Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: post-harvest

37 Postharvest Losses and Handling Improvement of Organic Pak-Choi and Choy Sum

Authors: Pichaya Poonlarp, Danai Boonyakiat, C. Chuamuangphan, M. Chanta

Abstract:

Current consumers’ behavior trends have changed towards more health awareness, the well-being of society and interest of nature and environment. The Royal Project Foundation is, therefore, well aware of organic agriculture. The project only focused on using natural products and utilizing its highland biological merits to increase resistance to diseases and insects for the produce grown. The project also brought in basic knowledge from a variety of available research information, including, but not limited to, improvement of soil fertility and a control of plant insects with biological methods in order to lay a foundation in developing and promoting farmers to grow quality produce with a high health safety. This will finally lead to sustainability for future highland agriculture and a decrease of chemical use on the highland area which is a source of natural watershed. However, there are still shortcomings of the postharvest management in term of quality and losses, such as bruising, rottenness, wilting and yellowish leaves. These losses negatively affect the maintenance and a shelf life of organic vegetables. Therefore, it is important that a research study of the appropriate and effective postharvest management is conducted for an individual organic vegetable to minimize product loss and find root causes of postharvest losses which would contribute to future postharvest management best practices. This can be achieved through surveys and data collection from postharvest processes in order to conduct analysis for causes of postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum. Consequently, postharvest losses reduction strategies of organic vegetables can be achieved. In this study, postharvest losses of organic pak choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were determined at each stage of the supply chain starting from the field after harvesting, at the Development Center packinghouse, at Chiang Mai packinghouse, at Bangkok packing house and at the Royal Project retail shop in Chiang Mai. The results showed that postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were 86.05, 89.05 and 59.03 percent, respectively. The main factors contributing to losses of organic vegetables were due to mechanical damage and underutilized parts and/or short of minimum quality standard. Good practices had been developed after causes of losses were identified. Appropriate postharvest handling and management, for example, temperature control, hygienic cleaning, and reducing the duration of the supply chain, postharvest losses of all organic vegetables should be able to remarkably reduced postharvest losses in the supply chain.

Keywords: postharvest losses, organic vegetables, handling improvement, shelf life, supply chain

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36 Enhancing Postharvest Quality and Shelf-Life of Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by Altering Growing Conditions

Authors: Jung-Soo Lee, Ujjal Kumar Nath, IllSup Nou, Dulal Chandra

Abstract:

Leaf lettuce is one of the most important leafy vegetables that is used as raw for salad and part of everyday dishes in many parts of the world including Asian countries. Since it is used as fresh, its quality maintenance is crucial which depends on several pre- and postharvest factors. In order to investigate the effects of pre-fix factors on the postharvest quality, the interaction of pre-fix factors such as growing conditions and fixed factor like cultivars were evaluated. Four Korean leaf lettuce cultivars ‘Cheongchima’, ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’, ‘Geockchima’ and ‘Geockchuckmyeon’ were grown under natural condition (as control) and altered growing condition (green house) with excess soil water and 50% shading to monitor their postharvest qualities. Several growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves, leaf thickness, fresh biomass yield as well as postharvest qualities like fresh weight loss, respiration rate, changes in color and shelf-life were measured in lettuce during storage up to 36 days at 5°C. Plant height and the number of leaves were affected by both pre-fix growing conditions as well as the cultivars. However, fresh biomass yield was affected by only growing condition, whereas leaf thickness was affected by cultivars. Additionally, the degrees of fresh weight loss and respiration rate of leaf lettuce at postharvest stages were influenced by pre-fix growing conditions and cultivars. However, changes in color of leaves during storage were less remarkable in samples harvested from of ‘Cheongchima’ and ‘Cheongchuckmyeon’ cultivars grown in excess watering with 50% shade than that grown in control condition. Consequently, these two cultivars also showed longer shelf-life when they were grown in excess watering with 50% shade than other cultivars or samples were grown in control condition. Based on the measured parameters, it can be concluded that postharvest quality of leaf lettuce might be accelerated by growing lettuce under excess soil water with 50% shading.

Keywords: cultivar, growing condition, leaf lettuce, postharvest quality, shelf-life

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35 Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Postharvest Life and Quality of Some Grape Cultivars

Authors: Zeki Kara, Kevser Yazar

Abstract:

Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are an important crop worldwide. Postharvest problems like berry shattering, decay and stem dehydration are some of the important factors that limit the marketing of table grapes. Edible coatings are an alternative for increasing shelf-life of fruits, protecting fruits from humidity and oxygen effects, thus retarding their deterioration. This study aimed to compare different grape seed oil applications (GSO, 0.5 g L-1, 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1) and SO2 generating pads effects (SO2-1, SO2-2). Treated grapes with GSO and generating pads were packaged into polyethylene trays and stored at 0 ± 1°C and 85-95% moisture. Effects of the applications were investigated by some quality and sensory evaluations with intervals of 15 days. SO2 applications were determined the most effective treatments for minimizing weight loss and changes in TA, pH, color and appearance value. Grape seed oil applications were determined as a good alternative for grape preservation, improving weight losses and °Brix, TA, the color values and sensory analysis. Commercially, ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ clusters were stored for 75 days and ‘Antep Karası’ clusters for 60 days. The data obtained from GSO indicated that it had a similar quality result to SO2 for up to 40 days storage.

Keywords: postharvest, quality, sensory analyses, Vitis vinifera L.

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34 Potential for Biological Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers in Storage with Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Victor Iorungwa Gwa, Ebenezer Jonathan Ekefan

Abstract:

Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers in storage was studied. Pathogenicity test revealed the susceptibility of healthy looking yam tubers to Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonganae after fourteen days of inoculation. Treatments comprising A. niger, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum each paired with T. harzianum and were arranged in completely randomized design and stored for five months. Experiments were conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 and December 2016 and April 2017. Results showed that tubers treated with the pathogenic fungi alone caused mean percentage rot of between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 22.22 % (A. niger) while the paired treatments produced only between 2.22 % (T. harzianum by F. oxysporum) and 6.67 % (T. harzianum by A. niger). In the second year of storage, mean percentage rot was found to be between 13.33 % (F. oxysporum) and 28.89 % (A. niger) while in the paired treatment rot was only between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 8.89% (A. niger). Tubers treated with antagonist alone produced 0.00 % and 2.22 % in the first and second year, respectively. Result revealed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in mean percentage rot between the first year and the second year except where B. theobromae was inoculated alone, A. niger and T. harzianum paired and B. theobromae and T. harzianum paired. The most antagonised fungus in paired treatment for both years was F. oxysporum f. sp. melonganae, while the least antagonised, was A. niger and B. theobromae. It is, therefore, concluded that T. harzianum has potentials to control rot causing pathogens of yam tubers in storage. This can compliment or provide better alternative ways of reducing rot in yam tubers than by the use of chemical fungicides which are not environmentally friendly.

Keywords: biological control, fungal rot, postharvest, Trichoderma harzianum, white yam

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33 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

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32 Production of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Biocontrol of Postharvest Crops

Authors: Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G. Klarke

Abstract:

With overpopulation threatening the world’s ability to feed itself, food production and protection has become a major issue, especially in developing countries. Almost one-third of the food produced for human consumption, around 1.3 billion tonnes, is either wasted or lost annually. Postharvest decay in particular constitutes a major cause of crop loss with about 20% of fruits and vegetables produced lost during postharvest storage, mainly due to fungal disease. Some of the major phytopathogenic fungi affecting postharvest fruit crops in South Africa include Aspergillus, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp. To date control of fungal phytopathogens has primarily been dependent on synthetic chemical fungicides, but these chemicals pose a significant threat to the environment, mainly due to their xenobiotic properties and tendency to generate resistance in the phytopathogens. Here, an environmentally benign alternative approach to control postharvest fungal phytopathogens in perishable fruit crops has been presented, namely the application of a bio-fungicide in the form of lipopeptide molecules. Lipopeptides are biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. which have been established as green, nontoxic and biodegradable molecules with antimicrobial properties. However, since the Bacillus are capable of producing a large number of lipopeptide homologues with differing efficacies against distinct target organisms, the lipopeptide production conditions and strategy are critical to produce the maximum lipopeptide concentration with homologue ratios to specification for optimum bio-fungicide efficacy. Process conditions, and their impact on Bacillus lipopeptide production, were evaluated in fully instrumented laboratory scale bioreactors under well-regulated controlled and defined environments. Factors such as the oxygen availability and trace element and nitrate concentrations had profound influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity. Lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity were enhanced in cultures where the oxygen in the sparge gas was increased from 21 to 30 mole%. The addition of trace elements, particularly Fe2+, increased the total concentration of lipopeptides and a nitrate concentration equivalent to 8 g/L ammonium nitrate resulted in optimum lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity. Efficacy studies of the culture supernatant containing the crude lipopeptide mixture were conducted using phytopathogens isolated from fruit in the field, identified using genetic sequencing. The supernatant exhibited antifungal activity against all the test-isolates, namely Lewia, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp., even in this crude form. Thus the lipopeptide product efficacy has been confirmed to control the main diseases, even in the basic crude form. Future studies will be directed towards purification of the lipopeptide product and enhancement of efficacy.

Keywords: antifungal efficacy, biocontrol, lipopeptide production, perishable crops

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31 Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Resveratrol, Myricetin and Quercetin Content of Wine

Authors: Mariam Khomasuridze, Nino Chkhartishvili, Irma Chanturia

Abstract:

The influence of preharvest and postharvest factors on resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin content of wine was studied during the experiment. The content of cis and trans resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin were analyzed by HPLC. In frame of experiment, the various factors affecting on wine composition were researched: variety, climate, viticulture practices, grape maturity, harvesting methods and wine making techniques. The results have shown that varietal potential and amount of yield play the most important role in formation of antioxidant compounds. Based on achieved results, the usage of medium roast oak chips protects resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin from coagulation and precipitation. Compared to the control samples, the wines, produced by addition of oak chips were approximately four times richer with these antioxidant compounds. The retention of resveratrol was lowered with 45 % in wines, producing in Qvevri by Georgian traditional technology without controlling temperature during fermentation. The opposite effects in case of myricetin, quercetin and total phenolics content were determined. Their concentrations were higher with 56-78%, then in the fermented tank at 22 -25 °C. As the result of the experiment, the optimal technology scheme of wine was worked out, reached by biologically active compounds: resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin.

Keywords: resveratrol, miricetin, quercetin, wine

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30 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao

Abstract:

Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
29 Effects of Multilayer Coating of Chitosan and Polystyrene Sulfonate on Quality of ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ Mango

Authors: N. Hadthamard, P. Chaumpluk, M. Buanong, P. Boonyaritthongchai, C. Wongs-Aree

Abstract:

Ripe ‘Nam Dok Mai’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important exported fruit of Thailand, but rapidly declined in the quality attributes mainly by infection of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases. Multilayer coating is considered as a developed technique to maintain the postharvest quality of mangoes. The utilization of alternated coating by matching oppositely electrostatic charges between 0.1% chitosan and 0.1% polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) was studied. A number of the coating layers (layer by layer) were applied on mature green ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ mangoes prior to storage at 25 oC, 65-70% relative humidity (RH). There were significant differences in some quality attributes of mangoes coated by 3½ layers, 4½ layers and 5½ layers. In comparison to coated mangoes, uncoated fruits were higher in weight loss, total soluble solids, respiration rate, ethylene production and disease incidence except the titratable acidity. Coating fruit at 3½ layers exhibited the ripening delay and reducing disease infection without off flavour. On the other hand, fruit coated with 5½ layers comprised the lowest acceptable score, caused by exhibiting disorders from fermentation at the end of storage. As a result, multilayer coating between chitosan and PSS could effectively maintain the postharvest quality of mango, but number of coating layers should be thoroughly considered.

Keywords: multilayer, chitosan, polystyrene sulfonate, Nam Dok Mai No.4

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28 Evaluation of Low Temperature as Treatment Tool for Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Artificial Diet

Authors: Farhan J. M. Al-Behadili, Vineeta Bilgi, Miyuki Taniguchi, Junxi Li, Wei Xu

Abstract:

Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits and vegetables. Medfly originated from Africa and spread in many countries, and is currently an endemic pest in Western Australia. Medfly has been recorded from over 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, nuts and its main hosts include blueberries, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruits, peppers, tomatoes, and figs. Global trade of fruits and other farm fresh products are suffering from the damages of this pest, which prompted towards the need to develop more effective ways to control these pests. The available quarantine treatment technologies mainly include chemical treatment (e.g., fumigation) and non-chemical treatments (e.g., cold, heat and irradiation). In recent years, with the loss of several chemicals, it has become even more important to rely on non-chemical postharvest control technologies (i.e., heat, cold and irradiation) to control fruit flies. Cold treatment is one of the most potential trends of focus in postharvest treatment because it is free of chemical residues, mitigates or kills the pest population, increases the strength of the fruits, and prolongs storage time. It can also be applied to fruits after packing and ‘in transit’ during lengthy transport by sea during their exports. However, limited systematic study on cold treatment of Medfly stages in artificial diets was reported, which is critical to provide a scientific basis to compare with previous research in plant products and design an effective cold treatment suitable for exported plant products. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate and understand Medfly responses to cold treatments. Medfly stages were tested. The long-term goal was to optimize current postharvest treatments and develop more environmentally-friendly, cost-effective, and efficient treatments for controlling Medfly. Cold treatment with different exposure times is studied to evaluate cold eradication treatment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), that reared on carrot diet. Mortality is important aspect was studied in this study. On the other hand, study effects of exposure time on mortality means of medfly stages.

Keywords: cold treatment, fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, carrot diet, temperature effects

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27 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: cassava, biopesticides, in vitro, in vivo, pathogens, plant extracts

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26 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide, ethylene, fungi, sodium hypochlorite

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25 Optimization of Mechanical Cacao Shelling Parameters Using Unroasted Cocoa Beans

Authors: Jeffrey A. Lavarias, Jessie C. Elauria, Arnold R. Elepano, Engelbert K. Peralta, Delfin C. Suministrado

Abstract:

Shelling process is one of the primary processes and critical steps in the processing of chocolate or any product that is derived from cocoa beans. It affects the quality of the cocoa nibs in terms of flavor and purity. In the Philippines, small-scale food processor cannot really compete with large scale confectionery manufacturers because of lack of available postharvest facilities that are appropriate to their level of operation. The impact of this study is to provide the needed intervention that will pave the way for cacao farmers of engaging on the advantage of value-adding as way to maximize the economic potential of cacao. Thus, provision and availability of needed postharvest machines like mechanical cacao sheller will revolutionize the current state of cacao industry in the Philippines. A mechanical cacao sheller was developed, fabricated, and evaluated to establish optimum shelling conditions such as moisture content of cocoa beans, clearance where of cocoa beans passes through the breaker section and speed of the breaking mechanism on shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, energy utilization and large nib recovery; To establish the optimum level of shelling parameters of the mechanical sheller. These factors were statistically analyzed using design of experiment by Box and Behnken and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). By maximizing shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, large nib recovery and minimizing energy utilization, the optimum shelling conditions were established at moisture content, clearance and breaker speed of 6.5%, 3 millimeters and 1300 rpm, respectively. The optimum values for shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, large nib recovery and minimizing energy utilization were recorded at 86.51%, 99.19%, 21.85kg/hr, 89.75%, and 542.84W, respectively. Experimental values obtained using the optimum conditions were compared with predicted values using predictive models and were found in good agreement.

Keywords: cocoa beans, optimization, RSM, shelling parameters

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24 Crop Losses, Produce Storage and Food Security, the Nexus: Attaining Sustainable Maize Production in Nigeria

Authors: Charles Iledun Oyewole, Harira Shuaib

Abstract:

While fulfilling the food security of an increasing population like Nigeria remains a major global concern, more than one-third of crop harvested is lost or wasted during harvesting or in postharvest operations. Reducing the harvest and postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food production and high food import bill, which has had debilitating effects on the country’s economy. One of the goals of Nigeria’s agricultural development policy is to ensure that, the nation produces enough food and be less dependent on importation so as to ensure adequate and affordable food for all. Maize could fill the food gap in Nigeria’s effort to beat hunger and food insecurity. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. Maize grains constitute primary source of food for large percentage of the Nigerian populace, thus a considerable waste of this valuable food pre and post-harvest constitutes such a major agricultural bottleneck; that the reduction of pre and post-harvest losses is now a common food security strategy. In surveys conducted, as much as 60% maize outputs can be lost on the field and during the storage stage due to technical inefficiency. Field losses due to rodent damage alone can account for between 10% - 60% grain losses depending on the location. While the use of scientific storage methods can reduce losses below 2% in storage, timely harvesting of crop can check losses on the fields resulting from rodent damage or pest infestation. A push for increased crop production must be complemented by available and affordable post-harvest technologies that will reduce losses on farmers’ fields as well as in storage.

Keywords: government policy, maize, population increase, storage, sustainable food production, yield, yield losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
23 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: metabolism, acidity, ascorbic acid, pharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
22 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari

Abstract:

The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-c irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
21 Application of 1-MCP on ‘Centro’ Melon at Different Days after Harvest

Authors: L. P. L. Nguyen, G. Hitka, T. Zsom, Z. Kókai

Abstract:

This study is aimed to investigate the influence of postharvest delays of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on prolonging the storage potential of melon. Melons were treated with 625-650 ppb 1-MCP at 10 °C for 24 hours on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after harvest. Decreased ethylene production and retarded softening of melon fruits after 7 days of storage at 10 °C plus 3 days of shelflife were obtained by 1-MCP applications. 1-MCP strongly affected the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and hue angle values of melon. After shelf-life, the peel color of treated melon was slow in turning to yellow compared to the control. Additionally, firmness of melons treated on the first day after harvest was 38% higher than that of the control fruit. Results showed that fruits treated on the 1st and the 3rd day after harvest could maintain the quality of melon.

Keywords: 1-MCP, muskmelon, storage, treatment.

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20 A Multi-Beneficial Gift of Nature (Noni Fruit): Nutritional, Functional, and Post-Harvest Aspects

Authors: Mahsa Moteshakeri

Abstract:

Morinda citrifolia L., a miracle fruit with common name of Noni, has been widely used as food and traditional medicine in the Polynesians culture. Current scientific evidences have proved the therapeautical and nutritional properties of this fruit so that its extensive production in tropical regions in recent years has emerged a competitive global Noni market mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of juice or tablet. However, there is not much record on the processing method applied on fresh fruit postharvest or even its mechanism of action in controlling diseases. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive data on phytochemicals, technical, and nutritional advances on Noni fruit and recent patents published, as well as medicinal properties of the fruit in order to benefit future investigations on this precious fruit either in industrial or therapeautical section.

Keywords: noni fruit, phytochemicals, therapeautic properties of fruit, nutritional properties of fruit

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19 Post-Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze and Tray Drying Methods

Authors: O. A. Adeyeye, E. R. Sadiku, Periyar Selvam Sellamuthu, Anand Babu Perumal, Reshma B. Nambiar

Abstract:

Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit and only very few off-seasonal cultivars are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered. In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.

Keywords: postharvest, Mangos, cultivar, total soluble solid, total phenol content, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
18 Post Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze Drying and Tray Drying Methods

Authors: O. A. Adeyeye, E. R. Sadiku, Selvam Sellamuthu Periyar, Babu Perumal Anand, B. Nambiar Reshma

Abstract:

Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit, and only very few off-seasonal species are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, in order to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.

Keywords: postharvest, mangos, cultivar, total soluble solid, total phenol content, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
17 Heat Transfer Modeling of 'Carabao' Mango (Mangifera indica L.) during Postharvest Hot Water Treatments

Authors: Hazel James P. Agngarayngay, Arnold R. Elepaño

Abstract:

Mango is the third most important export fruit in the Philippines. Despite the expanding mango trade in world market, problems on postharvest losses caused by pests and diseases are still prevalent. Many disease control and pest disinfestation methods have been studied and adopted. Heat treatment is necessary to eliminate pests and diseases to be able to pass the quarantine requirements of importing countries. During heat treatments, temperature and time are critical because fruits can easily be damaged by over-exposure to heat. Modeling the process enables researchers and engineers to study the behaviour of temperature distribution within the fruit over time. Understanding physical processes through modeling and simulation also saves time and resources because of reduced experimentation. This research aimed to simulate the heat transfer mechanism and predict the temperature distribution in ‘Carabao' mangoes during hot water treatment (HWT) and extended hot water treatment (EHWT). The simulation was performed in ANSYS CFD Software, using ANSYS CFX Solver. The simulation process involved model creation, mesh generation, defining the physics of the model, solving the problem, and visualizing the results. Boundary conditions consisted of the convective heat transfer coefficient and a constant free stream temperature. The three-dimensional energy equation for transient conditions was numerically solved to obtain heat flux and transient temperature values. The solver utilized finite volume method of discretization. To validate the simulation, actual data were obtained through experiment. The goodness of fit was evaluated using mean temperature difference (MTD). Also, t-test was used to detect significant differences between the data sets. Results showed that the simulations were able to estimate temperatures accurately with MTD of 0.50 and 0.69 °C for the HWT and EHWT, respectively. This indicates good agreement between the simulated and actual temperature values. The data included in the analysis were taken at different locations of probe punctures within the fruit. Moreover, t-tests showed no significant differences between the two data sets. Maximum heat fluxes obtained at the beginning of the treatments were 394.15 and 262.77 J.s-1 for HWT and EHWT, respectively. These values decreased abruptly at the first 10 seconds and gradual decrease was observed thereafter. Data on heat flux is necessary in the design of heaters. If underestimated, the heating component of a certain machine will not be able to provide enough heat required by certain operations. Otherwise, over-estimation will result in wasting of energy and resources. This study demonstrated that the simulation was able to estimate temperatures accurately. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the influence of various treatment conditions on the temperature-time history in mangoes. When combined with information on insect mortality and quality degradation kinetics, it could predict the efficacy of a particular treatment and guide appropriate selection of treatment conditions. The effect of various parameters on heat transfer rates, such as the boundary and initial conditions as well as the thermal properties of the material, can be systematically studied without performing experiments. Furthermore, the use of ANSYS software in modeling and simulation can be explored in modeling various systems and processes.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat treatment, mango, modeling and simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
16 Maturity Model for Agro-Industrial Logistics

Authors: Erika Tatiana Ruiz, Wilson Adarme Jaimes

Abstract:

This abstract presents the methodology for improving the logistics processes of agricultural production units belonging to the coffee, cocoa, and fruit sectors, starting from the fundamental concepts and detailing each of the phases to carry out the diagnosis, which will be the basis for the formulation of its action plan and implementation of the maturity model. As a result of this work, the maturity model is formulated to improve logistics processes. This model seeks to: generate a progressive model that is useful for all productive units belonging to these sectors at the national level, regardless of their initial conditions, focus on the improvement of logistics processes as a strategy that contributes to improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in Colombia and spread the implementation of good logistics practices in postharvest in all departments of the country through autonomous tools. This model has been built through a series of steps that allow the evaluation and improvement of the logistics dimensions or indicators. The potential improvements for each dimension provide the foundation on which to advance to the next level. Within the maturity model, a methodology is indicated for the design and execution of strategies to improve its logistics processes, taking into account the current state of each production unit.

Keywords: agroindustrial, characterization, logistics, maturity model, processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
15 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji

Abstract:

This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rot, fungi, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
14 Tomato Quality Produced in Saline Soils Using Irrigation with Treated Electromagnetic Water

Authors: Angela Vacaro de Souza, Fernando Ferrari Putti

Abstract:

One of the main plants cultivated in protected environment is tomato crop, which presents significant growth in its demand, because it is a tasty fruit, rich in nutrients and of high added value, however, poor management of fertilizers induces the process of soil salinization, causing several consequences, from reduced productivity to even soil infertility. These facts are derived from the increased concentration of salts, which hampers the process of water absorption by the plant, resulting in a biochemical and nutritional imbalance in the plant. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of untreated and electromagnetically treated water in salinized soils on physical, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters in tomato fruits. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tupã Campus (FCE/UNESP). A randomized complete block design with two types of treated water was adopted, with five different levels of initial salinity (0; 1.5; 2.5; 4; 5.5; 7 dS m⁻¹) by fertigation. Although the effects of salinity on fruit quality parameters are evident, no beneficial effects on increasing or maintaining postharvest quality of fruits whose plants were treated with electromagnetized water were evidenced.

Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, soil salinization, protected environment, fertigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
13 Application of Medium High Hydrostatic Pressure in Preserving Textural Quality and Safety of Pineapple Compote

Authors: Nazim Uddin, Yohiko Nakaura, Kazutaka Yamamoto

Abstract:

Compote (fruit in syrup) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) is expected to have a high market potential as one of convenient ready-to-eat (RTE) foods worldwide. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in combination with low temperature (LT) was applied to the processing of pineapple compote as well as medium HHP (MHHP) in combination with medium-high temperature (MHT) since both processes can enhance liquid impregnation and inactivate microbes. MHHP+MHT (55 or 65 °C) process, as well as the HHP+LT process, has successfully inactivated the microbes in the compote to a non-detectable level. Although the compotes processed by MHHP+MHT or HHP+LT have lost the fresh texture as in a similar manner as those processed solely by heat, it was indicated that the texture degradations by heat were suppressed under MHHP. Degassing process reduced the hardness, while calcium (Ca) contributed to be retained hardness in MHT and MHHP+MHT processes. Electrical impedance measurement supported the damage due to degassing and heat. The color, Brix, and appearance were not affected by the processing methods significantly. MHHP+MHT and HHP+LT processes may be applicable to produce high-quality, safe RTE pineapple compotes. Further studies on the optimization of packaging and storage condition will be indispensable for commercialization.

Keywords: compote of pineapple, RTE, medium high hydrostatic pressure, postharvest loss, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
12 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: enzymatic treatment, Jamun, optimization, physicochemical property, sensory analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
11 Storage Durations Affect the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Physalis Minima L.

Authors: Norhanizan U., S. H. Ahmad, N. A. P. Abdullah, G. B. Saleh

Abstract:

Physalis minima from the family of Solanaceae is one of the promising fruits which contains the high amount of vitamin C and other antioxidants as well. However, it is a perishable fruit where the deterioration process will commence if the fruits are not stored in proper conditions. There is not much work has been carried out to study the effects of storage durations on Physalis fruit. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of 0, 3, 6, and 9 days of storage on postharvest quality of Physalis minima fruits. Total of 120g of uniform sizes of fruits (2.3 to 2.5g) were used for each replication and the experiment was repeated thrice. The fruits were divided equally into four groups with each group labeled according to the days of storage. The fruits were then stored in the cool room for nine days with temperature maintain at 12 ° C. The fruits were analyzed for weight loss, firmness, color (L*, C* and hue angle), titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids concentrations (SSC), pH and ascorbic acids. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and means was separated using least significant difference (LSD). The storage durations affect the quality characteristics of the fruits. On the day 9, the average of fruit weight loss and fruit firmness decreased about 21 and 24% respectively. The level of ascorbic acids and titrable acidity were also decreased while the soluble solids concentration increased during storage. Thus, in order to retain the quality of the fruits, it is recommended that the Physalis fruit can be stored only up to 6 days at 12 ° C.

Keywords: fruit quality, Physalis minima, Solanaceae, storage durations

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
10 Preservative Potentials of Piper Guineense on Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit

Authors: Grace O. Babarinde, Adegoke O.Gabriel, Rahman Akinoso, Adekanye Bosede R.

Abstract:

Health risks associated with the use of synthetic chemicals to control post-harvest losses in fruit calls for use of natural biodegradable compounds. The potential of Piper guineense as postharvest preservative for Roma tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was investigated. Freshly harvested red tomato (200 g) was dipped into five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of P. guineense aqueous extract, while untreated fruits served as control. The samples were stored under refrigeration and analysed at 5-day interval for physico-chemical properties. P. guineense essential oil (EO) was characterised using GC-MS and its tomato preservative potential was evaluated. Percentage weight loss (PWL) in extract-treated tomato ranged from 0.0-0.68% compared to control (0.3-19.97%) during storage. Values obtained for firmness ranged from 8.23-16.88 N and 8.4 N in extract-treated and control. pH reduced from 5.4 to 4.5 and 3.7 in extract-treated and untreated samples, respectively. Highest value of Total Soluble Solid (1.8 °Brix) and maximum retention of Ascorbic acid (13.0 mg/100 g) were observed in 4% P. guineense-treated samples. Predominant P. guineense EO components were zingiberene (9.9%), linalool (10.7%), β-caryophyllene (12.6%), 1, 5-Heptadiene, 6-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-yl) (16.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (23.7%). Tomatoes treated with EO had lower PWL (5.2%) and higher firmness (14.2 N) than controls (15.3% and 11.9 N) respectively. The result indicates that P. guineense can be incorporated in to post harvest technology of Roma tomato fruit.

Keywords: aqueous extract, essential oil, piper guineense, Roma tomato, storage condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
9 Effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) Coating in Combination with MGSO4 on Some Guava Cultivars

Authors: Muhammad Randhawa, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a vital source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber and antioxidants. Owing to highly perishable nature and proning towards chilling injury, diseases, insect-pests and physical damage the main drawbacks of guava after harvesting, present study was designed. Due to its delicacy in physiology, economic importance, effects of pre and postharvest factors and maturity indices, guava fruits should be given prime importance for good quality attributes. In this study guava fruits were stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity after treating with different levels of sulphate salt of magnesium followed by dipping in cellulose based edible coating hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The main objective of this coating was to enhance the shelf life of guava by inhibiting the respiration and also by binding the dissolved solids with salt application. Characterization for quality attributes including physical, physiological and bio chemical analysis was performed after every 7 days interval till the fruit remains edible during the storage period of 4 weeks. Finally, data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded on statistical basis that Surahi variety (treated with 5% MgSO4) showed best storage stability and kept its original quality up to almost 23 days during storage.

Keywords: edible coating, guava cultivars, physicochemical attributes, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
8 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 96