Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

Search results for: CT scan

315 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian


One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

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314 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati


Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: CT scan room, TLD, radiation worker, dose constraint

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313 Single Event Transient Tolerance Analysis in 8051 Microprocessor Using Scan Chain

Authors: Jun Sung Go, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim


As semi-conductor manufacturing technology evolves; the single event transient problem becomes more significant issue. Single event transient has a critical impact on both combinational and sequential logic circuits, so it is important to evaluate the soft error tolerance of the circuits at the design stage. In this paper, we present a soft error detecting simulation using scan chain. The simulation model generates a single event transient randomly in the circuit, and detects the soft error during the execution of the test patterns. We verified this model by inserting a scan chain in an 8051 microprocessor using 65 nm CMOS technology. While the test patterns generated by ATPG program are passing through the scan chain, we insert a single event transient and detect the number of soft errors per sub-module. The experiments show that the soft error rates per cell area of the SFR module is 277% larger than other modules.

Keywords: scan chain, single event transient, soft error, 8051 processor

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312 Tc-99m MIBI Scintigraphy to Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions, Detected on Planar Bone Scan

Authors: Aniqa Jabeen


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Tc-99m MIBI (Technetium 99-methoxy-iso-butyl-isonitrile) scintigraphy to differentiate malignancies from benign lesions, which were detected on planar bone scans. Materials and Methods: 59 patients with bone lesions were enrolled in the study. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the clinical, radiological and the histological findings. Each patient initially underwent a three-phase bone scan with Tc-99m MDP (Methylene Diphosphonate) and if evidence of lesion found, the patient then underwent a dynamic and static MIBI scintigraphy after three to four days. The MDP and MIBI scans were evaluated visually and quantitatively. For quantitative analysis count ratios of lesions and contralateral normal side (L/C) were taken by region of interests drawn on scans. The Student T test was applied to assess the significant difference between benign and malignant lesions p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The MDP scans showed the increase tracer uptake, but there was no significant difference between benign and malignant uptake of the radiotracer. However significant difference (p-value 0.015), in uptake was seen in malignant (L/C = 3.51 ± 1.02) and benign lesion (L/C = 2.50±0.42) on MIBI scan. Three of thirty benign lesions did not show significant MIBI uptake. Seven malignant appeared as false negatives. Specificity of the scan was 86.66%, and its Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 81.25% whereas the sensitivity of scan was 79.31%. In excluding the axial metastasis from the lesions, the sensitivity of MIBI scan increased to 91.66% and the NPV also increased to 92.85%. Conclusion: MIBI scintigraphy provides its usefulness by distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. MIBI also correctly identifies metastatic lesions. The negative predictive value of the scan points towards its ability to accurately diagnose the normal (benign) cases. However, biopsy remains the gold standard and a definitive diagnostic modality in musculoskeletal tumors. MIBI scan provides useful information in preoperative assessment and in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

Keywords: benign, malignancies, MDP bone scan, MIBI scintigraphy

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311 Radiation Dose and Associated Exposure Parameters in Selected MDCT Scanners in Multiphase Scan of Abdomen-Pelvic Region: A Clinical Study

Authors: P. Sathyathas, H. M. I. S. W. Herath, T. Amalraj, U. J. M. A. L. Jayasinghe


Over two thirds of medical radiation can now be attributed to Computed Tomography (CT). There is little information on amount of radiation received from multiphase CT scan of abdomen- pelvic region in clinical practice. We sought to estimate the radiation dose and associated exposure parameters in the multiphase abdomen - pelvic scan of Multideteror Computed Tomography (MDCT) studies in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cross sectional studies describing radiation dose associated with main exposure parameters in diagnostic multiphase abdomen - pelvic scans performed on 152 consecutive patients by two different sixteen slice CT scanners. Patient information, exposure parameters of CTDI (volume), DLP, kVp, mAs and pitch were recorded for every phases of abdomen- a pelvic study from dose report of MDCT scanners (MDCTs). Age of patients range from 14 years to 87 years in both MDCT scanners. Overall CTDI (volume) median was 63.8 (±10.4) mGy for a multiphase abdominal-pelvic scan with scanner A while it was 35.4 (±15.6) mGy for scanner B. Patients' effective dose for multiphase abdomen - pelvic CT scan range from 8.2 mSv to 58 mSv. Median effective dose for patients, who underwent multiphase abdomen- pelvis scan with scanner A and B were 38.5 (± 8.2) mSv and 21.3 (± 8.6) mSv respectively. Median value of exposure parameters of mAs, kVp and pitch, were 150 (±29.7), 130 (±15.3) and 1.3 (±0.1) respectively in scanner A. In scanner B; they were 60 (±14.5), 120 and 1. The median effective dose for patients between multiphase abdomen-pelvic scan of both MDCT, a significant different (P<0.05) was observed. Multiphase abdomen – pelvic scan of clinical study shows significant different of effective dose with reference level of phantom studies (8-14mSv) and it depends on the type of vendors.

Keywords: abdomen-pelvic region, computed tomography, exposure parameters, radiation dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
310 A Pilot Study of Influences of Scan Speed on Image Quality for Digital Tomosynthesis

Authors: Li-Ting Huang, Yu-Hsiang Shen, Cing-Ciao Ke, Sheng-Pin Tseng, Fan-Pin Tseng, Yu-Ching Ni, Chia-Yu Lin


Chest radiography is the most common technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary diseases. However, the lesions superimposed with normal structures are difficult to be detected in chest radiography. Chest tomosynthesis is a relatively new technique to obtain 3D section images from a set of low-dose projections acquired over a limited angular range. However, there are some limitations with chest tomosynthesis. Patients undergoing tomosynthesis have to be able to hold their breath firmly for 10 seconds. A digital tomosynthesis system with advanced reconstruction algorithm and high-stability motion mechanism was developed by our research group. The potential for the system to perform a bidirectional chest scan within 10 seconds is expected. The purpose of this study is to realize the influences of the scan speed on the image quality for our digital tomosynthesis system. The major factors that lead image blurring are the motion of the X-ray source and the patient. For the fore one, an experiment of imaging a chest phantom with three different scan speeds, which are 6 cm/s, 8 cm/s, and 15 cm/s, was proceeded to understand the scan speed influences on the image quality. For the rear factor, a normal SD (Sprague-Dawley) rat was imaged with it alive and sacrificed to assess the impact on the image quality due to breath motion. In both experiments, the profile of the ROIs (region of interest) and the CNRs (contrast-to-noise ratio) of the ROIs to the normal tissue of the reconstructed images was examined to realize the degradations of the qualities of the images. The preliminary results show that no obvious degradation of the image quality was observed with increasing scan speed, possibly due to the advanced designs for the hardware and software of the system. It implies that higher speed (15 cm/s) than that of the commercialized tomosynthesis system (12 cm/s) for the proposed system is achieved, and therefore a complete chest scan within 10 seconds is expected.

Keywords: chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis, image quality, scan speed

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309 Assessment of Breast, Lung and Liver Effective Doses in Heart Imaging by CT-Scan 128 Dual Sources with Use of TLD-100 in RANDO Phantom

Authors: Seyedeh Sepideh Amini, Navideh Aghaei Amirkhizi, Seyedeh Paniz Amini, Seyed Soheil Sayyahi, Mohammad Reza Davar Panah


CT-Scan is one of the lateral and sectional imaging methods that produce 3D-images with use of rotational x-ray tube around central axis. This study is about evaluation and calculation of effective doses around heart organs such as breast, lung and liver with CT-Scan 128 dual sources with TLD_100 and RANDO Phantom by spiral, flash and conventional protocols. In results, it is showed that in spiral protocol organs have maximum effective dose and minimum in flash protocol. Thus flash protocol advised for children and risk persons.

Keywords: X-ray computed tomography, dosimetry, TLD-100, RANDO, phantom

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
308 Role of DatScan in the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Shraddha Gopal, Jayam Lazarus


Aims: To study the referral practice and impact of DAT-scan in the diagnosis or exclusion of Parkinson’s disease. Settings and Designs: A retrospective study Materials and methods: A retrospective study of the results of 60 patients who were referred for a DAT scan over a period of 2 years from the Department of Neurology at Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS trust. The reason for DAT scan referral was noted under 5 categories against Parkinson’s disease; drug-induced Parkinson’s, essential tremors, diagnostic dilemma, not responding to Parkinson’s treatment, and others. We assessed the number of patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease against the number of patients in whom Parkinson’s disease was excluded or an alternative diagnosis was made. Statistical methods: Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analysis, Results: 30 of the 60 scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease, 13 were done to differentiate essential tremors from Parkinsonism, 6 were performed to exclude drug-induced Parkinsonism, 5 were done to look for alternative diagnosis as the patients were not responding to anti-Parkinson medication and 6 indications were outside the recommended guidelines. 55% of cases were confirmed with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. 43.33% had Parkinson’s disease excluded. 33 of the 60 scans showed bilateral abnormalities and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion: DAT scan provides valuable information in confirming Parkinson’s disease in 55% of patients along with excluding the diagnosis in 43.33% of patients aiding an alternative diagnosis.

Keywords: DATSCAN, Parkinson's disease, diagnosis, essential tremors

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307 Osteochondroma of Clivus: An Unusual Cause of Headache

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Rana Shoaib Hamid, Asim Qureshi


A fifty years old female presented in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of migraine type headache for the last few months. Her last episode of headache was severe, increasing in intensity, associated with nausea but no fever, lasting more than 24 hours and not resolving with analgesics. On examination there was no neurological deficit. CT scan of brain showed a large Pedunculated, non-expansible, non-aggressive bony lesion in the clivus with its sharp fragment impinging into the pons. Findings were further confirmed with MRI brain. Trans-sphenoidal excision biopsy was done and histopathology proved the lesion to be osteochondroma of clivus.

Keywords: osteochondroma, clivus, headache, CT scan

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306 Mutiple Medical Landmark Detection on X-Ray Scan Using Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Vijaya Yuvaram Singh V M, Kameshwar Rao J V


The challenge with development of neural network based methods for medical is the availability of data. Anatomical landmark detection in the medical domain is a process to find points on the x-ray scan report of the patient. Most of the time this task is done manually by trained professionals as it requires precision and domain knowledge. Traditionally object detection based methods are used for landmark detection. Here, we utilize reinforcement learning and query based method to train a single agent capable of detecting multiple landmarks. A deep Q network agent is trained to detect single and multiple landmarks present on hip and shoulder from x-ray scan of a patient. Here a single agent is trained to find multiple landmark making it superior to having individual agents per landmark. For the initial study, five images of different patients are used as the environment and tested the agents performance on two unseen images.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, medical landmark detection, multi target detection, deep neural network

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305 Electro-oxidation of Catechol in the Presence of Nicotinamide at Different pH

Authors: M. A. Motin, M. A. Aziz, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide as nucleophiles has been studied in aqueous solution with various pH values and different concentration of nicotinamide using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of catechol in buffer solution (3.00 < pH < 9.00) shows one anodic and corresponding cathodic peak which relates to the transformation of catechol to corresponding o-benzoquinone and vice versa within a quasi reversible two electron transfer process. Cyclic voltammogram of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide in buffer solution of pH 7, show one anodic peak in the first cycle of potential and on the reverse scan the corresponding cathodic peak slowly decreases and new peak is observed at less positive potential. In the second cycle of potential a new anodic peak is observed at less positive potential. This indicates that nicotinamide attached with catechol and formed adduct after first cycle of oxidation. The effect of pH of catechol in presence of nicotinamide was studied by varying pH from 3 to 11. The substitution reaction of catechol with nicotimamide is facilitated at pH 7. In buffer solution of higher pH (>9), the CV shows different pattern. The effect of concentration of nicotinamide was studied by 2mM to 100 mM. The maximum substitution reaction has been found for 50 mM of nicotinamide and of pH 7. The proportionality of the first scan anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate suggests that the peak current of the species at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process. The current functions (1/v-1/2) of the anodic peak decreased with the increasing of scan rate demonstrated that the behavior of the substitution reaction is of ECE type.

Keywords: redox interaction, catechol, nicotinamide, substituion reaction, pH effect

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304 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito


Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

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303 A Clinical Audit on Screening Women with Subfertility Using Transvaginal Scan and Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography

Authors: Aarti M. Shetty, Estela Davoodi, Subrata Gangooly, Anita Rao-Coppisetty


Background: Testing Patency of Fallopian Tubes is among one of the several protocols for investigating Subfertile Couples. Both, Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and Laparoscopy and dye test have been used as Tubal patency test for several years, with well-known limitation. Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography (HyCoSy) can be used as an alternative tool to HSG, to screen patency of Fallopian tubes, with an advantage of being non-ionising, and also, use of transvaginal scan to diagnose pelvic pathology. Aim: To determine the indication and analyse the performance of transvaginal scan and HyCoSy in Broomfield Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analysed fertility workup of 282 women, who attended HyCoSy clinic at our institution from January 2015 to June 2016. An Audit proforma was designed, to aid data collection. Data was collected from patient notes and electronic records, which included patient demographics; age, parity, type of subfertility (primary or secondary), duration of subfertility, past medical history and base line investigation (hormone profile and semen analysis). Findings of the transvaginal scan, HyCoSy and Laparoscopy were also noted. Results: The most common indication for referral were as a part of primary fertility workup on couples who had failure to conceive despite intercourse for a year, other indication for referral were recurrent miscarriage, history of ectopic pregnancy, post reversal of sterilization(vasectomy and tuboplasty), Post Gynaecology surgery(Loop excision, cone biopsy) and amenorrhea. Basic Fertility workup showed 34% men had abnormal semen analysis. HyCoSy was successfully completed in 270 (95%) women using ExEm foam and Transvaginal Scan. Of the 270 patients, 535 tubes were examined in total. 495/535 (93%) tubes were reported as patent, 40/535 (7.5%) tubes were reported as blocked. A total of 17 (6.3%) patients required laparoscopy and dye test after HyCoSy. In these 17 patients, 32 tubes were examined under laparoscopy, and 21 tubes had findings similar to HyCoSy, with a concordance rate of 65%. In addition to this, 41 patients had some form of pelvic pathology (endometrial polyp, fibroid, cervical polyp, fibroid, bicornuate uterus) detected during transvaginal scan, who referred to corrective surgeries after attending HyCoSy Clinic. Conclusion: Our audit shows that HyCoSy and Transvaginal scan can be a reliable screening test for low risk women. Furthermore, it has competitive diagnostic accuracy to HSG in identifying tubal patency, with an additional advantage of screening for pelvic pathology. With addition of 3D Scan, pulse Doppler and other non-invasive imaging modality, HyCoSy may potentially replace Laparoscopy and chromopertubation in near future.

Keywords: hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy), transvaginal scan, tubal infertility, tubal patency test

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302 Shape Management Method of Large Structure Based on Octree Space Partitioning

Authors: Gichun Cha, Changgil Lee, Seunghee Park


The objective of the study is to construct the shape management method contributing to the safety of the large structure. In Korea, the research of the shape management is lack because of the new attempted technology. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is used for measurements of large structures. TLS provides an efficient way to actively acquire accurate the point clouds of object surfaces or environments. The point clouds provide a basis for rapid modeling in the industrial automation, architecture, construction or maintenance of the civil infrastructures. TLS produce a huge amount of point clouds. Registration, Extraction and Visualization of data require the processing of a massive amount of scan data. The octree can be applied to the shape management of the large structure because the scan data is reduced in the size but, the data attributes are maintained. The octree space partitioning generates the voxel of 3D space, and the voxel is recursively subdivided into eight sub-voxels. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. The experimental site is located at Sungkyunkwan University. The scanned structure is the steel-frame bridge. The used TLS is Leica ScanStation C10/C5. The scan data was condensed 92%, and the octree model was constructed with 2 millimeter in resolution. This study presents octree space partitioning for handling the point clouds. The basis is created by shape management of the large structures such as double-deck tunnel, building and bridge. The research will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance. "This work is financially supported by 'U-City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF- 2015R1D1A1A01059291)."

Keywords: 3D scan data, octree space partitioning, shape management, structural health monitoring, terrestrial laser scanning

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301 The Change In The Temporomandibular Joint Bone In Osteoarthritis Induced Mice

Authors: Boonyalitpun P., Pruckpattranon P., Thonghom A., Rotpenpian N.


Osteoarthritis is a musculoskeletal and neuromuscular abnormality, masticatory muscle, and other tissue that causes pain and breaks down the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The aim of this study is to investigate the change in the mandibular condyle, in terms of thickness and porosity, and osteoclast marker in the mandibular condyle of TMJ induced osteoarthritis mice (TMJ-OA mice). We investigated the bony changes in the TMJ structure of a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-injected TMJ in a mice model over 28 days. On day 28, we observed any change in the TMJ by a micro computed tomography scan (micro-CT scan) in the parameters of trabecular microarchitecture. Then we studied the thickness of the condyles by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, we calculated the area around the TMJ’s condylar head containing the osteoclast expression by TRAP (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) immunohistochemistry staining. The result found that the parameter of a micro-CT scan was no different from microarchitecture in the TMJ compared with the control group; however, mandibular condyles of the TMJ-OA group was significantly thinner than the control groups, and the osteoclast expression significantly increased in the TMJ-OA group. Therefore, our findings suggest that CFA-induced TMJ-OA represents an expression of osteoclast mandibular condyle of the TMJ, which is the proposed mechanism for a TMJ-OA model.

Keywords: condyle, osteoarthritis, osteoclast, temporomandibular joint

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300 F-VarNet: Fast Variational Network for MRI Reconstruction

Authors: Omer Cahana, Maya Herman, Ofer Levi


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a long medical scan that stems from a long acquisition time. This length is mainly due to the traditional sampling theorem, which defines a lower boundary for sampling. However, it is still possible to accelerate the scan by using a different approach, such as compress sensing (CS) or parallel imaging (PI). These two complementary methods can be combined to achieve a faster scan with high-fidelity imaging. In order to achieve that, two properties have to exist: i) the signal must be sparse under a known transform domain, ii) the sampling method must be incoherent. In addition, a nonlinear reconstruction algorithm needs to be applied to recover the signal. While the rapid advance in the deep learning (DL) field, which has demonstrated tremendous successes in various computer vision task’s, the field of MRI reconstruction is still in an early stage. In this paper, we present an extension of the state-of-the-art model in MRI reconstruction -VarNet. We utilize VarNet by using dilated convolution in different scales, which extends the receptive field to capture more contextual information. Moreover, we simplified the sensitivity map estimation (SME), for it holds many unnecessary layers for this task. Those improvements have shown significant decreases in computation costs as well as higher accuracy.

Keywords: MRI, deep learning, variational network, computer vision, compress sensing

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299 Development of Configuration Software of Space Environment Simulator Control System Based on Linux

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Zhang Lei, Ning Juan


This paper presents a configuration software solution in Linux, which is used for the control of space environment simulator. After introducing the structure and basic principle, it is said that the developing of QT software frame and the dynamic data exchanging between PLC and computer. The OPC driver in Linux is also developed. This driver realizes many-to-many communication between hardware devices and SCADA software. Moreover, an algorithm named “Scan PRI” is put forward. This algorithm is much more optimizable and efficient compared with "Scan in sequence" in Windows. This software has been used in practical project. It has a good control effect and can achieve the expected goal.

Keywords: Linux OS, configuration software, OPC Server driver, MYSQL database

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298 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi


This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan

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297 Image Distortion Correction Method of 2-MHz Side Scan Sonar for Underwater Structure Inspection

Authors: Youngseok Kim, Chul Park, Jonghwa Yi, Sangsik Choi


The 2-MHz Side Scan SONAR (SSS) attached to the boat for inspection of underwater structures is affected by shaking. It is difficult to determine the exact scale of damage of structure. In this study, a motion sensor is attached to the inside of the 2-MHz SSS to get roll, pitch, and yaw direction data, and developed the image stabilization tool to correct the sonar image. We checked that reliable data can be obtained with an average error rate of 1.99% between the measured value and the actual distance through experiment. It is possible to get the accurate sonar data to inspect damage in underwater structure.

Keywords: image stabilization, motion sensor, safety inspection, sonar image, underwater structure

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296 Comparing ITV Definitions From 4D CT-PET and Breath-Hold Technique with Abdominal Compression

Authors: R. D. Esposito, P. Dorado Rodriguez, D. Planes Meseguer


In this work, we compare the contour of Internal Target Volume (ITV), for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of a patient affected by a single liver metastasis, obtained from two different patient data acquisition techniques. The first technique consists in a free breathing Computer Tomography (CT) scan acquisition, followed by exhalation breath-hold and inhalation breath-hold CT scans, all of them applying abdominal compression while the second technique consists in a free breathing 4D CT-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan. Results obtained with these two methods are consistent, which demonstrate that at least for this specific case, both techniques are adequate for ITV contouring in SBRT treatments.

Keywords: 4D CT-PET, abdominal compression, ITV, SBRT

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295 A Regression Analysis Study of the Applicability of Side Scan Sonar based Safety Inspection of Underwater Structures

Authors: Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Sangsik Choi


This study developed an electric jig for underwater structure inspection in order to solve the problem of the application of side scan sonar to underwater inspection, and analyzed correlations of empirical data in order to enhance sonar data resolution. For the application of tow-typed sonar to underwater structure inspection, an electric jig was developed. In fact, it was difficult to inspect a cross-section at the time of inspection with tow-typed equipment. With the development of the electric jig for underwater structure inspection, it was possible to shorten an inspection time over 20%, compared to conventional tow-typed side scan sonar, and to inspect a proper cross-section through accurate angle control. The indoor test conducted to enhance sonar data resolution proved that a water depth, the distance from an underwater structure, and a filming angle influenced a resolution and data quality. Based on the data accumulated through field experience, multiple regression analysis was conducted on correlations between three variables. As a result, the relational equation of sonar operation according to a water depth was drawn.

Keywords: underwater structure, SONAR, safety inspection, resolution

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294 Base Deficit Profiling in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury – Correlation with Severity and Outcomes

Authors: Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Waqas, Asher Feroz


Objectives: To determine the utility of base deficit in traumatic brain injury in assessing the severity and to correlate with the conventional computed tomography scales in grading the severity of head injury. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. All patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of the injury to the emergency department were included in the study. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale and base deficit values were taken at presentation, the patients were followed during their hospital stay and CT scan brain findings were recorded and graded as per the Rotterdam scale, the findings were cross-checked by a radiologist, Glasgow Outcome Scale was taken on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distributions are reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Relationship of the base deficit with GCS, GOS, CT scan brain and length of stay was calculated using Spearman`s correlation. Results: 154 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients were 30 years and 137 were males. The severity of brain injuries as per the GCS was 34 moderate and 109 severe respectively. 34 percent of the total has an unfavorable outcome with a mean of 18±14. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level with GCS on presentation and the base deficit 0.004. The correlation was not significant between the Rotterdam CT scan brain findings, length of stay and the base deficit. Conclusion: The base deficit was found to be a good predictor of severity of brain injury. There was no association of the severity of injuries on the CT scan brain as per the Rotterdam scale and the base deficit. Further studies with large sample size are needed to further evaluate the associations.

Keywords: base deficit, traumatic brain injury, Rotterdam, GCS

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293 Task Based Functional Connectivity within Reward Network in Food Image Viewing Paradigm Using Functional MRI

Authors: Preetham Shankapal, Jill King, Kori Murray, Corby Martin, Paula Giselman, Jason Hicks, Owen Carmicheal


Activation of reward and satiety networks in the brain while processing palatable food cues, as well as functional connectivity during rest has been studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain in various obesity phenotypes. However, functional connectivity within the reward and satiety network during food cue processing is understudied. 14 obese individuals underwent two fMRI scans during viewing of Macronutrient Picture System images. Each scan included two blocks of images of High Sugar/High Fat (HSHF), High Carbohydrate/High Fat (HCHF), Low Sugar/Low Fat (LSLF) and also non-food images. Seed voxels within seven food reward relevant ROIs: Insula, putamen and cingulate, precentral, parahippocampal, medial frontal and superior temporal gyri were isolated based on a prior meta-analysis. Beta series correlation for task-related functional connectivity between these seed voxels and the rest of the brain was computed. Voxel-level differences in functional connectivity were calculated between: first and the second scan; individuals who saw novel (N=7) vs. Repeated (N=7) images in the second scan; and between the HC/HF, HSHF blocks vs LSLF and non-food blocks. Computations and analysis showed that during food image viewing, reward network ROIs showed significant functional connectivity with each other and with other regions responsible for attentional and motor control, including inferior parietal lobe and precentral gyrus. These functional connectivity values were heightened among individuals who viewed novel HS/HF images in the second scan. In the second scan session, functional connectivity was reduced within the reward network but increased within attention, memory and recognition regions, suggesting habituation to reward properties and increased recollection of previously viewed images. In conclusion it can be inferred that Functional Connectivity within reward network and between reward and other brain regions, varies by important experimental conditions during food photography viewing, including habituation to shown foods.

Keywords: fMRI, functional connectivity, task-based, beta series correlation

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292 Emergency Physician Performance for Hydronephrosis Diagnosis and Grading Compared with Radiologist Assessment in Renal Colic: The EPHyDRA Study

Authors: Sameer A. Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Salman Mirza, Umais Momin, Zahoor Ahmed, Lubna G. Andraous, Dharmesh Shukla, Mohammed Y. Shariff, Magid M. Makki, Tinsy T. George, Saad S. Khan, Stephen H. Thomas, Peter A. Cameron


Study objective: Emergency physician’s (EP) ability to identify hydronephrosis on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been assessed in the past using CT scan as the reference standard. We aimed to assess EP interpretation of POCUS to identify and grade the hydronephrosis in a direct comparison with the consensus-interpretation of POCUS by radiologists, and also to compare the EP and radiologist performance using CT scan as the criterion standard. Methods: Using data from a POCUS databank, a prospective interpretation study was conducted at an urban academic emergency department. All POCUS exams were performed on patients presenting with renal colic to the ED. Institutional approval was obtained for conducting this study. All the analyses were performed using Stata MP 14.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, Texas). Results: A total of 651 patients were included, with paired sets of renal POCUS video clips and the CT scan performed at the same ED visit. Hydronephrosis was reported in 69.6% of POCUS exams by radiologists and 72.7% of CT scans (p=0.22). The κ for consensus interpretation of POCUS between the radiologists to detect hydronephrosis was 0.77 (0.72 to 0.82) and weighted κ for grading the hydronephrosis was 0.82 (0.72 to 0.90), interpreted as good to very good. Using CT scan findings as the criterion standard, Eps had an overall sensitivity of 81.1% (95% CI: 79.6% to 82.5%), specificity of 59.4% (95% CI: 56.4% to 62.5%), PPV of 84.3% (95% CI: 82.9% to 85.7%), and NPV of 53.8% (95% CI: 50.8% to 56.7%); compared to radiologist sensitivity of 85.0% (95% CI: 82.5% to 87.2%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.1% to 83.7%), PPV of 91.8% (95% CI: 89.8% to 93.5%), and NPV of 66.5% (95% CI: 61.8% to 71.0%). Testing for a report of moderate or high degree of hydronephrosis, specificity of EP was 94.6% (95% CI: 93.7% to 95.4%) and to 99.2% (95% CI: 98.9% to 99.5%) for identifying severe hydronephrosis alone. Conclusion: EP POCUS interpretations were comparable to the radiologists for identifying moderate to severe hydronephrosis using CT scan results as the criterion standard. Among patients with moderate or high pre-test probability of ureteric calculi, as calculated by the STONE-score, the presence of moderate to severe (+LR 6.3 and –LR 0.69) or severe hydronephrosis (+LR 54.4 and –LR 0.57) was highly diagnostic of the stone disease. Low dose CT is indicated in such patients for evaluation of stone size and location.

Keywords: renal colic, point-of-care, ultrasound, bedside, emergency physician

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291 Augmented Reality Software for Improving Microvascular Breast Reconstructive Surgery

Authors: Kyla A. Gabriel, Alan C. Jesky, Luke A. Arntz, Angela M. Totoro, Andy Tang


About 1 in 8 American women will develop breast cancer and may undergo breast reconstruction surgery after the surgical removal of their breasts. In the microvascular reconstructive procedure, surgeons must find a specific blood vessel, the deep inferior epigastric artery, using a computed tomography (CT) scan. The problem with only using a CT scan for this procedure is that the surgeon is unable to see the vessel in a three-dimensional (3D) space. Furthermore, mapping this blood vessel during surgical procedures increases the intraoperative time. The main objective is to use augmented reality (AR) software to map the blood vessel’s location on the patient in real space. This gives the surgeon an accurate idea of where the artery is specifically in the patient and may improve the surgical precision. The methodology includes creating software in MATLAB that can convert CT scan data into 3D rendered images. These images are then projected into real space using the Microsoft HoloLens 2 AR headset. The 3D image will only map the desired blood vessels using image processing in the software, which includes binarizing, structuring, and eroding certain parts of the images. Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) laminated sheets covering three unique SQRC codes are used to help the headset place the 3D projection correctly onto the patient. This paper presents a method to improve surgical accuracy in microvascular breast reconstructive surgery through AR, which may produce a significant impact on healthcare by reducing surgical time and increasing surgical precision.

Keywords: augmented reality, biomedical imaging, surgery, software

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290 An Extremely Rare Anatomical Vascular Variant of Lower Limb Arterial System - Duplication of Superficial Femoral Artery

Authors: Manik Sharma


Understanding the anatomy and normal anatomical variations of the lower limb arterial system is undeniably important not only to understand the pathology involving the vessels of the lower limb but also as a part of endovascular intervention and surgical planning in cases that demand them as a part of treatment. There have been very few cases of duplication of SFA cited in the literature, close to six worldwide and this being the seventh case in the world and first to be reported in the Indian population. We incidentally came across this normal variant during US lower limb (US-LL) duplex scan in a patient with claudicating pain in bilateral lower limbs hence suspected of having peripheral vascular disease. It was confirmed on CT-Peripheral Angiography (CT-PA), which was done successively.

Keywords: peripheral vascular disease, claudicating pain, normal anatomical variants, endovascular intervention, duplication, CT-peripheral angiography, duplex scan, Iohexol

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289 Age Estimation and Sex Determination by CT-Scan Analysis of the Hyoid Bone: Application on a Tunisian Population

Authors: N. Haj Salem, M. Belhadj, S. Ben Jomâa, R. Dhouieb, S. Saadi, M. A. Mesrati, A. Chadly


Introduction: The hyoid bone is considered as one of many bones used to identify a missed person. There is a specificity of each population group in human identifications. Objective: To analyze the relationship between age, sex and metric parameters of hyoid bone in Tunisian population sample, using CT-scan. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine of FattoumaBourguiba Hospital of Monastir-Tunisia during 4 years. A total of 240 samples of hyoid bone were studied. The age of cases ranged from 18 days to 81 years. The specimens were collected only from the deceased of known age. Once dried, each hyoid bone was scanned using CT scan. For each specimen, 10 measurements were taken using a computer program. The measurements consisted of 6 lengths and 4 widths. A regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between age, sex, and different measurements. For age estimation, a multiple logistic regression was carried out for samples ≤ 35 years. For sex determination, ROC curve was performed. Discriminant value finally retained was based on the best specificity with the best sensitivity. Results: The correlation between real age and estimated age was good (r²=0.72) for samples aged 35 years or less. The unstandardised canonical function equation was estimated using three variables: maximum length of the right greater cornua, length from the middle of the left joint space to the middle of the right joint space and perpendicular length from the centre point of a line between the distal ends of the right and left greater cornua to the centre point of the anterior view of the body of the hyoid bone. For sex determination, the ROC curve analysis reveals that the area under curve was at 81.8%. Discriminant value was 0.451 with a specificity of 73% and sensibility of 79%. The equation function was estimated based on two variables: maximum length of the greater cornua and maximum length of the hyoid bone. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that metric analysis of the hyoid bone may predict the age ≤ 35 years. Sex estimation seems to be more reliable. Further studies dealing with the fusion of the hyoid bone and the current study could help to achieve more accurate age estimation rates.

Keywords: anthropology, age estimation, CT scan, sex determination, Tunisia

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288 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Motin, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

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287 Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion on a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Jitendra Pratap, Daphne Prybyszcuk, Luke Elliott, Arnold Ng


Introduction: Coronary CT angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of coronary artery disease and has high sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, the correlation between the degree of CT coronary stenosis and the significance of hemodynamic obstruction is poor. The assessment of myocardial perfusion has mostly been undertaken by Nuclear Medicine (SPECT), but it is now possible to perform stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) scans quickly and effectively using CT scanners with high temporal resolution. Myocardial CTP is in many ways similar to neuro perfusion imaging technique, where radiopaque iodinated contrast is injected intravenously, transits the pulmonary and cardiac structures, and then perfuses through the coronary arteries into the myocardium. On the Siemens Force CT scanner, a myocardial perfusion scan is performed using a dynamic axial acquisition, where the scanner shuffles in and out every 1-3 seconds (heart rate dependent) to be able to cover the heart in the z plane. This is usually performed over 38 seconds. Report: A CT myocardial perfusion scan can be utilised to complement the findings of a CT Coronary Angiogram. Implementing a CT Myocardial Perfusion study as part of a routine CT Coronary Angiogram procedure provides a ‘One Stop Shop’ for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. This case study demonstrates that although the CT Coronary Angiogram was within normal limits, the perfusion scan provided additional, clinically significant information in regards to the haemodynamics within the myocardium of a patient with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardio Myopathy (HOCM). This negated the need for further diagnostics studies such as cardiac ECHO or Nuclear Medicine Stress tests. Conclusion: CT coronary angiography with adenosine stress myocardial CTP was utilised in this case to specifically exclude coronary artery disease in conjunction with accessing perfusion within the hypertrophic myocardium. Adenosine stress myocardial CTP demonstrated the reduced myocardial blood flow within the hypertrophic myocardium, but the coronary arteries did not show any obstructive disease. A CT coronary angiogram scan protocol that incorporates myocardial perfusion can provide diagnostic information on the haemodynamic significance of any coronary artery stenosis and has the potential to be a “One Stop Shop” for cardiac imaging.

Keywords: CT, cardiac, myocardium, perfusion

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286 Clinical Value of 18F-FDG-PET Compared with CT Scan in the Detection of Nodal and Distant Metastasis in Urothelial Carcinoma or Bladder Cancer

Authors: Mohammed Al-Zubaidi, Katherine Ong, Pravin Viswambaram, Steve McCombie, Oliver Oey, Jeremy Ong, Richard Gauci, Ronny Low, Dickon Hayne


Objective: Lymph node involvement along with distant metastasis in a patient with invasive bladder cancer determines the disease survival, therefeor, it is an essential determinant of the therapeutic management and outcome. This retrospective study aims to determine the accuracy of FDG PET scan in detecting lymphatic involvement and distant metastatic urothelial cancer compared to conventional CT staging. Method: A retrospective review of 76 patients with UC or BC who underwent surgery or confirmatory biopsy that was staged with both CT and 18F-FDG-PET (up to 8 weeks apart) between 2015 and 2020. Fifty-sevenpatients (75%) had formal pelvic LN dissection or biopsy of suspicious metastasis. 18F-FDG-PET reports for positive sites were qualitative depending on SUV Max. On the other hand, enlarged LN by RECIST criteria 1.1 (>10 mm) and other qualitative findings suggesting metastasis were considered positive in CT scan. Histopathological findings from surgical specimens or image-guided biopsies were considered the gold standard in comparison to imaging reports. 18F-FDG-avid or enlarged pelvic LNs with surgically proven nodal metastasis were considered true positives. Performance characteristics of 18F-FDG-PET and CT, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (PPV), were calculated. Results: Pelvic LN involvement was confirmed histologically in 10/57 (17.5%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CT for detecting pelvic LN metastases were 41.17% (95% CI:18-67%), 100% (95% CI:90-100%) 100% (95% CI:59-100%) and 78.26% (95% CI:64-89%) respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 18F-FDG-PET for detecting pelvic LN metastases were 62.5% (95% CI:35-85%), 83.78% (95% CI:68-94%), 62.5% (95% CI:35-85%), and 83.78% (95% CI:68-94%) respectively. Pre-operative staging with 18F-FDG-PET identified the distant metastatic disease in 9/76 (11.8%) patients who were occult on CT. This retrospective study suggested that 18F-FDG-PET may be more sensitive than CT for detecting pelvic LN metastases. 7/76 (9.2%) patients avoided cystectomy due to 18F-FDG-PET diagnosed metastases that were not reported on CT. Conclusion: 18F-FDG-PET is more sensitive than CT for pelvic LN metastases, which can be used as the standard modality of bladder cancer staging, as it may change the treatment by detecting lymph node metastasis that was occult in CT. Further research involving randomised controlled trials comparing the diagnostic yield of 18F-FDG-PET and CT in detecting nodal and distant metastasis in UC or BC is warranted to confirm our findings.

Keywords: FDG PET, CT scan, urothelial cancer, bladder cancer

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