Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: osteogenesis

24 The Effects of Separating Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundles on Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone and Vascularization

Authors: Lin Feng, E. Lingling, Hongchen Liu


In order to evaluate the effects of autologous blood vessels and nerves on vascularization. A dog model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization was established by constructing inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles through the mandibular canal. Sixteen 12-month-old healthy beagles were randomly divided into two groups (n=8). Group A retained inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles, and Group B retained inferior alveolar nerves. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected into β-tricalcium phosphate to prepare internal tissue-engineered bone scaffold. A personalized titanium mesh was then prepared by rapid prototyping and fixed by external titanium scaffold. Two dogs in each group were sacrificed on the 30th, 45th, 60th, and 90th postoperative days respectively. The bone was visually examined, scanned by CT, and subjected to HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, vascular casting and PCR to detect the changes in osteogenesis and vascularization.The two groups had similar outcomes in regard to osteogenesis and vascularization (P>0.05) both showed remarkable regenerative capacities. The model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization is potentially applicable in clinical practice to allow satisfactory osteogenesis and vascularization.

Keywords: inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle, osteogenesis, tissue-engineered bone, vascularization

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23 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim


These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: injectable hydrogel, stem cell, osteogenic differentiation, tissue engineering

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22 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Weili Shao, Qian Wang, Jianxin He


Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: poly l-lactic, graphene oxide, osteogenesis, bone tissue engineering

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21 Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Algorithm after Mandibular Resection for Ameloblastoma

Authors: Joaquim de Almeida Dultra, Daiana Cristina Pereira Santana, Fátima Karoline Alves Araújo Dultra, Liliane Akemi Kawano Shibasaki, Mariana Machado Mendes de Carvalho, Ieda Margarida Crusoé Rocha Rebello


Defects originating from mandibular resections can cause significant functional impairment and facial disharmony, and they have complex rehabilitation. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the authors' experience facing challenging rehabilitation after mandibular resection in a patient with ameloblastoma. Clinical and surgical steps are described simultaneously, highlighting the adaptation of the final fixed prosthesis, reported in an unprecedented way in the literature. A 37-year-old male patient was seen after a sports accident, where a pathological fracture in the symphysis and left mandibular body was identified, where a large radiolucent lesion was found. The patient underwent resection, bone graft, distraction osteogenesis, rehabilitation with dental implants, prosthesis, and finally, orofacial harmonization, in an interval of six years. Rehabilitation should consider the patient's needs individually and should have as the main objective to provide similar aesthetics and function to that present before the disease. We also emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary work during the course of rehabilitation.

Keywords: ameloblastoma, mandibular reconstruction, distraction osteogenesis, dental implants. dental prosthesis, implant-supported, treatment outcome

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20 Modification of Hyrax Expansion Screw to Be Used as an Intro-Oral Distractor for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in a Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Case Report

Authors: Ananya Hazare, Ranjit Kamble


Introduction: Patients with Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) can present with a maxillary retrution after cleft repair. Anterior Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (AMD) is a technique that provides simultaneous skeletal advancement and expansion of the soft tissues related to an anterior segment of the maxilla. This case presented is a case of AMD. The advantage of this technique is that the occlusion in the posterior segment can be maintained, and only the segment in cross bite is advanced for correction of the midfacial deficiency. The other alternative treatment is anterior movement by a Lefort 1 osteotomy. When a Lefort 1 osteotomy is compared with the Distraction osteogenesis or AMD, the disadvantages of the Le Fort 1 include a higher risk of morbidity, requirement of fixation, relapse tendency and unexpected changes in the nasal form. These complications were eliminated by AMD technique. This was followed by placement of the implant in the bone formed after AMD. Hence complete surgical, orthodontic and prosthodontics rehabilitation of the patient was done by an interdisciplinary approach. Methods: Patient presented with repaired UCL/P of the right side with midfacial retrusion. Intro-oral examination revealed a good occlusion in the posterior arch and anterior Crossbite from canine to canine. Patient's both maxillary lateral incisors were missing. The lower arch was well aligned with all teeth present. The study models when scored according to GOSLON yardstick received a score of 4. After pre-surgical orthodontic phase was completed an intraoral distractor was fabricated by modification of HYRAX expansion screw. After surgery, low subapical osteotomy cuts were placed and the distractor was fixed. The latency period of 5 days was observed after which the distraction was started. Distraction was done at a rate of 1 mm/day with a rhythm of 0.5mm in morning and 0.5mm in the evening. The total distraction of 12 mm was done. After a consolidation period, the distractor was removed, and retention by a removable partial denture was given. Radiographic examination confirmed mature bone formation in the distracted segment. Implants were placed and allowed to osseointegrate for approximately 4 months and were then loaded with abutments. Results: Total distraction done was 12mm and after relapse it was 8mm. After consolidation phase the radiographic examination revealed a B2 quality of bone according to the Misch's classification and sufficient height from the maxillary sinus. These findings were indicative for placement of implants in the distracted bone formed in premolar region. Implants were placed and after radiographic evidence of osseointegration was seen they were loaded with abutments. Thus resulting in a complete rehabilitation of a cleft patient by an interdisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Anterior maxillary distraction can be used as an alternative method instead of complete distraction osteogenesis or Lefort 1 advancement of maxilla in cases where the advancement needed is minimum. Use of HYRAX expansion screw modified as intra-oral distractor can be used in such cases, which significantly reduces the cost of treatment, as expensive distractors are not used. This technique is very useful and efficient in countries like India where the patient cannot afford expensive treatment options.

Keywords: cleft lip and palate, distraction osteogenesis, anterior maxillary distraction, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics, hyrax expansion screw modification

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19 Biological Optimization following BM-MSC Seeding of Partially Demineralized and Partially Demineralized Laser-Perforated Structural Bone Allografts Implanted in Critical Femoral Defects

Authors: S. AliReza Mirghasemi, Zameer Hussain, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad


Background: Despite promising results have shown by osteogenic cell-based demineralized bone matrix composites, they need to be optimized for grafts that act as structural frameworks in load-bearing defects. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells seeding on partially demineralized laser-perforated structural allografts that have been implanted in critical femoral defects. Materials and Methods: P3 stem cells were used for graft seeding. Laser perforation in four rows of three holes was achieved. Cell-seeded grafts were incubated for one hour until they were planted into the defect. We used four types of grafts: partially demineralized only (Donly), partially demineralized stem cell seeded (DST), partially demineralized laser-perforated (DLP), and partially demineralized laser-perforated stem cell seeded (DLPST). histologic and histomorphometric analysis were performed at 12 weeks. Results: Partially demineralized laser-perforated had the highest woven bone formation within graft limits, stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated remained intact, and the difference between partially demineralized only and partially demineralized stem cell seeded was insignificant. At interface, partially demineralized laser-perforated and partially demineralized only had comparable osteogenesis, but partially demineralized stem cell seeded was inferior. The interface in stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated was almost replaced by distinct endochondral osteogenesis with higher angiogenesis in the vicinity. Partially demineralized stem cell seeded and stem cell seeded demineralized laser-perforated graft surfaces had extra vessel-ingrowth-like porosities, a sign of delayed resorption. Conclusion: This demonstrates that simple cell-based composites are not optimal and necessitates the supplementation of synergistic stipulations and surface changes.

Keywords: structural bone allograft, partial demineralization, laser perforation, mesenchymal stem cell

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18 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski


Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

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17 The Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteonecrosis of Jaw Bone: A Stem Cell Perspective

Authors: Huseyin Apdik, Aysegul Dogan, Selami Demirci, Ezgi Avsar Apdik, Fikrettin Sahin


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial cell types for bone maintenance and growth along with resident bone progenitor cells providing bone tissue integrity during osteogenesis and skeletal growth. Any deficiency in this regulation would result in vital bone diseases. Of those, osteoporosis, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and mineral density, is a critical skeletal disease for especially elderly people. The commonly used drugs for the osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates (BPs). The most prominent role of BPs is to prevent bone resorption arisen from high osteoclast activity. However, administrations of bisphosphonates may also cause bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). Up to the present, the researchers have proposed several circumstances for BIONJ. However, effects of long-term and/or high dose usage of BPs on stem cell’s proliferation, survival, differentiation or maintenance capacity have not been evaluated yet. The present study will be held to; figure out BPs’ effects on MSCs in vitro in the aspect of cell proliferation and toxicity, migration, angiogenic activity, lineage specific gene and protein expression levels, mesenchymal stem cell properties and potential signaling pathways affected by BP treatment. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) were proved using flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability analysis was completed to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPs (Zoledronate (Zol), Alendronate (Ale) and Risedronate (Ris)) on DPSCs and PDLSCs by the 3-(4,5-di-methyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Non-toxic concentrations of BPs were determined at 24 h under growth condition, and at 21 days under osteogenic differentiation condition for both cells. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate their migration capacity under the usage of determined of BPs concentrations at 24 h. The results revealed that while the scratch closure is 70% in the control group for DPSCs, it was 57%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. For PDLSs, while wound closure is 71% in control group, it was 65%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. As future experiments, tube formation assay and aortic ring assay will be done to determinate angiogenesis abilities of DPSCs and PDLSCs treated with BPs. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes involved in bone development will be determined using real time-polymerase change reaction (RT-PCR) assay and expression profiles of important proteins involved in osteogenesis will be evaluated using western blotting assay for osteogenically differentiated MSCs treated with or without BPs. In addition to these, von Kossa staining will be performed to measure calcium mineralization status of MSCs.

Keywords: bisphosphonates, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenesis

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16 Cerium Salt Effect in 70s Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alessandra N. Santos, Max P. Ferreira, Alexandra R. P. Silva, Agda A. R. de Oliveira, Marivalda M. Pereira


The literature describes experiments, in which ceria nanoparticles in the bioactive glass significantly improve differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts and increase production of collagen. It is not known whether this effect observed due to the presence of nanoceria can be also observed in the presence of cerium in the bioactive glass network. The effect of cerium into bioactive glasses using the sol–gel route is the focus of this work, with the goal to develop a material for tissue engineering with the potential to enhance osteogenesis. A bioactive glass composition based on 70% SiO2–30% CaO is produced with the addition of cerium. The analyses XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET/BJH, in vitro bioactivity test and the Cell viability assay were performed. The results show that cerium remains in the bioactive glass structure. The obtained material present in vitro bioactivity and promote the cell viability.

Keywords: bioactive glass, bioactivity, cerium salt, material characterization, sol-gel method

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15 Piled Critical Size Bone-Biomimetic and Biominerizable Nanocomposites: Formation of Bioreactor-Induced Stem Cell Gradients under Perfusion and Compression

Authors: W. Baumgartner, M. Welti, N. Hild, S. C. Hess, W. J. Stark, G. Meier Bürgisser, P. Giovanoli, J. Buschmann


Perfusion bioreactors are used to solve problems in tissue engineering in terms of sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply. Such problems especially occur in critical size grafts because vascularization is often too slow after implantation ending up in necrotic cores. Biominerizable and biocompatible nanocomposite materials are attractive and suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering because they offer mineral components in organic carriers – mimicking natural bone tissue. In addition, human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used to increase bone healing as they are capable of differentiating towards osteoblasts or endothelial cells among others. In the present study, electrospun nanocomposite disks of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) were seeded with human ASCs and eight disks were stacked in a bioreactor running with normal culture medium (no differentiation supplements). Under continuous perfusion and uniaxial cyclic compression, load-displacement curves as a function of time were assessed. Stiffness and energy dissipation were recorded. Moreover, stem cell densities in the layers of the piled scaffold were determined as well as their morphologies and differentiation status (endothelial cell differentiation, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis). While the stiffness of the cell free constructs increased over time caused by the transformation of the a-CaP nanoparticles into flake-like apatite, ASC-seeded constructs showed a constant stiffness. Stem cell density gradients were histologically determined with a linear increase in the flow direction from the bottom to the top of the 3.5 mm high pile (r2 > 0.95). Cell morphology was influenced by the flow rate, with stem cells getting more roundish at higher flow rates. Less than 1 % osteogenesis was found upon osteopontin immunostaining at the end of the experiment (9 days), while no endothelial cell differentiation and no chondrogenesis was triggered under these conditions. All ASCs had mainly remained in their original pluripotent status within this time frame. In summary, we have fabricated a critical size bone graft based on a biominerizable bone-biomimetic nanocomposite with preserved stiffness when seeded with human ASCs. The special feature of this bone graft was that ASC densities inside the piled construct varied with a linear gradient, which is a good starting point for tissue engineering interfaces such as bone-cartilage where the bone tissue is cell rich while the cartilage exhibits low cell densities. As such, this tissue-engineered graft may act as a bone-cartilage interface after the corresponding differentiation of the ASCs.

Keywords: bioreactor, bone, cartilage, nanocomposite, stem cell gradient

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14 Giving Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta a Voice: Overview of a Participatory Approach for the Development of an Interactive Communication Tool

Authors: M. Siedlikowski, F. Rauch, A. Tsimicalis


Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of childhood onset that causes frequent fractures after minimal physical stress. To date, OI research has focused on medically- and surgically-oriented outcomes with little attention on the perspective of the affected child. It is a challenge to elicit the child’s voice in health care, in other words, their own perspective on their symptoms, but software development offers a way forward. Sisom (Norwegian acronym derived from ‘Si det som det er’ meaning ‘Tell it as it is’) is an award-winning, rigorously tested, interactive, computerized tool that helps children with chronic illnesses express their symptoms to their clinicians. The successful Sisom software tool, that addresses the child directly, has not yet been adapted to attend to symptoms unique to children with OI. The purpose of this study was to develop a Sisom paper prototype for children with OI by seeking the perspectives of end users, particularly, children with OI and clinicians. Our descriptive qualitative study was conducted at Shriners Hospitals for Children® – Canada, which follows the largest cohort of children with OI in North America. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 12 children with OI over three cycles. Nine clinicians oversaw the development process, which involved determining the relevance of current Sisom symptoms, vignettes, and avatars, as well as generating new Sisom OI components. Data, including field notes, transcribed audio-recordings, and drawings, were deductively analyzed using content analysis techniques. Guided by the following framework, data pertaining to symptoms, vignettes, and avatars were coded into five categories: a) Relevant; b) Irrelevant; c) To modify; d) To add; e) Unsure. Overall, 70.8% of Sisom symptoms were deemed relevant for inclusion, with 49.4% directly incorporated, and 21.3% incorporated with changes to syntax, and/or vignette, and/or location. Three additions were made to the ‘Avatar’ island. This allowed children to celebrate their uniqueness: ‘Makes you feel like you’re not like everybody else.’ One new island, ‘About Me’, was added to capture children’s worldviews. One new sub-island, ‘Getting Around’, was added to reflect accessibility issues. These issues were related to the children’s independence, their social lives, as well as the perceptions of others. In being consulted as experts throughout the co-creation of the Sisom OI paper prototype, children coded the Sisom symptoms and provided sound rationales for their chosen codes. In rationalizing their codes, all children shared personal stories about themselves and their relationships, insights about their OI, and an understanding of the strengths and challenges they experience on a day-to-day basis. The child’s perspective on their health is a basic right, and allowing it to be heard is the next frontier in the care of children with genetic diseases. Sisom OI, a methodological breakthrough within OI research, will offer clinicians an innovative and child-centered approach to capture this neglected perspective. It will provide a tool for the delivery of health care in the center that established the worldwide standard of care for children with OI.

Keywords: child health, interactive computerized communication tool, participatory approach, symptom management

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13 Investigating the Formation of Nano-Hydroxyapatite on a Biocompatible and Antibacterial Cu/Mg-Substituted Bioglass

Authors: Elhamalsadat Ghaffari, Moghan Amirhosseinian, Amir Khaleghipour


Multifunctional bioactive glasses (BGs) are designed with a focus on the provision of bactericidal and biological properties desired for angiogenesis, osteogenesis, and ultimately potential applications in bone tissue engineering. To achieve these, six sol-gel copper/magnesium substituted derivatives of 58S-BG, i.e. a mol% series of 60SiO2-4P2O5-5CuO-(31-x) CaO/xMgO (where x=0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10), were synthesized. Afterwards, the effect of MgO/CaO substitution on the in vitro formation of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA), osteoblast-like cell responses and BGs antibacterial performance were studied. During the BGs synthesis, the elimination of nitrates was achieved at 700 °C that prevented the BGs crystallization and stabilized the obtained dried gels. The structural and morphological evaluations were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These characterizations revealed that Cu-substituted 58S-BG consisting of 5 mol% MgO (BG-5/5) slightly had retarded the formation of HA. In addition, Cu-substituted 58S-BGs consisting 8 mol% and 10 mol% MgO (BG-5/8 and BG-5/10) displayed lower bioactivity probably due to the lower ion release rate of Ca–Si into the simulated body fluid (SBF). The determination of 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities proved that the highest values of both differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells can be obtained from a 5 mol% MgO substituted BG, while the over addition of MgO (8 mol% and 10 mol%) decreased the bioactivity. Furthermore, these novel Cu/Mg-substituted 58S-BGs displayed antibacterial effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Taken together, the results suggest the equally-substituted BG-5/5 (i.e. the one consists of 5 mol% of both CuO and MgO) as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering, among all newly designed BGs in this work, owing to its desirable cell proliferation, ALP activity and antibacterial properties.

Keywords: apatite, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel processes

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12 System for Mechanical Stimulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Supporting Differentiation into Osteogenic Cells

Authors: Jana Stepanovska, Roman Matejka, Jozef Rosina, Marta Vandrovcova, Lucie Bacakova


The aim of this study was to develop a system for mechanical and also electrical stimulation controlling in vitro osteogenesis under conditions more similar to the in vivo bone microenvironment than traditional static cultivation, which would achieve good adhesion, growth and other specific behaviors of osteogenic cells in cultures. An engineered culture system for mechanical stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cells on the charged surface was designed. The bioreactor allows efficient mechanical loading inducing an electrical response and perfusion of the culture chamber with seeded cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were seeded to specific charged materials, like polarized hydroxyapatite (Hap) or other materials with piezoelectric and ferroelectric features, to create electrical potentials for stimulating of the cells. The material of the matrix was TiNb alloy designed for these purposes, and it was covered by BaTiO3 film, like a kind of piezoelectric material. The process of mechanical stimulation inducing electrical response is controlled by measuring electrical potential in the chamber. It was performed a series of experiments, where the cells were seeded, perfused and stimulated up to 48 hours under different conditions, especially pressure and perfusion. The analysis of the proteins expression was done, which demonstrated the effective mechanical and electrical stimulation. The experiments demonstrated effective stimulation of the cells in comparison with the static culture. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, grant No. 15-29153A and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic grant No. GA15-01558S.

Keywords: charged surface, dynamic cultivation, electrical stimulation, ferroelectric layers, mechanical stimulation, piezoelectric layers

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11 Role of Micro-Patterning on Stem Cell-Material Interaction Modulation and Cell Fate

Authors: Lay Poh Tan, Chor Yong Tay, Haiyang Yu


Micro-contact printing is a form of soft lithography that uses the relief patterns on a master polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp to form patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ink on the surface of a substrate through conformal contact technique. Here, we adopt this method to print proteins of different dimensions on our biodegradable polymer substrates. We started off with printing 20-500 μm scale lanes of fibronectin to engineer the shape of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs). After 8 hours of culture, the hMSCs adopted elongated shapes, and upon analysis of the gene expressions, genes commonly associated with myogenesis (GATA-4, MyoD1, cTnT and β-MHC) and neurogenesis (NeuroD, Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2) were up-regulated but gene expression associated to osteogenesis (ALPL, RUNX2, and SPARC) were either down modulated or remained at the nominal level. This is the first evidence that cellular morphology control via micropatterning could be used to modulate stem cell fate without external biochemical stimuli. We further our studies to modulate the focal adhesion (FA) instead of the macro shape of cells. Micro-contact printed islands of different smaller dimensions were investigated. We successfully regulated the FAs into dense FAs and elongated FAs by micropatterning. Additionally, the combined effects of hard (40.4 kPa), and intermediate (10.6 kPa) PA gel and FAs patterning on hMSCs differentiation were studied. Results showed that FA and matrix compliance plays an important role in hMSCs differentiation, and there is a cross-talk between different physical stimulants and the significance of these stimuli can only be realized if they are combined at the optimum level.

Keywords: micro-contact printing, polymer substrate, cell-material interaction, stem cell differentiation

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10 Relationship between Matrilin-3 (MATN-3) Gene Single Nucleotide Six Polymorphism, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 and Radiographic Grading in Primary Osteoarthritis

Authors: Heba Esaily, Rawhia Eledl, Daila Aboelela, Rasha Noreldin


Objective: Assess serum level of Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and Matrilin-3 (MATN3) SNP6 polymorphism in osteoarthritic patients Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disease characterized by pain and joint stiffness. TGF-β 2 is involved in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, It has found that MATN3 gene and protein expression was correlated with the extent of tissue damage in OA. Findings suggest that regulation of MATN3 expression is essential for maintenance of the cartilage extracellular matrix microenvironment Subjects and Methods: 72 cases of primary OA (56 with knee OA and 16 with generalized OA were compared with that of 18 healthy controls. Radiographs were scored with the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Serum TGF-β2 was measured by using (ELISA), levels of marker were correlated to radiographic grading of disease and MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism was determined by (PCR-RFLP). Results: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and serum level of TGF-β2 were higher in OA compared with controls. Genotype, NN and N allele frequency were higher in patients with OA compared with controls. NN genotype and N allele frequency were higher in knee osteoarthritis than generalized OA. Significant positive correlation between level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in group with knee OA, but no correlation between serum level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in generalized OA. Conclusion: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and TGF-β2 implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Association of N/N genotype with primary osteoarthritis emphasizes on the need for prospective study include larger sample size to confirm the results of the present study.

Keywords: Matrilin-3, transforming growth factor beta 2, primary osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis

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9 Botulinum Toxin type A for Lower Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Jawaher F. Alsharef, Abdullah A. Ghaddaf, Mohammed S. Alomari, Abdullah A. Al Qurashi, Ahmed S. Abdulhamid, Mohammed S. Alshehri, Majed Alosaimi


Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the most popular therapeutic agent for muscle relaxation and pain control. Lately, BTX-A injection received great interest as a part of multimodal pain management for lower limb lengthening and deformity correction. This systematic review aimed to determine the role of BTX-A injection in pain management for during lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We searched Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the BTX-A injection to placebo for individuals undergoing lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We sought to evaluate the following outcomes: pain on visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, and adverse events. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to represent continuous outcomes while risk ratio (RR) was used to represent dichotomous outcomes. A total of 4 RCTs that enrolled 257 participants (337 limbs) deemed eligible. Adjuvant BTX-A injection showed a significant reduction in post-operative pain compared to placebo (SMD=–0.28, 95% CI –0.53 to –0.04). No difference was found between BTX-A injection and placebo in terms of range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, or adverse events after surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity correction (RR= 0.77, 95% CI –0.58 to 1.03). Conclusions: Adjuvant BTX-A injection conferred a discernible reduction in post-operative pain during surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity without increasing the risk of adverse events.

Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, limb lengthening, distraction osteogenesis, deformity correction, pain management

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8 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin


For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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7 Influence of Cobalt Incorporation on the Structure and Properties of SOL-Gel Derived Mesoporous Bioglass Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmed El-Fiqi, Hae-Won Kim


Incorporation of therapeutic elements such as Sr, Cu and Co into bioglass structure and their release as ions is considered as one of the promising approaches to enhance cellular responses, e.g., osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, cobalt as angiogenesis promoter has been incorporated (at 0, 1 and 4 mol%) into sol-gel derived calcium silicate mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles. The composition and structure of cobalt-free (CFN) and cobalt-doped (CDN) mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The physicochemical properties of CFN and CDN have been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Furthermore, the textural properties, including specific surface area, pore-volume, and pore size, have been analyzed from N²⁻sorption analyses. Surface charges of CFN and CDN were also determined from surface zeta potential measurements. The release of ions, including Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, and SiO₄⁴⁻ has been analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Loading and release of diclofenac as an anti-inflammatory drug model were explored in vitro using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD results ensured the amorphous state of CFN and CDN whereas, XRF further confirmed that their chemical compositions are very close to the designed compositions. HR-TEM analyses unveiled nanoparticles with spherical morphologies, highly mesoporous textures, and sizes in the range of 90 - 100 nm. Moreover, N²⁻ sorption analyses revealed that the nanoparticles have pores with sizes of 3.2 - 2.6 nm, pore volumes of 0.41 - 0.35 cc/g and highly surface areas in the range of 716 - 830 m²/g. High-resolution XPS analysis of Co 2p core level provided structural information about Co atomic environment and it confirmed the electronic state of Co in the glass matrix. ICP-AES analysis showed the release of therapeutic doses of Co²⁺ ions from 4% CDN up to 100 ppm within 14 days. Finally, diclofenac loading and release have ensured the drug/ion co-delivery capability of 4% CDN.

Keywords: mesoporous bioactive glass, nanoparticles, cobalt ions, release

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6 To What Extent Does Physical Activity and Standard of Competition Affect Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Measurements of Bone in Accordance with Muscular Strength and Anthropometrics in British Young Males?

Authors: Joseph Shanks, Matthew Taylor, Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen


Introduction: Evidences of relationship between bone, muscle and standard of competition among young British population is limited in literature. The current literature recognises the independent and synergistic effects of fat free and fat mass as the stimulus for osteogenesis. This study assessed the extent to which physical activity (PA) and standard of competition (CS) influences quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone on a cross-sectional basis accounting for muscular strength and anthropometrics in British young males. Methods: Pre-screening grouped 66 males aged 18-25 years into controls (n=33) and district level athletes (DLAs) (n=33) as well as low (n=21), moderate (n=23) and high (n=22) physical activity categories (PACs). All participants underwent QUS measurements of bone (4 sites, i.e. dominant distal radius (DR), dominant mid-shaft tibia (DT), non-dominant distal radius (NR) and non-dominant mid-shaft tibia (NT)), isokinetic strength tests (dominant and non-dominant knee flexion and extension) and anthropometric measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to QUS measurements of bone at all sites with regards to PACs or CS. Significant higher isokinetic strength values were observed in DLAs than controls (p < 0.05), and higher than low PACs (p < 0.05) at 60o.s-1 of concentric and eccentric measurements. No differences in subcutaneous fat thickness were found between all the groups (CS or PACs). Percentages of body fat were significantly higher (p < .05) in low than high PACs and CS groups. There were significant positive relationships between non dominant radial speed of sound and fat free mass at both DR (r=0.383, p=0.001) and NR (r=0.319, p=0.009) sites in all participants. Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that muscular strength and body fat are closely related to physical activity level and standard of competition. However, bone health status reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone is not related to physical activity level and standard of competition in British young males.

Keywords: bone, muscular strength, physical activity, standard of competition

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5 Nanowire Substrate to Control Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ainur Sharip, Jose E. Perez, Nouf Alsharif, Aldo I. M. Bandeas, Enzo D. Fabrizio, Timothy Ravasi, Jasmeen S. Merzaban, Jürgen Kosel


Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes or adipocytes. Differentiation is influenced by biochemical and biophysical stimuli provided by the microenvironment of the cell. Thus, altering the mechanical characteristics of a cell culture scaffold can directly influence a cell’s microenvironment and lead to stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on densely packed, vertically aligned magnetic iron nanowires (NWs) and the effect of NWs on the cell cytoskeleton rearrangement and differentiation were studied. An electrochemical deposition method was employed to fabricate NWs into nanoporous alumina templates, followed by a partial release to reveal the NW array. This created a cell growth substrate with free-standing NWs. The Fe NWs possessed a length of 2-3 µm, with each NW having a diameter of 33 nm on average. Mechanical stimuli generated by the physical movement of these iron NWs, in response to a magnetic field, can stimulate osteogenic differentiation. Induction of osteogenesis was estimated using an osteogenic marker, osteopontin, and a reduction of stem cell markers, CD73 and CD105. MSCs were grown on the NWs, and fluorescent microscopy was employed to monitor the expression of markers. A magnetic field with an intensity of 250 mT and a frequency of 0.1 Hz was applied for 12 hours/day over a period of one week and two weeks. The magnetically activated substrate enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs compared to the culture conditions without magnetic field. Quantification of the osteopontin signal revealed approximately a seven-fold increase in the expression of this protein after two weeks of culture. Immunostaining staining against CD73 and CD105 revealed the expression of antibodies at the earlier time point (two days) and a considerable reduction after one-week exposure to a magnetic field. Overall, these results demonstrate the application of a magnetic NW substrate in stimulating the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. This method significantly decreases the time needed to induce osteogenic differentiation compared to commercial biochemical methods, such as osteogenic differentiation kits, that usually require more than two weeks. Contact-free stimulation of MSC differentiation using a magnetic field has potential uses in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and bone formation therapies.

Keywords: cell substrate, magnetic nanowire, mesenchymal stem cell, stem cell differentiation

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4 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang


Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, bone tissue engineering, alveolar bone

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3 “The Quest for the Ideal Ego: A Reciprocal Reading of Lacan's The Mirror Stage and Shyamalan’s Unbreakable”

Authors: Indranil Mitra


The purpose of this paper would be to present a Lacanian interpretation of M. Night Shyamalan’s 2000 film Unbreakable, bringing into dialogue the major themes of the film with certain key concepts in Lacan’s seminal 1949 text, The Mirror Stage. The two central characters of the film, David Dunn and Elijah Price, stand on two polarized ends of an ontological spectrum. David Dunn, who works as a football stadium security guard, possesses superhuman abilities. His body is literally unbreakable — at the very beginning of the film, he turns out the sole survivor in a horrendous train crash. On the other end of the spectrum is Elijah Price, a comic book expert who runs an art gallery called “Limited Edition”. He suffers from a rare disorder called osteogenesis imperfecta — a condition where poor production of Type-1 collagen in the body leads to brittleness of bones. His bones break with alarming frequency, leaving him crippled and debilitated for the better part of his life. Elijah feels that he doesn’t know his place in the world — the only way to fill his void and acquire a meaningful identity is for him to find his ideal ego, i.e. the man who has a perfect and unbreakable body. He conceives this complementarity in terms of the comic-book superhero–archenemy dyad — two entities that would diametrically balance each other. The ideal ego turns out to be David Dunn. Locating this theme within the theoretical framework of The Mirror Stage, this paper will view David as a metaphor of the apparently perfect, complete and immaculate specular other, posing a dialectical opposition to Elijah’s infirm and fracturable body. Elijah’s sense of insecurity and anxiety about his body, which is almost like a metaphor of the fragmented and dismembered Lacanian real, is somehow assuaged through the act of his narcissistically relating to the image of David’s perfect and unbreakable body. What is interesting is that Elijah’s search doesn’t just end with his discovery of David; Elijah helps an unknowing David to discover the truth of his superhuman self, and enjoys the acquisition of David’s self-awareness vicariously. Unlike the existentialists, Lacan ascribed the notion of being to self-awareness and the ‘me’ (the ego), and, in helping David reach self-awareness, Elijah’s own sense of nothingness and non-being is endowed with meaning and being. Lastly, this reading of the film will also address the theme of aggressivity, which Lacan thinks of as a coefficient of narcissism that defines the self’s relation with the specular/imaginary other. One’s relationship with the imaginary integrity of the ego is threatened by the retrospective discernment of the sense of corporal dislocation associated with the experience of the real, which in turn leads to aggressive acts. Elijah orchestrates a series of criminal and terrorist acts of sabotage and destruction in the hope of finding that one person whose perfect body can withstand any accident or disaster. The train accident with which the film starts, in which David is the sole survivor, is Elijah’s doing.

Keywords: ideal ego, imaginary, narcissism, real, specular other

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2 Crystallization Based Resolution of Enantiomeric and Diastereomeric Derivatives of myo-Inositol

Authors: Nivedita T. Patil, M. T. Patil, M. S. Shashidhar, R. G. Gonnade


Cyclitols are cycloalkane polyols which have raise attention since they have numerous biological and pharmaceutical properties. Among these, inositols are important cyclitols, which constitute a group of naturally occurring polyhydric alcohols. Myo, scyllo, allo, neo, D-chiro- are naturally occurring structural isomer of inositol while other four isomers (L-chiro, allo, epi-, and cis-inositol) are derived from myo-inositol by chemical synthesis. Myo-inositol, most abundant isomer, plays an important role in signal transduction process and for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, bacterial infections, stimulation of menstruation, ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome, improvement of osteogenesis, and in treatment of neurological disorders. Considering the vast application of the derivatives, it becomes important to supply these compounds for further studies in quantitative amounts, but the synthesis of suitably protected chiral inositol derivatives is the key intermediates in most of the synthesis which is difficult. Chiral inositol derivatives could also be of interest to synthetic organic chemists as they could serve as potential starting materials for the synthesis of several natural products and their analogs. Thus, obtaining chiral myo-inositol derivatives in a more eco-friendly way is need for current inositol chemistry. Thus, the resolution of nonracemates by preferential crystallization of enantiomers has not been reported as a method for inositol derivatives. We are optimistic that this work might lead to the development of the two tosylate enantiomers as synthetic chiral pool molecules for organic synthesis. Resolution of racemic 4-O-benzyl 6-O-tosyl myo-inositol 1, 3, 5 orthoformate was successfully achieved on multigram scale by preferential crystallization, which is more scalable, eco-friendly method of separation than other reported methods. The separation of the conglomeric mixture of tosylate was achieved by suspending the mixture in ethyl acetate till the level of saturation is obtained. To this saturated clear solution was added seed crystal of the desired enantiomers. The filtration of the precipitated seed was carried out at its filtration window to get enantiomerically enriched tosylate, and the process was repeated alternatively. These enantiomerically enriched samples were recrystallized to get tosylate as pure enantiomers. The configuration of the resolved enantiomers was determined by converting it to previously reported dibenzyl ether myo-inositol, which is an important precursor for mono- and tetraphosphates. We have also developed a convenient and practical method for the preparation of enantiomeric 4-O and 6-O-allyl myo-inositol orthoesters by resolution of diastereomeric allyl dicamphante orthoesters on multigram scale. These allyl ethers can be converted to other chiral protected myo-inositol derivatives using routine synthetic transformations. The chiral allyl ethers can be obtained in gram quantities, and the methods are amenable to further scale-up due to the simple procedures involved. We believe that the work described enhances the pace of research to understand the intricacies of the myo-inositol cycle as the methods described provide efficient access to enantiomeric phosphoinositols, cyclitols, and their derivatives from the abundantly available myo-inositol as a starting material.

Keywords: cyclitols, diastereomers, enantiomers, myo-inositol, preferential crystallization, signal transduction

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1 SockGEL/PLUG: Injectable Nano-Scaled Hydrogel Platforms for Oral and Maxillofacial Interventional Application

Authors: Z. S. Haidar


Millions of teeth are removed annually, and dental extraction is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures globally. Whether due to caries, periodontal disease, or trauma, exodontia and the ensuing wound healing and bone remodeling processes of the resultant socket (hole in the jaw bone) usually result in serious deformities of the residual alveolar osseous ridge and surrounding soft tissues (reduced height/width). Such voluminous changes render the placement of a proper conventional bridge, denture, or even an implant-supported prosthesis extremely challenging. Further, most extractions continue to be performed with no regard for preventing the onset of alveolar osteitis (also known as dry socket, a painful and difficult-to-treat/-manage condition post-exodontia). Hence, such serious resorptive morphological changes often result in significant facial deformities and a negative impact on the overall Quality of Life (QoL) of patients (and oral health-related QoL); alarming, particularly for the geriatric with compromised healing and in light of the thriving longevity statistics. Despite advances in tissue/wound grafting, serious limitations continue to exist, including efficacy and clinical outcome predictability, cost, treatment time, expertise, and risk of immune reactions. For cases of dry socket, specifically, the commercially available and often-prescribed home remedies are highly-lacking. Indeed, most are not recommended for use anymore. Alveogyl is a fine example. Hence, there is a great market demand and need for alternative solutions. Herein, SockGEL/PLUG (patent pending), an innovative, all-natural, drug-free, and injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel, was designed, formulated, characterized, and evaluated as an osteogenic, angiogenic, anti-microbial, and pain-soothing suture-free intra-alveolar dressing, safe and efficacious for use in fresh extraction sockets, immediately post-exodontia. It is composed of FDA-approved, biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, self-assembled electro-statically to formulate a scaffolding matrix to (1) prevent the on-set of alveolar osteitis via securing the fibrin-clot in situ and protecting/sealing the socket from contamination/infection; and (2) endogenously promote/accelerate wound healing and bone remodeling to preserve the volume of the alveolus. The intrinsic properties of the SockGEL/PLUG hydrogel were evaluated physical-chemical-mechanically for safety (cell viability), viscosity, rheology, bio-distribution, and essentially, capacity to induce wound healing and osteogenesis (small defect, in vivo) without any signaling cues from exogenous cells, growth factors or drugs. The proposed animal model of cranial critical-sized and non-vascularized bone defects shall provide new and critical insights into the role and mechanism of the employed natural bio-polymer blend and gel product in endogenous reparative regeneration of soft tissues and bone morphogenesis. Alongside, the fine-tuning of our modified formulation method will further tackle appropriateness, reproducibility, scalability, ease, and speed in producing stable, biodegradable, and sterilizable thermo-sensitive matrices (3-dimensional interpenetrating yet porous polymeric network) suitable for the intra-socket application. Findings are anticipated to provide sufficient evidence to translate into pilot clinical trials and validate the innovation before engaging the market for feasibility, acceptance, and cost-effectiveness studies.

Keywords: hydrogel, nanotechnology, bioengineering, bone regeneration, nanogel, drug delivery

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