Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1537

Search results for: polypropylene degradation

1537 Pathology of Explanted Transvaginal Meshes

Authors: Vladimir V. Iakovlev, Erin T. Carey, John Steege


The use of polypropylene mesh devices for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) spread rapidly during the last decade, yet our knowledge of the mesh-tissue interaction is far from complete. We aimed to perform a thorough pathological examination of explanted POP meshes and describe findings that may explain mechanisms of complications resulting in product excision. We report a spectrum of important findings, including nerve ingrowth, mesh deformation, involvement of detrusor muscle with neural ganglia, and polypropylene degradation. Analysis of these findings may improve and guide future treatment strategies.

Keywords: transvaginal, mesh, nerves, polypropylene degradation

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1536 Degradation of the Mechanical Properties of the Polypropylene Talc Nanocomposite in Chemical Environment

Authors: Ahmed Ouadah Bouakkaz, Mohamed Elmeguenni, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra, Mohamed Belhouari, Abdulmohsen Albedah


In this study, the effect of the chemical environment on the mechanical properties of the polypropylene-talc composite was analyzed. The talc proportion was varied in order to highlight the combined effects of time of immersion in the chemical environment 'benzene' and talc concentration on the mechanical properties of the composite. Tensile test was carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of PP-talc composite and to analyze the effect of the immersion time on the variation of these properties. The obtained results show that increasing the time of immersion has a very negative effect on the mechanical strength of the PP-talc composite, but this effect can be significantly reduced by the augmentation of the talc proportion.

Keywords: polypropylene (PP), talc, nanocomposite, degradation

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1535 Investigation of the Addition of Macro and Micro Polypropylene Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Pavement

Authors: Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri, Hassan Fazaeli, Amir Ali Amini


Cracks in concrete pavements are places for the entrance of water and corrosive substances to the pavement, which can reduce the durability of concrete in the long term as well as the serviceability of road. The use of fibers in concrete pavement is one of the effective methods to control and mitigate cracking. This study investigates the effect of the addition of micro and macro polypropylene fibers in different types and volumes and also in combination with the mechanical properties of concrete used in concrete pavements, including compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and average residual strength. The fibers included micro-polypropylene, macro-polypropylene, and hybrid micro and micro polypropylene in different percentages. The results showed that macro polypropylene has the most significant effect on improving the mechanical properties of concrete. Also, the hybrid micro and macro polypropylene fibers increase the mechanical properties of concrete more. It was observed that according to the results of the average residual strength, macro polypropylene fibers alone and together with micro polypropylene fibers could have excellent performance in controlling the sudden formation of cracks and their growth after the formation of cracking which is an essential property in concrete pavements.

Keywords: concrete pavement, mechanical properties, macro polypropylene fibers, micro polypropylene fibers

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1534 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh


Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

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1533 Predicting the Lifetime of Weathered Polyolefins by Relating Mechanics to Microstructure

Authors: Marta Chiapasco, Alexandra Porter, Finn Giuliani


Designing polymers with a specific microstructure can affect how the polymer degrades once released in the environment. Not only the amount but also the distribution of different phases determines a polymers’ degradability. The following research investigates the use of a combination of spectroscopy analysis and thermal analysis to study changes of polymers’ amorphous and crystalline phases during degradation, comparing different microstructures of polypropylene and polyethylene. The use of nanoindentation helps study how degradation proceeds across a material by looking at changes in phases, while bulk tensile test describes when the material fails. The first results demonstrate that different microstructures have different degrading rates, with homopolymer having a linear and faster degradation compared to copolymers. The goal is to create materials that degrade at faster rates without releasing microplastics into the environment.

Keywords: degradation, microstructure, nanoindentation, Raman spectroscopy

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1532 Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir


Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis

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1531 New Formulation of FFS3 Layered Blown Films Containing Toughened Polypropylene and Plastomer with Superior Properties

Authors: S. Talebnezhad, S. Pourmahdian, D. Soudbar, M. Khosravani, J. Merasi


Adding toughened polypropylene and plastomer in FFS 3 layered blown film formulation resulted in superior dart impact and MD tear resistance along with acceptable tensile properties in TD and MD. The optimum loading of toughened polypropylene and plastomer in each layer depends on miscibility of polypropylene in polyethylene medium, mechanical properties, welding characteristics in bags top and bottoms and friction coefficient of film surfaces. Film property tests and efficiency of FFS machinery during processing in industrial scale showed that about 4% loading of plastomer and 16% of toughened polypropylene (reactor grade) in middle layer and loading of 0-1% plastomer and 5-19% of toughened polypropylene in other layers results optimum characteristics in the formulation based on 1-butene LLDPE grade with MFR of 0.9 and LDPE grade with MFI of 0.3. Both the plastomer and toughened polypropylene had the MFI of blow 1 and the TiO2 and processing aid masterbatches loading was 2%. The friction coefficient test results also represented the anti-block masterbatch could be omitted from formulation with adding toughened polypropylene due to partial miscibility of PP in PE which makes the surface of films somewhat bristly.

Keywords: FFS 3 layered blown film, toughened polypropylene, plastomer, dart impact, tear resistance

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1530 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier


Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: nNanoclay, Nanocomposites, Polypropylene, Polyamide, melt processing, mechanical properties.

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1529 Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan


Sugarcane bagasse (SCB)-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) Based matrix composites (25-45 wt% fiber) were fabricated by a compression molding technique. The SCB surface was chemically modified using 5%-10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and after that, mechanical properties, water uptake, and soil degradation of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM) and elongation at break (Eb%) of the 30wt% composites were found to be 35.6 MPa, 10.2 GPa, 56 MPa, 5.6 GPa, and 11%, respectively. The SCB/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The results revealed that the combination of the chemical modification of the SCB fibers and irradiation of the composites were more effective in compatibility improvement than chemical modification alone. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated SCB/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion than untreated SCB/PP based composites. However, it was found that the treated SCB/PP composite has better mechanical strength, durability, and more receptivity than untreated SCB/PP based composite.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse (SCB), polypropylene (PP), mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope (SEM), gamma radiation, water uptake tests and soil degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1528 Qualitative Analysis of Bituminous Mix Modified by Polypropylene and Impact Characteristics on Pavement Wearing Course

Authors: Jayisha Das Jaya, Nafis As Sami, Nazia Jahan, Tamanna Jerin, Mohammed Russedul Islam


This paper contains continuous research which helps to analyze polypropylene modified bituminous mix and its impact characteristics with respect to original bitumen. Three percentages of polypropylene varying from (1-3) % of the weight of bitumen have been used to alter bitumen’s performance. The temperature of 170°C has been maintained during the blending of polypropylene with bitumen. It was performed by a wet process as it has certain advantages over the dry process. A rough estimate of 210 rpm rotation speed was set to prepare the blend in a mixer for 30 minutes producing homogeneous mixture. The blended mix shows a change in physical properties in comparison with the original bitumen content. Modification shows that for a 1% increment of polypropylene, softening point increases by 1 degree, penetration values decrease gradually to 55.6, 54, 52.5, ductility values decrease gradually to 87,76, 63 and specific gravity remains the same. Then Marshall mix design is performed with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen contents varying from (4-6) % with .5% intervals. Marshall stability and flow test results indicate the increase in stability and decrease in flow.

Keywords: bitumen, marshall, polypropylene, temperature

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1527 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan


The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

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1526 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: Duduku Krishnaiah, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin


Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: nanofiber, adsorption, peppermint essential oil, isotherms, adsorption kinetics

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1525 An Experimental Investigation on Banana and Pineapple Natural Fibers Reinforced with Polypropylene Composite by Impact Test and SEM Analysis

Authors: D. Karibasavaraja, Ramesh M.R., Sufiyan Ahmed, Noyonika M.R., Sameeksha A. V., Mamatha J., Samiksha S. Urs


This research paper gives an overview of the experimental analysis of natural fibers with polymer composite. The whole world is concerned about conserving the environment. Henceforth, the demand for natural and decomposable materials is increasing. The application of natural fibers is widely used in aerospace for manufacturing aircraft bodies, and ship construction in navy fields. Based on the literature review, researchers and scientists are replacing synthetic fibers with natural fibers. The selection of these fibers mainly depends on lightweight, easily available, and economical and has its own physical and chemical properties and many other properties that make them a fine quality fiber. The pineapple fiber has desirable properties of good mechanical strength, high cellulose content, and fiber length. Hybrid composite was prepared using different proportions of pineapple fiber and banana fiber, and their ratios were varied in 90% polypropylene mixed with 5% banana fiber and 5% pineapple fiber, 85% polypropylene mixed with 7.5% banana fiber and 7.5% pineapple fiber and 80% polypropylene mixed with 10% banana fiber and 10% pineapple fiber. By impact experimental analysis, we concluded that the combination of 90% polypropylene and 5% banana fiber and 5% pineapple fiber exhibits a higher toughness value with mechanical strength. We also conducted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis which showed better fiber orientation bonding between the banana and pineapple fibers with polypropylene composites. The main aim of the present research is to evaluate the properties of pineapple fiber and banana fiber reinforced with hybrid polypropylene composites.

Keywords: toughness, fracture, impact strength, banana fibers, pineapple fibers, tensile strength, SEM analysis

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1524 Improvement of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Concrete Using Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad, Mohammed Awwad


Concrete is one of the essential elements that used in different types of construction these days, but it has many problems when interacts with environmental elements such as water, air, temperature, dust, and humidity. Also concrete made with Portland cement has certain characteristics: it is relatively strong in compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. These disadvantages make concrete limited to use in certain conditions. The most common problems appears on concrete are manifested by tearing, cracking, corrosion and spalling, which will lead to do some defect in concrete then in the whole construction, The fundamental objective of this research was to provide information about the hardened properties of concrete achieved by using easily available local raw materials in Jordan to support the practical work with partners in assessing the practicability of the mixes with polypropylene, and to facilitate the introduction of polypropylene fiber concrete (PFC) technology into general construction practice. Investigate the effect of the polypropylene fibers in PCC mixtures and on materials properties such as compressive strength, and tensile strength. Also to investigate the use of polypropylene fibers in plain cubes and cylindrical concrete to improve its compressive and tensile strengths to reduce early cracking and inhibit later crack growth. Increasing the hardness of concrete in this research is the main purpose to measure the deference of compressive strength and tensile strength between plain concrete and concrete mixture with polypropylene fibers different additions and to investigate its effect on reducing the early and later cracking problem. To achieve the goals of research 225 concrete test sample were prepared to measure it’s compressive strength and tensile strength, the concrete test sample were three classes (A,B,C), sub-classified to standard , and polypropylene fibers added by the volume of concrete (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The investigation of polypropylene fibers mixture with concrete shows that the strengths of the cement are increased and the cracking decreased. The results show that for class A the recommended addition were 5% of polypropylene fibers additions for compressive strength and 10 % for tensile strength revels the best compressive strength that reach 26.67 Mpa and tensile strength that reach 2.548 Mpa records. Achieved results show that for classes B and C the recommend additions were 10 % polypropylene fibers revels the best compressive strength records where they reach 21.11 and 33.78 Mpa, records reach for tensile strength 2.707 and 2.65 Mpa respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene, effects, compressive, tensile, strengths, concrete, construction

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1523 Sustainable Development of Medium Strength Concrete Using Polypropylene as Aggregate Replacement

Authors: Reza Keihani, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Timothy James Clacy


Plastic as an environmental burden is a well-rehearsed topic in the research area. This is due to its global demand and destructive impacts on the environment, which has been a significant concern to the governments. Typically, the use of plastic in the construction industry is seen across low-density, non-structural applications due to its diverse range of benefits including high strength-to-weight ratios, manipulability and durability. It can be said that with the level of plastic consumption experienced in the construction industry, an ongoing responsibility is shown for this sector to continually innovate alternatives for application of recycled plastic waste such as using plastic made replacement from polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and polypropylene in the concrete mix design. In this study, the impact of partially replaced fine aggregate with polypropylene in the concrete mix design was investigated to evaluate the concrete’s compressive strength by conducting an experimental work which comprises of six concrete mix batches with polypropylene replacements ranging from 0.5 to 3.0%. The results demonstrated a typical decline in the compressive strength with the addition of plastic aggregate, despite this reduction generally mitigated as the level of plastic in the concrete mix increased. Furthermore, two of the six plastic-containing concrete mixes tested in the current study exceeded the ST5 standardised prescribed concrete mix compressive strength requirement at 28-days containing 1.50% and 2.50% plastic aggregates, which demonstrated the potential for use of recycled polypropylene in structural applications, as a partial by mass, fine aggregate replacement in the concrete mix.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, polypropylene, sustainability

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1522 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park


This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

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1521 Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers with Oxidative Agents for Usability as Reinforcement in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Yasemin Seki, Aysun Akşit


The goal of this research is to modify the surface characterization of jute yarns with different chemical agents to improve the compatibility with a non-polar polymer, polypropylene, when used as reinforcement. A literature review provided no knowledge on surface treatment of jute fibers with sodium perborate trihydrate. This study also aims to compare the efficiency of sodium perborate trihydrate on jute fiber treatment with other commonly used chemical agents. Accordingly, jute yarns were treated with 0.02% potassium dichromate (PD), potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium perborate trihydrate (SP) aqueous solutions in order to enhance interfacial compatibility with polypropylene in this study. The effect of treatments on surface topography, surface chemistry and interfacial shear strength of jute yarns with polypropylene were investigated. XPS results revealed that surface treatments enhanced surface hydrophobicity by increasing C/O ratios of fiber surface. Surface roughness values increased with the treatments. The highest interfacial adhesion with polypropylene was achieved after SP treatment by providing the highest surface roughness values and hydrophobic character of jute fiber.

Keywords: jute, chemical modification, sodium perborate, polypropylene

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1520 Stabilization of Expansive Soils with Polypropylene Fiber

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı


Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1519 Toughness Factor of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Aggressive Environment

Authors: R. E. Vasconcelos, K. R. M. da Silva, J. M. B. Pinto


This study aims to determine and to present the results of an experimental study of Synthetic (polypropylene) Fibers Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), in levels of 0.33% - 3kg/m3, 0.50% - 4.5kg/m3, and 0.66% - 6kg/m3, using cement CP V – ARI, at ages 28 and 88 days after specimens molding. The specimens were exposed for 60 days in aggressive environment (in solution of water and 3% of sodium chloride), after 28 days. The bending toughness tests were performed in prismatic specimens of 150 x 150 x 500 mm. The toughness factor values of the specimens in aggressive environment were the same to those obtained in normal environment (in air).

Keywords: concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibers, toughness in bending, synthetic fibers, concrete reinforced

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1518 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı


Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
1517 Strength of Soft Clay Reinforced with Polypropylene Column

Authors: Muzamir Hasan, Anas Bazirgan


Granular columns is a technique that has the properties of improving bearing capacity, accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressure and reducing settlement in a weak soft soil. This research aims to investigate the role of Polypropylene column in improving the shear strength and compressibility of soft reconstituted kaolin clay by determining the effects of area replacement ratio, height penetrating ratio and volume replacement ratio of a singular Polypropylene column on the strength characteristics. Reinforced kaolin samples were subjected to Unconfined Compression (UCT) and Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) triaxial tests. The kaolin samples were 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Using the PP column reinforcement, with an area replacement ratio of 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3, shear strength increased approximately 5.27%, 26.22% and 64.28%, and 37.14%, 42.33% and 51.17%, for area replacement ratios of 25% and 10.24%. Meanwhile, UU testing showed an increase in shear strength of 24.01%, 23.17% and 23.49% and 28.79%, 27.29 and 30.81% for the same ratios. Based on the UCT results, the undrained shear strength generally increased with the decrease in height penetration ratio. However, based on the UU test results Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, the installation of Polypropylene columns did not show any significant difference in effective friction angle. However, there was an increase in the apparent cohesion and undrained shear strength of the kaolin clay. In conclusion, Polypropylene column greatly improved the shear strength; and could therefore be implemented in reducing the cost of soil improvement as a replacement for non-renewable materials.

Keywords: polypropylene, UCT, UU test, Kaolin S300, ground improvement

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1516 Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan


Bamboo fiber (BF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, bamboo composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-65% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the BF/PP composites untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical, and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact, and bending properties were observed precisely. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) were found for 50 wt% fiber composites, 65 MPa, and 85.5 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 5.73 GPa and 7.85 GPa respectively. The BF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy doses). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 30.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated BF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated BF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

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1515 Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Konstantina I. Stathi, Petroula A. Tarantili


In the present study, the incorporation of graphene into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests. The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion. Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature (Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends, due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in the case of pure PP.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, blends, graphene, polypropylene

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1514 Waste Management Option for Bioplastics Alongside Conventional Plastics

Authors: Dan Akesson, Gauthaman Kuzhanthaivelu, Martin Bohlen, Sunil K. Ramamoorthy


Bioplastics can be defined as polymers derived partly or completely from biomass. Bioplastics can be biodegradable such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA); or non-biodegradable (biobased polyethylene (bio-PE), polypropylene (bio-PP), polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET)). The usage of such bioplastics is expected to increase in the future due to new found interest in sustainable materials. At the same time, these plastics become a new type of waste in the recycling stream. Most countries do not have separate bioplastics collection for it to be recycled or composted. After a brief introduction of bioplastics such as PLA in the UK, these plastics are once again replaced by conventional plastics by many establishments due to lack of commercial composting. Recycling companies fear the contamination of conventional plastic in the recycling stream and they said they would have to invest in expensive new equipment to separate bioplastics and recycle it separately. This project studies what happens when bioplastics contaminate conventional plastics. Three commonly used conventional plastics were selected for this study: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to simulate contamination, two biopolymers, either polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) or thermoplastic starch (TPS) were blended with the conventional polymers. The amount of bioplastics in conventional plastics was either 1% or 5%. The blended plastics were processed again to see the effect of degradation. The results from contamination showed that the tensile strength and the modulus of PE was almost unaffected whereas the elongation is clearly reduced indicating the increase in brittleness of the plastic. Generally, it can be said that PP is slightly more sensitive to the contamination than PE. This can be explained by the fact that the melting point of PP is higher than for PE and as a consequence, the biopolymer will degrade more quickly. However, the reduction of the tensile properties for PP is relatively modest. Impact strength is generally a more sensitive test method towards contamination. Again, PE is relatively unaffected by the contamination but for PP there is a relatively large reduction of the impact properties already at 1% contamination. PET is polyester, and it is, by its very nature, more sensitive to degradation than PE and PP. PET also has a much higher melting point than PE and PP, and as a consequence, the biopolymer will quickly degrade at the processing temperature of PET. As for the tensile strength, PET can tolerate 1% contamination without any reduction of the tensile strength. However, when the impact strength is examined, it is clear that already at 1% contamination, there is a strong reduction of the properties. The thermal properties show the change in the crystallinity. The blends were also characterized by SEM. Biphasic morphology can be seen as the two polymers are not truly blendable which also contributes to reduced mechanical properties. The study shows that PE is relatively robust against contamination, while polypropylene (PP) is sensitive and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be quite sensitive towards contamination.

Keywords: bioplastics, contamination, recycling, waste management

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1513 Development of a Nanocompound Based Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide


Pesticides, which harm crop enemies, but can also interfere with the human body, are nowadays mostly used for crop spraying. Silica particles (SiO2) in the nanometer and micrometer scale offer a physical way to combat insects without harming humans and other mammals. Thereby, they allow foregoing pesticides, which can harm the environment. As silica particles are supplied as a powder or in a suspension to farmers, the silica use in large scale agriculture is not sufficient due to erosion through wind and rain. When silica is implemented in a textile’s surface (nanocompound), particles are locally bound and do resist erosion, but can function against bugs. By choosing polypropylene as a matrix polymer, the production of an inexpensive agritextile with an 'anti-bug' effect is made possible. In the Symposium the results of the manufacturing and filament spinning of silica nanocomposites from a polypropylene basis is compared to the fabrication from nanocomposites based on Polybutylene succinate, a biodegradable composite. The investigation focuses on the difference between degradable nanocomposite and stable nanocomposite. Focus will be laid on the filament characteristics as well as the degradation of the nanocompound to underline their potential use and application as an agricultural textile.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile, nanocomposite

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1512 Mechanical Properties of the Sugarcane Bagasse Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: R. L. M. Paiva, M. R. Capri, D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro


Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of sugarcane bagasse fibers-polypropylene composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar polypropylene. The treatment characterization was obtained by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/PP composites when compared to the pure PP and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, polymer composites, mechanical properties, fibers

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1511 Deformation Behavior of Virgin and Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Mixture

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzlan Napiah


This paper present a part of research conducted to investigate the creep behavior of bituminous concrete mixture prepared with well graded using the dynamic creep test. The samples were prepared from unmodified control mix and Polypropylene modified bituminous mix. Unmodified or control mix was prepared with 80/100 grade bitumen while polypropylene modified mix was prepared using polypropylene PP polymer as modifier, blended with 80/100 Pen bitumen. The concentration of polymer in the blend was kept at 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of bitumen content. For Dynamic Creep Test, Marshall Specimen were prepared at optimum bitumen content and then tested using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine (UTM), in order to investigate the creep stiffness of both modified and control mix. From the results obtained it was found that 1% and 2% PP modified bituminous mix offer better results in comparison to control and 3% PP modified mix samples. The results verify all the findings of empirical and viscosity test results which indicates that polymer modification induces stiffening effect in the binder. Enhanced viscous component of the binder was considered responsible for this change which eventually enhances the mechanical strength of the modified bituminous mixes.

Keywords: polymer modified bitumen, stiffness, creep, viscosity

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1510 Polypropylene/Red Mud Polymer Composites: Effects of Powder Size on Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Authors: Munir Tasdemir


Polymer/clay composites have received great attention in the past three decades owing to their light weight coupled with significantly better mechanical and barrier properties than the corresponding neat polymer resins. An investigation was carried out on the effects of red mud powder size and ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene /red mud polymer composites. Red mud, in four different concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 wt %) and three different powder size (180, 63 and 38 micron) were added to PP to produce composites. The mechanical properties, including the elasticity modulus, tensile & yield strength, % elongation, hardness, Izod impact strength and the thermal properties including the melt flow index, heat deflection temperature and vicat softening point of the composites were investigated. The structures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and compared to mechanical and thermal properties as a function of red mud powder content and size.

Keywords: polypropylene, powder, red mud, mechanical properties

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1509 Study of Hot Press Molding Method of Biodegradable Composite, Polypropylene Reinforced Coconut Coir

Authors: Herman Ruswan Suwarman, Ahmad Rivai, Mochamad Saidiman, Kuncoro Diharjo, Dody Ariawan


The use of biodegradable composite to solve ecological and environmental problems has currently risen as a trend. With the increasing use of biodegradable composite comes an increasing need to fabricate it properly. Yet this understanding has remained a challenge for the design engineer. Therefore, this study aims to explore how to combine coconut coir as a reinforcing material and polypropylene (PP) as a biodegradable polymer matrix. By using Hotpress Molding, two methods were developed and compared. The difference between these two methods is not only the step of fabrication but also the raw material. The first method involved a PP sheet and the second used PP pellets directly. Based on the results, it can be concluded that PP pellets yield better results, where the composite was produced in a shorter time, with an evenly distributed coconut coir and a smaller number of voids.

Keywords: biodegradable, coconut coir, hot press molding, polypropylene

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1508 Elaboration of Composites with Thermoplastic Matrix Polypropylene Charged by the Polyaniline Synthesized by the Self-Curling Method

Authors: Selma Saadia, Nacira Naar, Ahmed Benaboura


This work is dedicated to the elaboration of composites (PP/PANI) with Polypropylene (PP) as thermoplastic polymer and the polyaniline (PANI) as electric charge doped with sulfanilic acid (PANI-As). These realized formulations are intended for the antistatic domain. The used conductive polymer is synthesized by the method self-curling which proved the obtaining of the nanoparticles of PANI in regular morphological forms. The PANI and PP composites are fabricated into a film by a twin-screw extruding. Several methods of characterization are proposed: spectroscopic, thermal, and electric. The realized composites proved a pseudo-homogeneous aspect and the threshold percolation study, showed that the formulation with 7% of PANI presents a better formulation which can be used in the antistatic domain.

Keywords: extruding, PANI, Polypropylene, sulfanilic acid, self-Curling

Procedia PDF Downloads 161