and brand gender theories establishing a theoretical framework for understanding how gender-based stereotypes about humour can influence consumers’ attitudinal responses towards brands. Design/methodology/approach: Using parallel constrain satisfaction theory as domain theory to explain the highhandedness of stereotypes and gender stereotype theories (particularly around feminine use of humour), we explain why gender based stereotypes could constrain brand behaviors, and in turn, feminine brands get penalised for using witty, aggressive and self-enhancing humor. Findings: Extension of gender stereotypes to anthropomorphised brands will lead consumers to judge the use of negative humour by a feminine brand as less appropriate, which will trigger the causal chain of reduced sense of communal appropriateness and brand warmth which will result in a negative attitude towards the brand. Originality/value: Brand gendering being susceptible to gender based stereotypes, has very little attention in the literature and hence use of negative humour (stereotypical male behaviour), has never been studied in the context of gendered brands. It also helps understand to what extent stereotypes will impact attitudinal responses to the brand. Our work can help understand when heavily gendered brands can optimise the use of humour and when they can avoid it.

Keywords: brand femininity, brand gender, gender stereotypes, humour

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13 A Linguistic Product of K-Pop: A Corpus-Based Study on the Korean-Originated Chinese Neologism Simida

Authors: Hui Shi

Abstract:

This article examines the online popularity of Chinese neologism simida, which is a loanword derived from Korean declarative sentence-final suffix seumnida. Facilitated by corpus data obtained from Weibo, the Chinese counterpart of Twitter, this study analyzes the morphological and syntactical processes behind simida’s coinage, as well as the causes of its prevalence on Chinese social media. The findings show that simida is used by Weibo bloggers in two manners: (1) as an alternative word of 'Korea' and 'Korean'; (2) as a redundant sentence-final particle which adds a Korean-like speech style to a statement. Additionally, Weibo user profile analysis further reveals demographical distribution patterns concerning this neologism and highlights young Weibo users in the third-tier cities as the leading adopters of simida. These results are accounted for under the theoretical framework of social indexicality, especially how variations generate style in the indexical field. This article argues that the creation of such an ethnically-targeted neologism is a linguistic demonstration of Chinese netizen’s two-sided attitudes toward the previously heated Korean-wave. The exotic suffix seumnida is borrowed to Chinese as simida due to its high-frequency in Korean cultural exports. Therefore, it gradually becomes a replacement of Korea-related lexical items due to markedness, regardless of semantic prosody. Its innovative implantation to Chinese syntax, on the other hand, reflects Chinese netizens’ active manipulation of language for their online identity building. This study has implications for research on the linguistic construction of identity and style and lays the groundwork for linguistic creativity in the Chinese new media.

Keywords: Chinese neologism, loanword, humor, new media

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12 The Relationship Between Quality of Life, Psychological Distress and Coping Strategies of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Sumaia Jawad, Shalaweh Salem, Walid Kamal, Nicolette Roman

Abstract:

Background: HIV patients have many social problems like depression, which adversely affects their quality of life. HIV infection is linked to psychological distress such as anxiety. In terms of coping styles, avoidant emotion-focused strategies such as fatalism, wishful thinking and self-blame are associated with higher levels of psychological distress in persons with HIV. In Cairo, Egypt current services are not adapted to provide advice and psychological support to people living with HIV to help them develop problem-solving skills to cope with the stress of living with HIV. Yet, no studies have examined the relationship between quality of life, psychological distress and coping strategies of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Egypt. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between quality of life, psychological distress and coping strategies of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: This study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional correlational design. The data was collected using: Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Cope Inventory. The sample consisted of 202 participants who accessed the National AIDS Program (NAP). The data was analysed using the Statistical Program for Social Science V23 (SPSS). Results: The results show that psychological distress and certain coping styles such as substance abuse and behavioural disengagement negatively predict the quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS. Positive predictors included coping styles such as active coping, self-distraction, venting, positive reframing, humor, acceptance, and religion. Conclusions: It would probably be best to reduce psychological distress and increase coping styles in order to improve the quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, quality of life, psychological distress, coping strategies

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11 Carnatic Music Ragas and Their Role in Music Therapy

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

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Raga, as the soul and base, is a distinctive musical entity, in the music system, with unique structure on its construction of srutis (musical sounds) and application. One of the essential components of the music system is the ‘tala’ that defines the rhythm of a song. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da and Ni in the carnatic music system that are analogous to the C, D, E, F, G, A and B of the western system. The carnatic music further builds on conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation) and rendering styles. It has basic 72 ragas known as melakarta ragas, and a plethora of ragas have been developed from them with permutations and combinations of the basic swaras. Among them, some ragas derived from a same melakarta raga are distinctly different from each other and could evoke a profound difference in the raga bhava (emotion) during rendering. Although these could bear similar arohana and avarohana swaras, their quintessential differences in the gamakas usage and srutis present therein offer varied melodic feelings; variations in the intonation and stress given to certain swara phrases are the root causes. This article enlightens a group of such allied ragas (AR) from the perspectives of their schema and raga alapana (improvisation), ranjaka prayogas (signature phrases), differences in rendering tempo, gamakas and delicate srutis along with the range of sancharas (musical phrases). The intricate differences on the sruti frequencies and use of AR in composing kritis (musical compositions) toward emotive accomplishments such as mood of valor, kindness, love, humor, anger, mercy to name few, have also been explored. A brief review on the existing scientific research on the music therapy on some of the Carnatic ragas is presented. Studying and comprehending the AR, indeed, enable the music aspirants to gain a thorough knowledge on the subtle nuances among the ragas. Such knowledge helps leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners and enable further research on the music therapy.

Keywords: Carnatic music, allied ragas, melakarta, gamakam

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