Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: nerves

50 Peripheral Nerves Cross-Sectional Area for the Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Ultrasonographic Measurements

Authors: Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli

Abstract:

1) Background It has been hypothesized that, in individuals with diabetes mellitus, the peripheral nerve is swollen due to sorbitol over-accumulation. Additionally growing evidence supported electro diagnostic study of diabetes induced neuropathy as a method having some challenges. 2) Objective To examine the performance of sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). 3) Data Sources Electronic databases, comprising PubMed and EMBASE and Google scholar, were searched for the appropriate studies before Jan 1, 2020. 4) Study Selection Eleven trials comparing different peripheral nerve CSA measurements between participants with and without DPN were included. 5) Data Extraction Study design, participants' demographic characteristics, diagnostic reference of DPN, and evaluated peripheral nerves and methods of CSA measurement. 6) Data Synthesis Among different peripheral nerves, Tibial nerve diagnostic odds ratios pooled from five studies (713 participants) were 4.46 (95% CI, 0.35–8.57) and the largest one with P<0.0001, I²:64%. Median nerve CSA at wrist and mid-arm took second and third place with ORs= 2.82 (1.50-4.15), 2.02(0.26-3.77) respectively. The sensitivities and specificities pooled from two studies for Sural nerve were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68–0.89), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53–0.74). Included studies for other nerves were limited to one study. The largest sensitivity was for Sural nerve and the largest specificity was for Tibial nerve. 7) Conclusions The peripheral nerves CSA measured by ultrasound imaging is useful for the diagnosis of DPN and is most significantly different between patients and participants without DPN at the Tibial nerve. Because the Tibial nerve CSA in healthy participants, at various locations, rarely exceeds 24 mm2, this value can be considered as a cutoff point for diagnosing DPN.

Keywords: diabetes, diagnosis, polyneuropathy, ultrasound

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49 Multiple Variations of the Nerves of Gluteal Region and Their Clinical Implications, a Case Report

Authors: A. M. Prasad

Abstract:

Knowledge of variations of nerves of gluteal region is important for clinicians administering intramuscular injections, for orthopedic surgeons dealing with the hip surgeries, possibly for physiotherapists managing the painful conditions and paralysis of this region. Herein, we report multiple variations of the nerves of gluteal region. In the current case, the sciatic nerve was absent. The common peroneal and tibial nerves arose from sacral plexus and reached the gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen above and below piriformis respectively. The common peroneal nerve gave a muscular branch to the gluteus maximus. The inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh arose from a common trunk. The common trunk was formed by three roots. Upper and middle roots arose from sacral plexus and entered gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen respectively above and below piriformis. The lower root arose from the pudendal nerve and joined the common trunk. These variations were seen in the right gluteal region of an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. Innervation of gluteus maximus by common peroneal nerve and presence of a common trunk of inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh make this case unique. The variant nerves may be subjected to iatrogenic injuries during surgical approach to the hip. They may also get compressed if there is a hypertrophy of the piriformis syndrome. Hence, the knowledge of these variations is of importance to clinicians, orthopedic surgeons and possibly for physiotherapists.

Keywords: gluteal region, multiple variations, nerve injury, sciatic nerve

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48 Abnormal Branching Pattern of Lumbar Plexus in an Adult Male Cadaver: A Case Report

Authors: Deepthinath Reghunathan, Satheesha Nayak, Sudarshan S., Prasad Alathady Maloor, Prakash Shetty

Abstract:

Lumbar plexus is formed by the union of ventral rami of T12, L1, L2, L3 spinal nerves and the larger upper division of L4 lumbar spinal nerves. Variations in the normal anatomy of the lumbar and sacral plexus might be seen in some cases and are reported in the literature, but finding such an unusual case comprising of multiple variations which is normally not expected in a clinical setup, proves to be a vital piece of information for clinicians and medical practitioners. During the dissection of the abdomen and pelvis of an approximately 70 year old cadaver, we observed the following variations in the formation of the lumbar and sacral nerves. 1. The genitofemoral nerve bifurcated at a higher level; genital branch of genitofemoral nerve gave branches to the anterior abdominal wall muscles, 2. A communicating branch was given from the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh to the medial cutaneous nerve of thigh, 3. A muscular branch was given from femoral nerve to psoas major, 4. There was absence of contribution of L4 spinal nerve in the formation of the lumbosacral trunk and 5. Lumbosacral trunk gave communicating branches to the femoral and obturator nerves. Most of the variations found were rare and finding all the above said variations in a single cadaver is even rare. Documentation of such rare cases with multiple variations in the formation of nerves from the lumbar plexus provides vital information on such occurrences. This information would in turn improve the knowledge of clinicians and surgeons dealing with this region. Emphasizing such knowledge of this region would prevent accidental damage to the structures with a variant anatomy.

Keywords: femoral nerve, genitofemoral nerve, lumbar plexus, lumbosacral trunk

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47 Analysis of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) of Selected Nerves in Athletics

Authors: Jogbinder Singh Soodan, Ashok Kumar, Gobind Singh

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Background: This study aims to describe the motor nerve conduction velocity of selected nerves of both the upper and lower extremities in athletes. Thirty high-level sprinters (100 mts and 200 mts) and thirty high level distance runners (3000 mts) were volunteered to participate in the study. Method: Motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV) of radial and sural nerves were recorded with the help of computerized equipment, NEUROPERFECT (MEDICAID SYSTEMS, India), with standard techniques of supramaximal percutaneus stimulation. The anthropometric measurements taken were body height (cms), age (yrs) and body weight (kgs). The neurophysiological parameters taken were MNCV of radial nerve (upper extremity) and sural nerve (lower extremity) of both sides (i.e. dominant and non-dominant) of the body. The room temperature was maintained at 37 degree Celsius. Results: Significant differences in motor nerve conduction velocities were found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in each group. The MNCV of radial nerve was obtained was significantly higher in the sprinters than long distance runners. The MNCV of sural nerve recorded was significantly higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. Conclusion: The motor nerve conduction velocity of radial nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to the distance runners and also, the MNCV for sural nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. In case of sprinters, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves were higher in dominant limbs (i.e. arms and legs) of both sides of the body. But, in case of distance runners, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves is higher in non dominant limbs.

Keywords: motor nerve conduction velocity, radial nerve, sural nerve, sprinters

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46 The Electrophysiology Study Results in Patients with Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS): A Retrospective Study in a TertiaryHospital in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Dyna Ann C. Sevilles, Noel J. Belonguel, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul, Mary Jeanne O. Flordelis, Grace G. Anota

Abstract:

Guillain Barre syndrome is an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy causing progressive symmetrical weakness which can be debilitating to the patient. Early diagnosis is important especially in the acute phase when treatment favors good outcome and reduces the incidence of the need for mechanical ventilation. Electrodiagnostic studies aid in the evaluation of patients suspected with GBS. However, the characteristic electrical changes may not be evident until after several weeks. Thus, studies performed early in the course may give unclear results. The aim of this study is to associate the symptom onset of patients diagnosed with Guillain Barre syndrome with the EMG NCV results and determine the earliest time when there is evident findings supporting the diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive chart review study involving patients of >/= 18 years of age with GBS written on their charts in a Tertiaty hospital in Cebu City, Philippines from January 2000 to July 2014. Twenty patients showed electrodiagnostic findings suggestive of GBS. The mean day of illness when EMG NCV was carried out was 7 days. The earliest with suggestive findings was done on day 2 (10%) of illness. Moreover, the highest frequency with positive results was done on day 3 (20%) of illness. Based on the Dutch Guillain Barre Study group criteria, the most frequent variables noted were: prolonged distal motor latency in both median and ulnar nerves(65%) and both peroneal and tibial nerves (71%); and reduced CMAP in both median and ulnar nerves (65%) and both tibial and peroneal nerves (71%). The EMG NCV findings showed majority of demyelinating type (59%). Electrodiagnostic studies are helpful in aiding the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the early stage. Based on this study, neurophysiologic evidence of GBS can be seen in as early as day 2 of clinical illness.

Keywords: Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy, electrophysiologic study, EMG NCV, Guillain Barre Syndrome

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45 A Nanofi Brous PHBV Tube with Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft Contributing to Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration across a 30-Mm Defect Bridge

Authors: Esmaeil Biazar

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A nanofibrous PHBV nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of nerve regeneration in rats. The designed conduits were investigated by physical, mechanical and microscopic analyses. The conduits were implanted into a 30-mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently high mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. The results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft with cells, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. For the grafts especially the nanofibrous conduits with cells, muscle cells of gastrocnemius on the operated side were uniform in their size and structures. This study proves the feasibility of artificial conduit with Schwann cells for nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in a rat model.

Keywords: sciatic regeneration, Schwann cell, artificial conduit, nanofibrous PHBV, histological assessments

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
44 The Effects of Separating Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundles on Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone and Vascularization

Authors: Lin Feng, E. Lingling, Hongchen Liu

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In order to evaluate the effects of autologous blood vessels and nerves on vascularization. A dog model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization was established by constructing inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles through the mandibular canal. Sixteen 12-month-old healthy beagles were randomly divided into two groups (n=8). Group A retained inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles, and Group B retained inferior alveolar nerves. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected into β-tricalcium phosphate to prepare internal tissue-engineered bone scaffold. A personalized titanium mesh was then prepared by rapid prototyping and fixed by external titanium scaffold. Two dogs in each group were sacrificed on the 30th, 45th, 60th, and 90th postoperative days respectively. The bone was visually examined, scanned by CT, and subjected to HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, vascular casting and PCR to detect the changes in osteogenesis and vascularization.The two groups had similar outcomes in regard to osteogenesis and vascularization (P>0.05) both showed remarkable regenerative capacities. The model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization is potentially applicable in clinical practice to allow satisfactory osteogenesis and vascularization.

Keywords: inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle, osteogenesis, tissue-engineered bone, vascularization

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43 The Possible Role of the Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells in Resolution of the Endoneurial Edema Following Nerve Crush Injury

Authors: Faris M. Altaf, Abdullah M Elkeshy

Abstract:

Forty-two albino male rats aged between 30 and 40 days (weighted 200 g to 250 g) were used in the present study. The left sural nerves of 36 rats were subjected to crush injury at 1 to 6 weeks intervals using 6 animals at each interval. The right and left sural nerves of the rest 6 rats were used as a control. After 2 weeks of the crush injury, the endoneurium showed channel-like spaces that were lined by the fibroblast-like cells and collagen bundles. These channels contained degenerated myelin and were connected with the perivascular and subperineurial spaces. Some of the flattened fibroblast-like cells were arranged in several layers in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces, forming barrier-like cellular sheets localizing the endoneurial edema in these spaces. Fibroblast-like cells also wrapped the regenerating nerve fibers by their branching cytoplasmic processes. At the end of the third week, the flattened fibroblasts formed nearly continuous sheets in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces. Macrophages were frequently noticed between these cellular barrier-like sheets and in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces. Conclusion: it could be concluded that the endoneurial fibroblast-like cells form barrier-like cellular sheets that localized the endoneurial edema in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces and create also the endoneurial channel-like spaces containing degenerated myelin and endoneurial edema helping the resolution of such edema.

Keywords: sural nerve, endoneurial fibroblast-like cells, endoneurial edema, barrier-like and channel-like spaces

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42 Network Conditioning and Transfer Learning for Peripheral Nerve Segmentation in Ultrasound Images

Authors: Harold Mauricio Díaz-Vargas, Cristian Alfonso Jimenez-Castaño, David Augusto Cárdenas-Peña, Guillermo Alberto Ortiz-Gómez, Alvaro Angel Orozco-Gutierrez

Abstract:

Precise identification of the nerves is a crucial task performed by anesthesiologists for an effective Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB). Now, anesthesiologists use ultrasound imaging equipment to guide the PNB and detect nervous structures. However, visual identification of the nerves from ultrasound images is difficult, even for trained specialists, due to artifacts and low contrast. The recent advances in deep learning make neural networks a potential tool for accurate nerve segmentation systems, so addressing the above issues from raw data. The most widely spread U-Net network yields pixel-by-pixel segmentation by encoding the input image and decoding the attained feature vector into a semantic image. This work proposes a conditioning approach and encoder pre-training to enhance the nerve segmentation of traditional U-Nets. Conditioning is achieved by the one-hot encoding of the kind of target nerve a the network input, while the pre-training considers five well-known deep networks for image classification. The proposed approach is tested in a collection of 619 US images, where the best C-UNet architecture yields an 81% Dice coefficient, outperforming the 74% of the best traditional U-Net. Results prove that pre-trained models with the conditional approach outperform their equivalent baseline by supporting learning new features and enriching the discriminant capability of the tested networks.

Keywords: nerve segmentation, U-Net, deep learning, ultrasound imaging, peripheral nerve blocking

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41 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

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Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

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40 Listening Anxiety in Iranian EFL learners

Authors: Samaneh serraj

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Listening anxiety has a detrimental effect on language learners. Through a qualitative study on Iranian EFL learners several factors were identified as having influence on their listening anxiety. These factors were divided into three categories, i.e. individual factors (nerves and emotionality, using inappropriate strategies and lack of practice), input factors (lack of time to process, lack of visual support, nature of speech and level of difficulty) and environmental factors (instructors, peers and class environment).

Keywords: listening Comprehension, Listening Anxiety, Foreign language learners

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39 Solitary Fibrous Tumor Presumed to Be a Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Involving Right Branchial Plexus

Authors: Daniela Proca, Yuan Rong, Salvatore Luceno, Jalil Nasibli

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Introduction: Solitary Fibrous Tumors (SFT) have many histologic mimickers and the only way to diagnose it, particularly in an unusual location, such as peripheral nerve trunks, is to use a comprehensive immunohistochemical staining panel. Monoclonal STAT6 immunostain is highly sensitive and specific for SFTs and particularly useful in the diagnosis of difficult SFT cases. Methods: We describe a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) involving the right branchial plexus in a 66 yo female with 4-year history of slowly growing chest wall mass with recent dysesthesias in fingers 4th and 5th. MRI showed a well-circumscribed heterogenous mass measuring 5.4 x 3.8 x 4.0 cm and encircling peripheral nerves of the branchial plexus; no involvement of the bone or muscle was noted. A biopsy showed a bland spindled and epithelioid proliferation with no significant mitotic activity, no necrosis, and no atypia; peripheral nerve fascicles were encircled by the lesion. The main clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis included peripheral nerve sheath tumor, particularly schwannoma; HE microscopy didn’t show the classic Antoni A and B areas but showed focal subtle nuclear palisading, as well as prominent vessels with hyalinization. Immunohistochemical stains showed focal, weak cytoplasmic S100 positivity in the lesion; CD 34 and Vimentin were strongly and diffusely positive; the neoplastic cells were negative with AE1/AE3, EMA, CD31, SMA, Desmin, Calretinin, HMB-45, Melan A, PAX-8, NSE. The immunohistochemical and histologic pattern was not typical of peripheral nerve sheath tumor. On additional stains, the tumor was positive with STAT-6 and bcl-2 and focally positive with CD99. Given this profile, the final diagnosis was that of a solitary fibrous tumor. Results: NA Conclusion: Very few SFTs involving peripheral nerves and mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor are described in the literature. Although histologically benign on this biopsy, long-term follow-up is required because of the risk of recurrence of these tumors and their uncertain biological behavior.

Keywords: solitary fibrous tumor, pathology, diagnosis, immunohistochemistry

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38 Pathology of Explanted Transvaginal Meshes

Authors: Vladimir V. Iakovlev, Erin T. Carey, John Steege

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The use of polypropylene mesh devices for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) spread rapidly during the last decade, yet our knowledge of the mesh-tissue interaction is far from complete. We aimed to perform a thorough pathological examination of explanted POP meshes and describe findings that may explain mechanisms of complications resulting in product excision. We report a spectrum of important findings, including nerve ingrowth, mesh deformation, involvement of detrusor muscle with neural ganglia, and polypropylene degradation. Analysis of these findings may improve and guide future treatment strategies.

Keywords: transvaginal, mesh, nerves, polypropylene degradation

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37 Functional Outcome of Speech, Voice and Swallowing Following Excision of Glomus Jugulare Tumor

Authors: B. S. Premalatha, Kausalya Sahani

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Background: Glomus jugulare tumors arise within the jugular foramen and are commonly seen in females particularly on the left side. Surgical excision of the tumor may cause lower cranial nerve deficits. Cranial nerve involvement produces hoarseness of voice, slurred speech, and dysphagia along with other physical symptoms, thereby affecting the quality of life of individuals. Though oncological clearance is mainly emphasized on while treating these individuals, little importance is given to their communication, voice and swallowing problems, which play a crucial part in daily functioning. Objective: To examine the functions of voice, speech and swallowing outcomes of the subjects, following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Methods: Two female subjects aged 56 and 62 years had come with a complaint of change in voice, inability to swallow and reduced clarity of speech following surgery for left glomus jugulare tumor were participants of the study. Their surgical information revealed multiple cranial nerve palsies involving the left facial, left superior and recurrent branches of the vagus nerve, left pharyngeal, left soft palate, left hypoglossal and vestibular nerves. Functional outcomes of voice, speech and swallowing were evaluated by perceptual and objective assessment procedures. Assessment included the examination of oral structures and functions, dysarthria by Frenchey dysarthria assessment, cranial nerve functions and swallowing functions. MDVP and Dr. Speech software were used to evaluate acoustic parameters of voice and quality of voice respectively. Results: The study revealed that both the subjects, subsequent to excision of glomus jugulare tumor, showed a varied picture of affected oral structure and functions, articulation, voice and swallowing functions. The cranial nerve assessment showed impairment of the vagus, hypoglossal, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves. Voice examination indicated vocal cord paralysis associated with breathy quality of voice, weak voluntary cough, reduced pitch and loudness range, and poor respiratory support. Perturbation parameters as jitter, shimmer were affected along with s/z ratio indicative of voice fold pathology. Reduced MPD(Maximum Phonation Duration) of vowels indicated that disturbed coordination between respiratory and laryngeal systems. Hypernasality was found to be a prominent feature which reduced speech intelligibility. Imprecise articulation was seen in both the subjects as the hypoglossal nerve was affected following surgery. Injury to vagus, hypoglossal, gloss pharyngeal and facial nerves disturbed the function of swallowing. All the phases of swallow were affected. Aspiration was observed before and during the swallow, confirming the oropharyngeal dysphagia. All the subsystems were affected as per Frenchey Dysarthria Assessment signifying the diagnosis of flaccid dysarthria. Conclusion: There is an observable communication and swallowing difficulty seen following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Even with complete resection, extensive rehabilitation may be necessary due to significant lower cranial nerve dysfunction. The finding of the present study stresses the need for involvement of as speech and swallowing therapist for pre-operative counseling and assessment of functional outcomes.

Keywords: functional outcome, glomus jugulare tumor excision, multiple cranial nerve impairment, speech and swallowing

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36 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Tzu Yu Huang, Ya Ping Chen, Chun Mel Lu

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This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Salvia officinalis, aromatherapy, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, heart rate variability, parasympathetic nerves

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35 Close Loop Controlled Current Nerve Locator

Authors: H. A. Alzomor, B. K. Ouda, A. M. Eldeib

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Successful regional anesthesia depends upon precise location of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus. Locating peripheral nerves is preferred to be done using nerve stimulation. In order to generate a nerve impulse by electrical means, a minimum threshold stimulus of current “rheobase” must be applied to the nerve. The technique depends on stimulating muscular twitching at a close distance to the nerve without actually touching it. Success rate of this operation depends on the accuracy of current intensity pulses used for stimulation. In this paper, we will discuss a circuit and algorithm for closed loop control for the current, theoretical analysis and test results and compare them with previous techniques.

Keywords: Close Loop Control (CLC), constant current, nerve locator, rheobase

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34 Asymptomatic Intercostal Schwannoma in a Patient with COVID-19: The First of Its Kind

Authors: Gabriel Hunduma

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Asymptomatic intra-thoracic neurogenic tumours are rare. Tumours arising from the intercostal nerves of the chest wall are exceedingly rare. This paper reports an incidental discovery of a neurogenic intercostal tumour while being investigated for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 54-year-old female underwent a thoracotomy and resection for an intercostal tumour. Pre-operative images showed an intrathoracic mass, and the biopsy revealed a schwannoma. The most common presenting symptom recorded in literature is chest pain; however, our case remained asymptomatic despite the size of the mass and thoracic area it occupied. After an extensive search of the literature, COVID-19 was found to have an influence on the development of certain cells in breast cancer. Hence there is a possibility that COVID-19 played a role in progressing the development of the schwannoma cells.

Keywords: thoracic surgery, intercostal schwannoma, chest wall oncology, COVID-19

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33 Thermal Transmission Characteristics of Human Flesh

Authors: Hayley Kumagai

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The purpose of this research is to investigate the thermal transmission characteristics of human flesh in relation to external thermal therapy treatments, particularly for the upper limbs. We conducted our research through a detailed online search of the thermal properties of human skin. This included basic background information on its thermoregulatory properties as well as the influence of external factors such as pharmaceuticals and temperature. From our research, we found that the thermoregulatory response system in the body is divided into two main components: the core (the head and the trunk) and the periphery (arms and legs). The core regulates the thermal response system to maintain a tight range of temperature, whereas the periphery has a wider range of possible temperatures to respond to the core. The peripheral tissues are typically cooler than the core by a few degrees Celsius to maintain a thermal gradient within the skin for homeostasis. Additionally, there are thermoreceptors in the skin that are located deeper within the dermis layer at a greater frequency than the warm receptors. It is hypothesized that blood flow is an efficient method of thermal transfer to the surrounding tissues, particularly through the smaller capillary loops close to the surface of the skin. Our research indicated that, in relation to medical procedures, skin is heated through various methods to combat potential cooling from conditions such as operating room temperatures or anesthesia. Heat is often used with skin because it can be more safely applied to the surface and there is greater heat loss from the skin that would lead to less overheating. In regards to the cooler temperature of the peripheral components and the larger heat loss through the skin, cooling the surface of the skin for thermal treatments on the arms or legs could be easily accomplished. However, providing this same level of cooling treatment to the deeper levels of the skin poses a greater challenge due to potential damage to the nerves. We anticipate that this thermal behavior can be modeled using engineering drafting software. This would involve replicating the properties of human skin within the program and applying the thermal analysis software to this material. Previous research on skin modeling shows that an accurate representation is a multi-layer model (replicating the multiple layers of the skin) that portrays the veins as “fluid continuous media” and the three layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) as a “solid continuous media” following a thermal transmission equation. Most of the research on the effect of thermal treatments on the skin focuses on hot temperature applications. Our prior research on the effect of thermal therapy treatments on tremor patients requires a deeper analysis into the effects of cold temperature on the nerves and tissues for the engineering application process. This can ultimately add to the current knowledge of temperature effects on the skin at the superficial and deep levels.

Keywords: temperature, thermal transmission, human skin, therapy

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32 Correlation between Potential Intelligence Explanatory Study in the Perspective of Multiple Intelligence Theory by Using Dermatoglyphics and Culture Approaches

Authors: Efnie Indrianie

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Potential Intelligence constitutes one essential factor in every individual. This intelligence can be a provision for the development of Performance Intelligence if it is supported by surrounding environment. Fingerprint analysis is a method in recognizing this Potential Intelligence. This method is grounded on pattern and number of finger print outlines that are assumed symmetrical with the number of nerves in our brain, in which these areas have their own function among another. These brain’s functions are later being transposed into intelligence components in accordance with the Multiple Intelligences theory. This research tested the correlation between Potential Intelligence and the components of its Performance Intelligence. Statistical test results that used Pearson correlation showed that five components of Potential Intelligence correlated with Performance Intelligence. Those five components are Logic-Math, Logic, Linguistic, Music, Kinesthetic, and Intrapersonal. Also, this research indicated that cultural factor had a big role in shaping intelligence.

Keywords: potential intelligence, performance intelligence, multiple intelligences, fingerprint, environment, brain

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31 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

Abstract:

Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: heart, apoptosis, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

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30 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy

Abstract:

Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in a nonhomogenous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of a nonhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: finite element model, nerve lesioning, pain relief, radiofrequency lesion

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29 High-Intensity, Short-Duration Electric Pulses Induced Action Potential in Animal Nerves

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi

Abstract:

The use of high-intensity, short-duration electric pulses is a promising development with many biomedical applications. The uses include irreversible electroporation for killing abnormal cells, reversible poration for drug and gene delivery, neuromuscular manipulation, and the shrinkage of tumors, etc. High intensity, short-duration electric pulses result in the creation of high-density, nanometer-sized pores in the cellular membrane. This electroporation amounts to localized modulation of the transverse membrane conductance, and effectively provides a voltage shunt. The electrically controlled changes in the trans-membrane conductivity could be used to affect neural traffic and action potential propagation. A rat was taken as the representative example in this research. The simulation study shows the pathway from the sensorimotor cortex down to the spinal motoneurons, and effector muscles could be reversibly blocked by using high-intensity, short-duration electrical pulses. Also, actual experimental observations were compared against simulation predictions.

Keywords: action potential, electroporation, high-intensity, short-duration

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28 Modeling and Analysis of a Cycling Prosthetic

Authors: John Tolentino, Yong Seok Park

Abstract:

There are currently many people living with limb loss in the USA. The main causes for amputation can range from vascular disease, to trauma, or cancer. This number is expected increase over the next decade. Many patients have a single prosthetic for the first year but end up getting a second one to accommodate their changing physique. Afterwards, the prosthesis gets replaced every three to five years depending on how often it is used. This could cost the patient up to $500,000 throughout their lifetime. Complications do not end there, however. Due to the absence of nerves, it becomes more difficult to traverse terrain with a prosthetic. Moving on an incline or decline becomes difficult, thus curbs and stairs can be a challenge. Certain physical activities, such as cycling, could be even more strenuous. It will need to be relearned to accommodate for the change in weight, center of gravity, and transfer of energy from the leg to the pedal. The purpose of this research project is to develop a new, alternate below-knee cycling prosthetic using Dieter & Schmidt’s design process approach. It will be subjected to fatigue analysis under dynamic loading to observe the limitations as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the prosthetic. Benchmark comparisons will be made between existing prosthetics and the proposed one, examining the benefits and disadvantages. The resulting prosthetic will be 3D printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) plastic.

Keywords: 3D Printing, Cycling, Prosthetic design, Synthetic design.

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27 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian

Abstract:

One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
26 [Keynote Speech]: Simulation Studies of Pulsed Voltage Effects on Cells

Authors: Jiahui Song

Abstract:

In order to predict or explain a complicated biological process, it is important first to construct mathematical models that can be used to yield analytical solutions. Through numerical simulation, mathematical model results can be used to test scenarios that might not be easily attained in a laboratory experiment, or to predict parameters or phenomena. High-intensity, nanosecond pulse electroporation has been a recent development in bioelectrics. The dynamic pore model can be achieved by including a dynamic aspect and a dependence on the pore population density into pore formation energy equation to analyze and predict such electroporation effects. For greater accuracy, with inclusion of atomistic details, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also carried out during this study. Besides inducing pores in cells, external voltages could also be used in principle to modulate action potential generation in nerves. This could have an application in electrically controlled ‘pain management’. Also a simple model-based rate equation treatment of the various cellular bio-chemical processes has been used to predict the pulse number dependent cell survival trends.

Keywords: model, high-intensity, nanosecond, bioelectrics

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25 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan

Abstract:

Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

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24 Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induced Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song

Abstract:

The use of high-intensity, nanosecond electric pulses has been a recent development in biomedical. High-intensity (∼100 kV/cm), nanosecond duration-pulsed electric fields have been shown to induce cellular electroporation. This will lead to an increase in transmembrane conductivity and diffusive permeability. These effects will also alter the electrical potential across the membrane. The applications include electrically triggered intracellular calcium release, shrinkage of tumors, and temporary blockage of the action potential in nerves. In this research, the dynamics of pore formation with the presence of an externally applied electric field is studied on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the GROMACS package. MD simulations show pore formation occurs for a pulse with the amplitude of 0.5V/nm at 1ns at temperature 316°K. Also increasing temperatures facilitate pore formation. When the temperature is increased to 323°K, pore forms at 0.75ns with the pulse amplitude of 0.5V/nm. For statistical significance, a total of eight MD simulations are carried out with different starting molecular velocities for each simulation. Also, actual experimental observations are compared against MD simulation results.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, high-intensity, nanosecond, electroporation

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23 Ulnar Nerve Changes Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Not Affecting Median versus Ulnar Comparative Studies

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Sarah Sayed El-Tawab

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to assess the involvement of ulnar sensory and/or motor nerve fibers in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and whether this affects the accuracy of the median versus ulnar comparative tests. The present study included 145 CTS hands and 71 asymptomatic control hands. Clinical examination was done. The following tests were done: Sensory conduction studies: median, ulnar and dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerves; and median versus ulnar digit (D) four sensory comparative study; and motor conduction studies: median nerve, ulnar nerve and median versus ulnar motor comparative study. It was found that 17 CTS hands (11.7%) had ulnar sensory abnormalities in 17 different patients. The median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative studies were abnormal among all these 17 CTS hands. There were significant negative correlations between median motor latency and both ulnar sensory amplitudes recording D5 and D4. In conclusion, there is ulnar sensory nerve abnormality among CTS patients. This abnormality affects the amplitude of ulnar sensory nerve action potential. This does not affect the median versus ulnar sensory and motor comparative tests accuracy for use in CTS.

Keywords: median nerve, motor comparative study, sensory comparative study, ulnar nerve

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22 Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Anucha Taiwong, Nirobol Kanogsunthornrat

Abstract:

This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease, as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province. Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form, unpleasant symptom form, and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions, peripheral nerves abnormality, fatigue, gastro-intestinal tract, pain and, waste congestion. Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = -.220; p < .05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=-.204; p<.05) which had predictive value of 19.10% (R2=.191, p<.05). This study indicated that the symptom cluster of pain and the mental and emotional conditions would worsen the patients’ quality of life. Nurses should be attentive in managing the two symptom clusters to facilitate the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, symptom clusters, predictors of quality of life, pre-dialysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
21 Somatosensory-Evoked Blink Reflex in Peripheral Facial Palsy

Authors: Sarah Sayed El- Tawab, Emmanuel Kamal Azix Saba

Abstract:

Objectives: Somatosensory blink reflex (SBR) is an eye blink response obtained from electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves or skin area of the body. It has been studied in various neurological diseases as well as among healthy subjects in different population. We designed this study to detect SBR positivity in patients with facial palsy and patients with post facial syndrome, to relate the facial palsy severity and the presence of SBR, and to associate between trigeminal BR changes and SBR positivity in peripheral facial palsy patients. Methods: 50 patients with peripheral facial palsy and post-facial syndrome 31 age and gender matched healthy volunteers were enrolled to this study. Facial motor conduction studies, trigeminal BR, and SBR were studied in all. Results: SBR was elicited in 67.7% of normal subjects, in 68% of PFS group, and in 32% of PFP group. On the non-paralytic side SBR was found in 28% by paralyzed side stimulation and in 24% by healthy side stimulation among PFP patients. For PFS group SBR was found on the non- paralytic side in 48%. Bilateral SBR elicitability was higher than its unilateral elicitability. Conclusion: Increased brainstem interneurons excitability is not essential to generate SBR. The hypothetical sensory-motor gating mechanism is responsible for SBR generation.

Keywords: somatosensory evoked blink reflex, post facial syndrome, blink reflex, enchanced gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 527