Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: transvaginal

9 Comparison of Cervical Length Using Transvaginal Ultrasonography and Bishop Score to Predict Succesful Induction

Authors: Lubena Achmad, Herman Kristanto, Julian Dewantiningrum

Abstract:

Background: The Bishop score is a standard method used to predict the success of induction. This examination tends to be subjective with high inter and intraobserver variability, so it was presumed to have a low predictive value in terms of the outcome of labor induction. Cervical length measurement using transvaginal ultrasound is considered to be more objective to assess the cervical length. Meanwhile, this examination is not a complicated procedure and less invasive than vaginal touché. Objective: To compare transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score in predicting successful induction. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty women with singleton pregnancies undergoing induction of labor at 37 – 42 weeks and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Cervical assessment by both transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score were conducted prior induction. The success of labor induction was defined as an ability to achieve active phase ≤ 12 hours after induction. To figure out the best cut-off point of cervical length and Bishop score, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors best-predicted induction success. Results: This study showed significant differences in terms of age, premature rupture of the membrane, the Bishop score, cervical length and funneling as significant predictors of successful induction. Using ROC curves found that the best cut-off point for prediction of successful induction was 25.45 mm for cervical length and 3 for Bishop score. Logistic regression was performed and showed only premature rupture of membranes and cervical length ≤ 25.45 that significantly predicted the success of labor induction. By excluding premature rupture of the membrane as the indication of induction, cervical length less than 25.3 mm was a better predictor of successful induction. Conclusion: Compared to Bishop score, cervical length using transvaginal ultrasound was a better predictor of successful induction.

Keywords: Bishop Score, cervical length, induction, successful induction, transvaginal sonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
8 Pathology of Explanted Transvaginal Meshes

Authors: Vladimir V. Iakovlev, Erin T. Carey, John Steege

Abstract:

The use of polypropylene mesh devices for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) spread rapidly during the last decade, yet our knowledge of the mesh-tissue interaction is far from complete. We aimed to perform a thorough pathological examination of explanted POP meshes and describe findings that may explain mechanisms of complications resulting in product excision. We report a spectrum of important findings, including nerve ingrowth, mesh deformation, involvement of detrusor muscle with neural ganglia, and polypropylene degradation. Analysis of these findings may improve and guide future treatment strategies.

Keywords: transvaginal, mesh, nerves, polypropylene degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
7 A Clinical Audit on Screening Women with Subfertility Using Transvaginal Scan and Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography

Authors: Aarti M. Shetty, Estela Davoodi, Subrata Gangooly, Anita Rao-Coppisetty

Abstract:

Background: Testing Patency of Fallopian Tubes is among one of the several protocols for investigating Subfertile Couples. Both, Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and Laparoscopy and dye test have been used as Tubal patency test for several years, with well-known limitation. Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography (HyCoSy) can be used as an alternative tool to HSG, to screen patency of Fallopian tubes, with an advantage of being non-ionising, and also, use of transvaginal scan to diagnose pelvic pathology. Aim: To determine the indication and analyse the performance of transvaginal scan and HyCoSy in Broomfield Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analysed fertility workup of 282 women, who attended HyCoSy clinic at our institution from January 2015 to June 2016. An Audit proforma was designed, to aid data collection. Data was collected from patient notes and electronic records, which included patient demographics; age, parity, type of subfertility (primary or secondary), duration of subfertility, past medical history and base line investigation (hormone profile and semen analysis). Findings of the transvaginal scan, HyCoSy and Laparoscopy were also noted. Results: The most common indication for referral were as a part of primary fertility workup on couples who had failure to conceive despite intercourse for a year, other indication for referral were recurrent miscarriage, history of ectopic pregnancy, post reversal of sterilization(vasectomy and tuboplasty), Post Gynaecology surgery(Loop excision, cone biopsy) and amenorrhea. Basic Fertility workup showed 34% men had abnormal semen analysis. HyCoSy was successfully completed in 270 (95%) women using ExEm foam and Transvaginal Scan. Of the 270 patients, 535 tubes were examined in total. 495/535 (93%) tubes were reported as patent, 40/535 (7.5%) tubes were reported as blocked. A total of 17 (6.3%) patients required laparoscopy and dye test after HyCoSy. In these 17 patients, 32 tubes were examined under laparoscopy, and 21 tubes had findings similar to HyCoSy, with a concordance rate of 65%. In addition to this, 41 patients had some form of pelvic pathology (endometrial polyp, fibroid, cervical polyp, fibroid, bicornuate uterus) detected during transvaginal scan, who referred to corrective surgeries after attending HyCoSy Clinic. Conclusion: Our audit shows that HyCoSy and Transvaginal scan can be a reliable screening test for low risk women. Furthermore, it has competitive diagnostic accuracy to HSG in identifying tubal patency, with an additional advantage of screening for pelvic pathology. With addition of 3D Scan, pulse Doppler and other non-invasive imaging modality, HyCoSy may potentially replace Laparoscopy and chromopertubation in near future.

Keywords: hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy), transvaginal scan, tubal infertility, tubal patency test

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
6 Endometrial Thickness Cut-Off for Evacuation of Retained Product of Conception

Authors: Nambiar Ritu, Ali Ban, Munawar Farida, Israell Imelda, T. Farouk Eman Rasheeda, Jangalgi Renuka, S. Boma Nellie

Abstract:

Aim: To define the ultrasonographic endometrial thickness (USG ET) cutoff for evacuation of retained pieces of conception (ERPC). Background: Studies of conservative management of 1st trimester miscarriage have questioned the need for post miscarriage curettage. Therapeutic decision making with transvaginal scan post miscarriage endometrial thickness in patients clinically thought to be incomplete miscarriage is often not clear. Method: Retrospective analysis of all 1ST trimester ERPC at Al Rahba Hospital from June 2012 to July 2013 was done. Total of 164 patients underwent ERPC. All cases were reviewed for pre-operative USG ET and post ERPC histopathological examination. TVS was done to evaluate the maximum ET of the uterine cavity along the long axis of the uterus and features of retained products was noted. All cases without preoperative USG ET measurement were excluded from the study, therefore only 62 out of 164 cases were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: o Group A: have retained products within endometrial cavity. o Group B: endometrial thickness equal or more than 20 mm. o Group C: endometrial thickness equal or less than 19.9 mm. o Post ERPC product was sent for HPE and the results were compared. Transvaginal sonographic findings can be used as a deciding factor in the management of patients with 1st trimester miscarriage who need ERPC. Our proposed cutoff in clinically stable patients requiring ERPC is more than 20 mm.

Keywords: ERPC, histopathological examination, long axis of the uterus, USG ET

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5 Effect of Vitrification on Embryos Euploidy Obtained from Thawed Oocytes

Authors: Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Julia Gontar, Sergey Lavrynenko, Olga Parnitskaya, Ekaterina Ilyina, Eduard Kapustin, Yana Lakhno

Abstract:

Introduction: It is known that cryopreservation of oocytes has peculiar features due to the complex structure of the oocyte. One of the most important features is that mature oocytes contain meiotic division spindle which is very sensitive even to the slightest variation in temperature. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyse the resulting euploid embryos obtained from thawed oocytes in comparison with the data of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in fresh embryo cycles. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at 'Medical Centre IGR' from January to July 2016. Data were analysed for 908 donor oocytes obtained in 67 cycles of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), of which 693 oocytes were used in the 51 'fresh' cycles (group A), and 215 oocytes - 16 ART programs with vitrification female gametes (group B). The average age of donors in the groups match 27.3±2.9 and 27.8±6.6 years. Stimulation of superovulation was conducted the standard way. Vitrification was performed in 1-2 hours after transvaginal puncture and thawing of oocytes were carried out in accordance with the standard protocol of Cryotech (Japan). Manipulation ICSI was performed 4-5 hours after transvaginal follicle puncture for fresh oocytes, or after defrosting - for vitrified female gametes. For the PGS, an embryonic biopsy was done on the third or on the fifth day after fertilization. Diagnostic procedures were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with the study of such chromosomes as 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. Only morphologically quality blastocysts were used for the transfer, the estimation of which corresponded to the Gardner criteria. The statistical hypotheses were done using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: The mean number of mature oocytes per cycle in group A was 13.58±6.65 and in group B - 13.44±6.68 oocytes for patient. The survival of oocytes after thawing totaled 95.3% (n=205), which indicates a highly effective quality of performed vitrification. The proportion of zygotes in the group A corresponded to 91.1%(n=631), in the group B – 80.5%(n=165), which shows statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) and explained by non-viable oocytes elimination after vitrification. This is confirmed by the fact that on the fifth day of embryos development a statistically significant difference in the number of blastocysts was absent (p>0.05), and constituted respectively 61.6%(n=389) and 63.0%(n=104) in the groups. For the PGS performing 250 embryos analyzed in the group A and 72 embryos - in the group B. The results showed that euploidy in the studied chromosomes were 40.0%(n=100) embryos in the group A and 41.7% (n=30) - in the group B, which shows no statistical significant difference (p>0.05). The indicators of clinical pregnancies in the groups amounted to 64.7% (22 pregnancies per 34 embryo transfers) and 61.5% (8 pregnancies per 13 embryo transfers) respectively, and also had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that the vitrification does not affect the resulting euploid embryos in assisted reproductive technologies and are not reflected in their morphological characteristics in ART programs.

Keywords: euploid embryos, preimplantation genetic screening, thawing oocytes, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4 Clinical and Radiological Features of Adenomyosis and Its Histopathological Correlation

Authors: Surabhi Agrawal Kohli, Sunita Gupta, Esha Khanuja, Parul Garg, P. Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological condition that affects the menstruating women. Uterine enlargement, dysmenorrhoea, and menorrhagia are regarded as the cardinal clinical symptoms of adenomyosis. Classically it was thought, compared with ultrasonography, when adenomyosis is suspected, MRI enables more accurate diagnosis of the disease. Materials and Methods: 172 subjects were enrolled after an informed consent that had complaints of HMB, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and chronic pelvic pain. Detailed history of the enrolled subjects was taken, followed by a clinical examination. These patients were then subjected to TVS where myometrial echo texture, presence of myometrial cysts, blurring of endomyometrial junction was noted. MRI was followed which noted the presence of junctional zone thickness and myometrial cysts. After hysterectomy, histopathological diagnosis was obtained. Results: 78 participants were analysed. The mean age was 44.2 years. 43.5% had parity of 4 or more. heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was present in 97.8% and dysmenorrhea in 93.48 % of HPE positive patient. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and MRI had a sensitivity of 89.13% and 80.43%, specificity of 90.62% and 84.37%, positive likelihood ratio of 9.51 and 5.15, negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 and 0.23, positive predictive value of 93.18% and 88.1%, negative predictive value of 85.29% and 75% and a diagnostic accuracy of 89.74% and 82.5%. Comparison of sensitivity (p=0.289) and specificity (p=0.625) showed no statistically significant difference between TVS and MRI. Conclusion: Prevalence of 30.23%. HMB with dysmenorrhoea and chronic pelvic pain helps in diagnosis. TVS (Endomyometrial junction blurring) is both sensitive and specific in diagnosing adenomyosis without need for additional diagnostic tool. Both TVS and MRI are equally efficient, however because of certain additional advantages of TVS over MRI, it may be used as the first choice of imaging. MRI may be used additionally in difficult cases as well as in patients with existing co-pathologies.

Keywords: adenomyosis, heavy menstrual bleeding, MRI, TVS

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3 Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) Suppositories Are Promising Approach for Treatment of Unexplained Infertility

Authors: Shahinaz El-Shourbagy El-Shourbagy, Ahmed M. E Ossman Ossman, Ashraf El-Mohamady El-Mohamady

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate if there is a role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of infertile couples for idiopathic cause. Design: An observational study. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic of Tanta University Hospital Egypt. Patient(s): 50 unexplained infertility women {endometrial thickness (EM) and the mean resistance index (RI)} compared to 50 fertile control group attended for check-up in the same period and receiving no treatment. Intervention(s): unexplained infertility women were given 25 mg of sildenafil citrate suppositories four times per day for seven days starting from the 5th day of the menstrual cycle for three cycles. Main Outcome Measures: EM and RI of endometrial spiral artery were assessed by transvaginal color-pulsed Doppler ultrasound in unexplained infertility women before and after sildenafil citrate treatment and compared with control. The conception rate and pregnancy outcome were recorded in the two groups. Result(s): Women with unexplained infertility had significantly thinner endometrium and a higher spiral artery resistance index, meaning lower peri-implantation blood flow than the fertile controls. Sildenafil citrate treated women showed a statistically significant increase in endometrial thickness (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in the mean spiral artery resistance index (p < 0.001) giving a better conception rate. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate suppositories treatment enhance the endometrial blood flow through decreasing spiral artery resistance index 'RI' and consequently improve endometrial growth and receptivity in cases of unexplained infertility thus giving a better conception rate.

Keywords: Unexplained infertility, endometrial blood flow, endome¬trial receptivity, color-pulsed Doppler ultrasound; RI (resis¬tance index, Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
2 Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Case Report

Authors: Mary Abigail T. Ty, Mary Jocelyn Yu-Laygo, Jocelyn Z. Mariano

Abstract:

This is a case of L.S.T., a 61 year old, G6P4 (3124) who presented with a one month history of intermittent, brownish, watery, non foul smelling vaginal discharge. There were no other accompanying symptoms. On rectovaginal examination, a palpable adnexal mass on the left was appreciated, with the lower border measuring 3 cm. The mass was non-tender, had irregular borders and solid areas. On transvaginal sonography, it revealed a left pelvic mass measuring 3 x 4 x 2 cm, with a Sassone score of 9. It had vascularization. The primary consideration was Ovarian Newgrowth, probably malignant in nature. CA-125 results were slightly elevated at 43.2 u/ml (NV: 0-35 u/ml). After intraoperative evaluation, the left fallopian tube was converted into a 9 x 4.5 x 3 cm bulbous cystic mass with solid areas. On cut section, the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube contained necrotic and friable looking tissues. Specimen was sent for frozen section and results revealed adenocarcinoma of the left fallopian tube. Patient subsequently underwent complete surgical staging with unremarkable post-operative course. The Surg Ico pathologic diagnosis was G6P4 (3124) Fallopian tube serous cystadenocarcinoma stage 1. The mean incidence of PFTC is 3.6 per million women yearly. This is associated with a generally low survival rate. The primary diagnosis is very difficult to establish because only 0–10% of patients suffering from PFTC are diagnosed pre-operatively. Symptoms play a very important role in the discovery of this disease, because there will be no presentation to the hospital without symptoms. The most common of which may be vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, a palpable mass and ascites. A conglomerate of manifestations may be encountered, but not at all times. This is termed hydrops tubae profluens where there is presence of colicky pain with relief from intermittent passage of serosanguinous vaginal discharge. The significance of this report is to emphasize the rarity of the case and how the dilemma in the diagnosis is almost always present despite ancillary procedures.

Keywords: fallopian tube carcinoma, prognosis, rare, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1 Blood Thicker Than Water: A Case Report on Familial Ovarian Cancer

Authors: Joanna Marie A. Paulino-Morente, Vaneza Valentina L. Penolio, Grace Sabado

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is extremely hard to diagnose in its early stages, and those afflicted at the time of diagnosis are typically asymptomatic and in the late stages of the disease, with metastasis to other organs. Ovarian cancers often occur sporadically, with only 5% associated with hereditary mutations. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes have been found to be responsible for the majority of hereditary ovarian cancers. One type of ovarian tumor is Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor (MMMT), which is a very rare and aggressive type, accounting for only 1% of all ovarian cancers. Reported is a case of a 43-year-old G3P3 (3003), who came into our institution due to a 2-month history of difficulty of breathing. Family history reveals that her eldest and younger sisters both died of ovarian malignancy, with her younger sister having a histopathology report of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma, left ovary stage IIIb. She still has 2 asymptomatic sisters. Physical examination pointed to pleural effusion of right lung, and presence of bilateral ovarian new growth, which had a Sassone score of 13. Admitting Diagnosis was G3P3 (3003), Ovarian New Growth, bilateral, Malignant; Pleural effusion secondary to malignancy. BRCA was requested to establish a hereditary mutation; however, the patient had no funds. Once the patient was stabilized, TAHBSO with surgical staging was performed. Intraoperatively, the pelvic cavity was occupied by firm, irregularly shaped ovaries, with a colorectal metastasis. Microscopic sections from both ovaries and the colorectal metastasis had pleomorphic tumor cells lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium exhibiting glandular complexity, displaying nuclear atypia and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, which are infiltrating the stroma, consistent with the features of Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor, since MMMT is composed histologically of malignant epithelial and sarcomatous elements. In conclusion, discussed is the clinic-pathological feature of a patient with primary ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor, a rare malignancy comprising only 1% of all ovarian neoplasms. Also, by understanding the hereditary ovarian cancer syndromes and its relation to this patient, it cannot be overemphasized that a comprehensive family history is really fundamental for early diagnosis. The familial association of the disease, given that the patient has two sisters who were diagnosed with an advanced stage of ovarian cancer and succumbed to the disease at a much earlier age than what is reported in the general population, points to a possible hereditary syndrome which occurs in only 5% of ovarian neoplasms. In a low-resource setting, being in a third world country, the following will be recommended for monitoring and/or screening women who are at high risk for developing ovarian cancer, such as the remaining sisters of the patient: 1) Physical examination focusing on the breast, abdomen, and rectal area every 6 months. 2) Transvaginal sonography every 6 months. 3) Mammography annually. 4) CA125 for postmenopausal women. 5) Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 will be reserved for those who are financially capable.

Keywords: BRCA, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome, malignant mixed mullerian tumor, ovarian cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 217