Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 211

Search results for: pathology

211 Forensic Imaging as an Effective Learning Tool for Teaching Forensic Pathology to Undergraduate Medical Students

Authors: Vasudeva Murthy Challakere Ramaswamy


Background: Conventionally forensic pathology is learnt through autopsy demonstrations which carry various limitations such as unavailability of cases in the mortuary, medico-legal implication and infection. Over the years forensic pathology and science has undergone significant evolution in this digital world. Forensic imaging is a technology which can be effectively utilized for overcoming the current limitations in the undergraduate learning of forensic curriculum. Materials and methods: demonstration of forensic imaging was done using a novel technology of autopsy which has been recently introduced across the globe. Three sessions were conducted in international medical university for a total of 196 medical students. The innovative educational tool was evacuated by using quantitative questionnaire with the scoring scales between 1 to 10. Results: The mean score for acceptance of new tool was 82% and about 74% of the students recommended incorporation of the forensic imaging in the regular curriculum. 82% of students were keen on collaborative research and taking further training courses in forensic imaging. Conclusion: forensic imaging can be an effective tool and also a suitable alternative for teaching undergraduate students. This feedback also supports the fact that students favour the use of contemporary technologies in learning medicine.

Keywords: forensic imaging, forensic pathology, medical students, learning tool

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210 Muscle Relaxant Dantrolene Repurposed to Treat Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei


Failures of developing new drugs primarily based on the amyloid pathology hypothesis after decades of efforts internationally lead to changes of focus targeting alternative pathways of pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, especially the pathological and excessive Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels, has been considered an upstream pathology resulting in major AD pathologies, such as amyloid and Tau pathology, mitochondria damage and inflammation, etc. Therefore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of RyRs that reduces the pathological Ca2+ release from ER and a clinically available drug for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia and muscle spasm, is expected to ameliorate AD multiple pathologies synapse and cognitive dysfunction. Our own studies indicated that dantrolene ameliorated impairment of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in neurons developed from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) originated from skin fibroblasts of either familiar (FAD) or sporadic (SAD) AD by restoring intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and, therefore its brain concentrations and durations. This can render dantrolene a more effective therapeutic drug with fewer side effects for chronic AD treatment. This review summarizes the potential therapeutic and side effects of dantrolene and repurposes intranasal dantrolene as a disease-modifying drug for future AD treatment.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, calcium, drug development, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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209 Anatomical and Pathological Evaluation of Anomaly Cases Presented to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, between 2017 and 2019

Authors: Gülseren Kırbaş Doğan, Emin Karakurt, Mushap Kuru, Hilmi Nuhoğlu


Developmental anomalies can be caused by defects in bone tissue, cartilage tissue, or primitive mesenchymal tissue. Genetic-, environmental-, teratogenic-, faulty breeding selection–, or feeding-related anomalies can be observed either locally or systemically. This study aimed to evaluate in detail the various anomalies in six calves according to pathological and anatomical investigations. Six calves were delivered to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 2017 and 2019. These calves comprised one with anencephaly, one with the diencephalic syndrome, one with Schistosoma reflexum, two with anasarca, and one with nasal and calvarium openings. After necropsy, samples were taken from the organs, foreseen, and routine pathological examinations were performed. Following these procedures, the calves were brought to the anatomy laboratory and anatomically examined. As a result, various anomalies in 6 calves were evaluated according to pathological and anatomical investigations. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, calf, pathology

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208 Human Intelligence: A Corollary of Genotype and Habitat

Authors: Tripureshwari Paul


We are born with nature molded by nurture. Studies have confirmed the productive role of genes and environment on an individual. This study examines the relationship of parental genotype values on the intellectual ability of their children. Keeping in mind that academic achievement-learning capacity of student through normative education, a function of exposure to family environment and pathology with intellectual quotient of the individual. Purposive sampling was used and children between ages 11 and 12 years and their respective parents were involved. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM), Family Pathology Scale (FPS) and Family Environment Scale (FES) were administered. The results found significant relationship of Offspring IQ to Parental IQ, maternal IQ demonstrating higher values of correlation. Female IQ was significant to maternal IQ and male IQ was significant to paternal IQ. With Academic Achievement not significantly correlated to IQ, it was determined that Competitive framework, freedom to expression and Recreational Orientation in family affect a child’s intellectual performance.

Keywords: academic achievement, environment, family environment, family pathology, genotype, intelligence quotient, maternal IQ, paternal IQ

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207 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed


The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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206 Development of an Interactive and Robust Image Analysis and Diagnostic Tool in R for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Kumar Dron Shrivastav, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Arti Taneja, Harpreet Singh, Priya Ranjan, Rajiv Janardhanan


Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide which can be cured if detected early. Manual pathology which is typically utilized at present has many limitations. The current gold standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is exhaustive and time-consuming because it relies heavily on the subjective knowledge of the oncopathologists which leads to mis-diagnosis and missed diagnosis resulting false negative and false positive. To reduce time and complexities associated with early diagnosis, we require an interactive diagnostic tool for early detection particularly in developing countries where cervical cancer incidence and related mortality is high. Incorporation of digital pathology in place of manual pathology for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis can increase the precision and strongly reduce the chances of error in a time-specific manner. Thus, we propose a robust and interactive cervical cancer image analysis and diagnostic tool, which can categorically process both histopatholgical and cytopathological images to identify abnormal cells in the least amount of time and settings with minimum resources. Furthermore, incorporation of a set of specific parameters that are typically referred to for identification of abnormal cells with the help of open source software -’R’ is one of the major highlights of the tool. The software has the ability to automatically identify and quantify the morphological features, color intensity, sensitivity and other parameters digitally to differentiate abnormal from normal cells, which may improve and accelerate screening and early diagnosis, ultimately leading to timely treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, early detection, digital Pathology, screening

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205 The Influence of α-Defensin and Cytokine IL-1β, Molecular Factors of Innate Immune System, on Regulation of Inflammatory Periodontal Diseases in Orthodontic Patients

Authors: G. R. Khaliullina, S. L. Blashkova, I. G. Mustafin


The article presents the results of a study involving 97 patients with different types of orthodontic pathology. Immunological examination of patients included determination of the level of α-defensin and cytokine IL-1β in mixed saliva. The study showed that the level of α-defensin serves as a diagnostic marker for determining the therapeutic measures in the treatment of inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. Α-defensins exhibit immunomodulating and antimicrobial activity during inflammatory processes and play an important role in the regulation of the pathology of periodontal disease. The obtained data allowed the development of an algorithm for diagnosis and the implementation of immunomodulating therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases in orthodontic patients.

Keywords: α-difensin, cytokine, orthodontic treatment, periodontal disease, periodontal pathogens

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204 The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction on the Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: O. Casasayas, M. Vigo, R. Navarro, P. Ragazzi, P. Alvarez, A. Perez-Bellmunt


Introduction: The blood flow restriction training (BFR) is a method of muscle training that allows increasing the stress of muscle tissue to enhance the muscle cross-section and strength. This type of training has clear benefits in the rehabilitation field since it can improve muscle strength using low mechanical loads. The aim of this study is to know in which knee pathologies BFR has been used, what methodology was used and what were the obtained results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “blood flow restriction OR blood flow restriction training AND knee” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they used the blood flow restriction training in pathology of the knee. Results: The pathology more frequently treated by BFR was knee osteoarthritis and the variables most analyzed were strength and pain. The vascular occlusion used was 80% in the major part of studies. The groups of BFR obtained an increase of strength with less pain but not always the results are statistically significant. The evidence levels are poor in the high number of studies because in some cases there is not a control group or the evaluators were not blinded. Conclusion: The use of BFR is useful to improve muscle strength in knee pathology since it does not increase the pain, but more studies are needed to see (comprehend) if this type of treatment obtains better results than a conventional therapy. No studies have been found that compare the different occlusion effects in both the strength improvement and the pain reduction. Neither studies that analyse the effects of BFR on the muscle contractile parameters have been found.

Keywords: blood flow restriction training, knee, arthroscopy knee, physical therapy

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203 Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One-Humped Camel in Iran: Camelus dromedarius

Authors: M. Yadegari


The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’ thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following: hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%), adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%). Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the use of Ultrasound as a screening test in the diagnosis of complications of thyroid disorders. Pathology also to be used for the diagnosis of thyroid problems and other side effects.

Keywords: thyroid gland, one humped camel, sonography, pathology

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202 The Effect of a Probiotic Diet on htauE14 in a Rodent Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: C. Flynn, Q. Yuan, C. Reinhardt


Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting broad areas of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. More than 95% of AD cases are representative of sporadic AD, where both genetic and environmental risk factors play a role. The main pathological features of AD include the widespread deposition of amyloid-beta and neurofibrillary tau tangles in the brain. The earliest brain pathology related to AD has been defined as hyperphosphorylated soluble tau in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, characterized by Braak. However, the cause of this pathology and the ultimate progression of AD is not understood. Increasing research points to a connection between the gut microbiota and the brain, and mounting evidence has shown that there is a bidirectional interaction between the two, known as the gut-brain axis. This axis can allow for bidirectional movement of neuroinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic misfolded proteins, as seen in AD. Prebiotics and probiotics have been shown to have a beneficial effect on gut health and can strengthen the gut-barrier as well as the blood-brain barrier, preventing the spread of these pathogens across the gut-brain axis. Our laboratory has recently established a pretangle tau rat model, in which we selectively express pseudo-phosphorylated human tau (htauE14) in the LC neurons of TH-Cre rats. LC htauE14 produced pathological changes in rats resembling those of the preclinical AD pathology (reduced olfactory discrimination and LC degeneration). In this work, we will investigate the effects of pre/probiotic ingestion on AD behavioral deficits, blood inflammation/cytokines, and various brain markers in our experimental rat model of AD. Rats will be infused with an adeno-associated viral vector containing a human tau gene pseudophosphorylated at 14 sites (common in LC pretangles) into 2-3 month TH-Cre rats. Fecal and blood samples will be taken at pre-surgery, and various post-surgery time points. A collection of behavioral tests will be performed, and immunohistochemistry/western blotting techniques will be used to observe various biomarkers. This work aims to elucidate the relationship between gut health and AD progression by strengthening gut-brain relationship and aims to observe the overall effect on tau formation and tau pathology in AD brains.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, aging, gut microbiome, neurodegeneration

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201 Communication and Management of Incidental Pathology in a Cohort of 1,214 Consecutive Appendicectomies

Authors: Matheesha Herath, Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Eliza Bramwell, Alannah Frazetto, Amy Noll, Prajay Patel, Derek Hennessey, Greg Otto, Christopher Dobbins, Tarik Sammour, James Moore


Background: Important incidental pathology requiring further action is commonly found during appendicectomy, macro- and microscopically. It is unknown whether the acute surgical unit (ASU) model affects the management and disclosure of these findings. Methods: An ASU model was introduced at our institution on 01/08/2012. In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing appendicectomy 2.5 years before (traditional group) or after (ASU group) this date were compared. The primary outcomes were rates of appropriate management of the incidental findings and communication of the findings to the patient and to their general practitioner (GP). Results: 1,214 patients underwent emergency appendicectomy; 465 in the traditional group and 749 in the ASU group. 80 (6.6%) patients (25 and 55 in each respective period) had important incidental findings. There were 24 patients with benign polyps, 15 with neuro-endocrine tumour, 11 with endometriosis, 8 with pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 Enterobius vermicularis infection, 7 with low grade mucinous cystadenoma, 3 with inflammatory bowel disease, 2 with diverticulitis, 2 with tubo-ovarian mass, 1 with secondary appendiceal malignancy and none with primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. One patient had dual pathologies. There was no difference between the traditional and ASU group with regards to communication of the findings to the patient (p=0.44) and their GP (p=0.27), and there was no difference in the rates of appropriate management (p=0.21). Conclusions: The introduction of an ASU model did not change rates of surgeon-to-patient and surgeon-to-GP communication nor affect rates of appropriate management of important incidental pathology during an appendectomy.

Keywords: acute care surgery, appendicitis, appendicectomy, incidental

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200 Pathology of the Partridge Gambra Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding in the Algiers Sahel

Authors: H. Saadi-Idouhar, A. Smai, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Saadi, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji


In Algeria, the Partridge gambra is a highly sought-after game species and is appreciated for its meat. Game birds are of interest because they play an important role for hunting federations and for the economy of a country. The breeding of indigenous breeds is necessary because it is of great economic interest. However, gambra breeding in the hunting centre of Zeralda (northern west of Algiers) is not easy, several diseases affecting Perdreaux and reproducing adults have been noted. Most of the diseases observed are parasitic in origin. This study is conducted during the 2010 breeding season. It is based on the autopsy of cadavers collected at the hunting centre and parasitic coprology. Indeed, the flotation enrichment method has identified several parasites such as Eimeria spp., Capillaria spp., and Ascaridia spp. Autopsied corpses show the importance of two major diseases, syngamosis caused to Syngamus trachea and histomonosis caused to Histomonas meleagridis.

Keywords: partridge, livestock, eggs, affections pathology

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199 Effectiveness of Interactive Integrated Tutorial in Teaching Medical Subjects to Dental Students: A Pilot Study

Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Neeta Kumar, Anita Sharma, Sazina Muzammil


It is observed that some of the dental students in our setting take less interest in medical subjects. Various teaching methods are focus of research interest currently and being tried to generate interest among students. An approach of interactive integrated tutorial was used to assess its feasibility in teaching medical subjects to dental undergraduates. The aim was to generate interest and promote active self-learning among students. The objectives were to (1) introduce the integrated interactive learning method through two departments, (2) get feedback from the students and faculty on feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Second-year students in Bachelor of Dental Surgery course were divided into two groups. Each group was asked to study physiology and pathology of a common and important condition (anemia and hypertension) in a week’s time. During the tutorial, students asked questions on physiology and pathology of that condition from each other in the presence of teachers of both physiology and pathology departments. The teachers acted only as facilitators. After the session, the feedback from students and faculty on this alternative learning method was obtained. Results: Majority of the students felt that this method of learning is enjoyable, helped to develop reasoning skills and ability to correlate and integrate the knowledge from two related fields. Majority of the students felt that this kind of learning led to better understanding of the topic and motivated them towards deep learning. Teachers observed that the study promoted interdepartmental cross-discipline collaboration and better students’ linkages. Conclusion: Interactive integrated tutorial is effective in motivating dental students for better and deep learning of medical subjects.

Keywords: active learning, education, integrated, interactive, self-learning, tutorials

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198 Analysis of Vocal Pathologies Through Subglottic Pressure Measurement

Authors: Perla Elizabeth Jimarez Rocha, Carolina Daniela Tejeda Franco, Arturo Minor Martínez, Annel Gomez Coello


One of the biggest problems in developing new therapies for the management and treatment of voice disorders is the difficulty of objectively evaluating the results of each treatment. A system was proposed that captures and records voice signals, in addition to analyzing the vocal quality (fundamental frequency, zero crossings, energy, and amplitude spectrum), as well as the subglottic pressure (cm H2O) during the sustained phonation of the vowel / a /; a recording system is implemented, as well as an interactive system that records information on subglottic pressure. In Mexico City, a control group of 31 patients with phoniatric pathology is proposed; non-invasive tests were performed for these most common vocal pathologies (Nodules, Polyps, Irritative Laryngitis, Ventricular Dysphonia, Laryngeal Cancer, Dysphonia, and Dysphagia). The most common pathology was irritative laryngitis (32%), followed by vocal fold paralysis (unilateral and bilateral,19.4 %). We take into consideration men and women in the pathological groups due to the physiological difference. They were separated in gender by the difference in the morphology of the respiratory tract.

Keywords: amplitude spectrum, energy, fundamental frequency, subglottic pressure, zero crossings

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197 Association of Mir-196a Expression in Esophageal Tissue with Barrett´s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Petra Borilova Linhartova, Michaela Ruckova, Sabina Sevcikova, Natalie Mlcuchova, Jan Bohm, Katerina Zukalova, Monika Vlachova, Jiri Dolina, Lumir Kunovsky, Radek Kroupa, Zdenek Pavlovsky, Zdenek Danek, Tereza Deissova, Lydie Izakovicova Holla, Ondrej Slaby, Zdenek Kala


Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that frequently develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant pathologic change occurring in the lower end of the esophagus. Specific microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, were repeatedly proved to play key roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. This pilot study aimed to analyze four selected miRNAs in esophageal tissues from healthy controls (HC) and patients with reflux esophagitis (RE)/BE/EAC, as well as to compare expression at the site of Barrett's mucosa/adenocarcinoma and healthy esophageal tissue outside the area of the main pathology in patients with BE/EAC. In this pilot study, 22 individuals (3 HC, 8 RE, 5 BE, 6 EAC) were included and endoscopically examined. RNA was isolated from the fresh-frozen esophageal tissue (stored in the RNAlater™ Stabilization Solution −70°C) using the AllPrep DNA/RNA/miRNA Universal Kit. Subsequent RT-qPCR analysis was performed using selected TaqMan MicroRNA Assays for miR-21, miR-34a, miR-196a, miR-196b, and endogenous control (RNU44). While the expression of miR-21 in the esophageal tissue with the main pathology was decreased in BE and EAC patients in comparison to the group of HC and RE patients (p=0.01), the expression of miR-196a was increased in the BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). Correlations between those miRNAs expression in tissue and severity of diagnosis were observed (p<0.05). In addition, miR-196a was significantly more expressed at the site with the main pathology than in paired adjacent esophageal tissue in BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). In conclusion, our pilot results showed that miR-196a, which regulates the proliferation, invasion, and migration (and was previously associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and marked as a potential therapeutic target), could be a diagnostic tissue biomarker for BE and EAC as well.

Keywords: microRNA, barrett´s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, biomarker

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196 The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR

Authors: Shama Ranjan Barua, Tofazzal M. Rakib, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Tania Ferdushy, Sharmin Chowdhury


Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.

Keywords: calves, diarrhea, pathology, rotavirus

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195 Narrative Identity Predicts Borderline Personality Disorder Features in Inpatient Adolescents up to Six Months after Admission

Authors: Majse Lind, Carla Sharp, Salome Vanwoerden


Narrative identity is the dynamic and evolving story individuals create about their personal pasts, presents, and presumed futures. This storied sense of self develops in adolescence and is crucial for fostering a sense of self-unity and purpose in life. A growing body of work has shown that several characteristics of narrative identity are disturbed in adults suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Very little research, however, has explored the stories told by adolescents with BPD features. Investigating narrative identity early in the lifespan and in relation to personality pathology is crucial; BPD is a developmental disorder with early signs appearing already in adolescence. In the current study, we examine narrative identity (focusing on themes of agency and communion) coded from self-defining memories derived from the child attachment interview in 174 inpatient adolescents (M = 15.12, SD = 1.52) at the time of admission. The adolescents’ social cognition was further assessed on the basis of their reactions to movie scenes (i.e., the MASC movie task). They also completed a trauma checklist and self-reported BPD features at three different time points (i.e., at admission, at discharge, and 6 months after admission). Preliminary results show that adolescents who told stories containing themes of agency and communion evinced better social cognition, and lower emotional abuse on the trauma checklist. In addition, adolescents who disclosed stories containing lower levels of agency and communion demonstrated more BPD symptoms at all three time points, even when controlling for the occurrence of traumatic life events. Surprisingly, social cognitive abilities were not significantly associated with BPD features. These preliminary results underscore the importance of narrative identity as an indicator, and potential cause, of incipient personality pathology. Thus, focusing on diminished themes of narrative-based agency and communion in early adolescence could be crucial in preventing the development of personality pathology over time.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, inpatient adolescents, narrative identity, follow-ups

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194 Determination of Medians of Biochemical Maternal Serum Markers in Healthy Women Giving Birth to Normal Babies

Authors: Noreen Noreen, Aamir Ijaz, Hamza Akhtar


Background: Screening plays a major role to detect chromosomal abnormalities, Down syndrome, neural tube defects and other inborn diseases of the newborn. Serum biomarkers in the second trimester are useful in determining risk of most common chromosomal anomalies; these test include Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Unconjugated Oestriol (UEȝ)and inhibin-A. Quadruple biomarkers are worth test in diagnosing the congenital pathology during pregnancy, these procedures does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in Pakistan, so the median value is lacking for population in Pakistan. Objective: To determine median values of biochemical maternal serum markers in local population during second trimester maternal screening. Study settings: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. Methods: Cross-Sectional study for estimation of reference values. Non-probability consecutive sampling, 155 healthy pregnant women, of 30-40 years of age, will be included. As non-parametric statistics will be used, the minimum sample size is 120. Result: Total 155 women were enrolled into this study. The age of all women enrolled ranged from 30 to39 yrs. Among them, 39 per cent of women were less than 34 years. Mean maternal age 33.46±2.35 SD and maternal body weight were 54.98±2.88. Median value of quadruple markers calculated from 15-18th week of gestation that will be used for calculation of MOM for screening of trisomy21 in this gestational age. Median value at 15 week of gestation were observed hCG 36650 mIU/ml, AFP 23.3 IU/ml, UEȝ 3.5 nmol/L, InhibinA 198 ng/L, at 16 week of gestation hCG 29050 mIU/ml, AFP 35.4 IU/ml, UEȝ 4.1 nmol/L, InhibinA 179 ng/L, at 17 week of gestation hCG 28450 mIU/ml, AFP 36.0 IU/ml, UEȝ 6.7 nmol/L, InhibinA 176 ng/L and at 18 week of gestation hCG 25200 mIU/ml, AFP 38.2 IU/ml, UEȝ 8.2 nmol/L, InhibinA 190 ng/L respectively.All the comparisons were significant (p-Value <0.005) with 95% confidence Interval (CI) and level of significance of study set by going through literature and set at 5%. Conclusion: The median values for these four biomarkers in Pakistani pregnant women can be used to calculate MoM.

Keywords: screening, down syndrome, quadruple test, second trimester, serum biomarkers

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193 Regional Review of Outcome of Cervical Smears Reported with Cytological Features of Non Cervical Glandular Neoplasia

Authors: Uma Krishnamoorthy, Vivienne Beavers, Janet Marshall


Introduction: Cervical cytology showing features raising the suspicion of non cervical glandular neoplasia are reported as code 0 under the United Kingdom National Health Service Cervical screening programme ( NHSCSP). As the suspicion is regarding non cervical neoplasia, smear is reported as normal and patient informed that cervical screening result is normal. GP receives copy of results where it states further referral is indicated in small font within text of report. Background: There were several incidents of delayed diagnosis of endometrial cancer in Lancashire which prompted this Northwest Regional review to enable an understanding of underlying pathology outcome of code zero smears to raise awareness and also to review whether further action on wording of smear results was indicated to prevent such delay. Methodology: All Smears reported at the Manchester cytology centre who process cytology for Lancashire population from March 2013 to March 2014 were reviewed and histological diagnosis outcome of women in whom smear was reported as code zero was reviewed retrospectively . Results: Total smears reported by the cytology centre during this period was approximately 109400. Reports issued with result code 0 among this during this time period was 49.Results revealed that among three fourth (37) of women with code zero smear (N=49), evidence of underlying pathology of non cervical origin was confirmed. Of this, 73 % (36) were due to endometrial pathology with 49 % (24) endometrial carcinoma, 12 % (6)polyp, 4 % atypical endometrial hyperplasia (2), 6 % endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (3), and 2 % adenomyosis (1 case) and 2 % ( 1 case) due to ovarian adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This review demonstrated that more than half (51 %) of women with a code 0 smear report were diagnosed with underlying carcinoma and 75 % had a confirmed underlying pathology contributory to code 0 smear findings. Recommendations and Action Plan: A local rapid access referral and management pathway for this group of women was implemented as a result of this in our unit. The findings and Pathway were shared with other regional units served by the cytology centre through the Pan Lancashire cervical screening board and through the Cytology centre. Locally, the smear report wording was updated to include a rubber stamp/ print in "Red Bold letters" stating that " URGENT REFERRAL TO GYNAECOLOGY IS INDICATED". Findings were also shared through the Pan Lancashire board with National cervical screening programme board, and revisions to wording of code zero smear reports to highlight the need for Urgent referral has now been agreed at National level to be implemented.

Keywords: code zero smears, endometrial cancer, non cervical glandular neoplasia, ovarian cancer

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192 Management of Acute Biliary Pathology at Gozo General Hospital

Authors: Kristian Bugeja, Upeshala A. Jayawardena, Clarissa Fenech, Mark Zammit Vincenti


Introduction: Biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, and gallstone pancreatitis are some of the most common surgical presentations at Gozo General Hospital (GGH). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines advise that suitable patients with acute biliary problems should be offered a laparoscopic cholecystectomy within one week of diagnosis. There has traditionally been difficulty in achieving this mainly due to the reluctance of some surgeons to operate in the acute setting, limited, timely access to MRCP and ERCP, and organizational issues. Methodology: A retrospective study was performed involving all biliary pathology-related admissions to GGH during the two-year period of 2019 and 2020. Patients’ files and electronic case summary (ECS) were used for data collection, which included demographic data, primary diagnosis, co-morbidities, management, waiting time to surgery, length of stay, readmissions, and reason for readmissions. NICE clinical guidance 188 – Gallstone disease were used as the standard. Results: 51 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 58 years, and 35 (68.6%) were female. The main diagnoses on admission were biliary colic in 31 (60.8%), acute cholecystitis in 10 (19.6%). Others included gallstone pancreatitis in 3 (5.89%), chronic cholecystitis in 2 (3.92%), gall bladder malignancy in 4 (7.84%), and ascending cholangitis in 1 (1.97%). Management included laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 34 (66.7%); conservative in 8 (15.7%) and ERCP in 6 (11.7%). The mean waiting time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis was 74 days – range being between 3 and 146 days since the date of diagnosis. Only one patient who was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done so within the 7-day time frame. Hospital re-admissions were reported in 5 patients (9.8%) due to vomiting (1), ascending cholangitis (1), and gallstone pancreatitis (3). Discussion: Guidelines were not met for patients presenting to Gozo General Hospital with acute biliary pathology. This resulted in 5 patients being re-admitted to hospital while waiting for definitive surgery. The local issues resulting in the delay to surgery need to be identified and steps are taken to facilitate the provision of urgent cholecystectomy for suitable patients.

Keywords: biliary colic, acute cholecystits, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conservative management

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191 The Design of a Computer Simulator to Emulate Pathology Laboratories: A Model for Optimising Clinical Workflows

Authors: M. Patterson, R. Bond, K. Cowan, M. Mulvenna, C. Reid, F. McMahon, P. McGowan, H. Cormican


This paper outlines the design of a simulator to allow for the optimisation of clinical workflows through a pathology laboratory and to improve the laboratory’s efficiency in the processing, testing, and analysis of specimens. Often pathologists have difficulty in pinpointing and anticipating issues in the clinical workflow until tests are running late or in error. It can be difficult to pinpoint the cause and even more difficult to predict any issues which may arise. For example, they often have no indication of how many samples are going to be delivered to the laboratory that day or at a given hour. If we could model scenarios using past information and known variables, it would be possible for pathology laboratories to initiate resource preparations, e.g. the printing of specimen labels or to activate a sufficient number of technicians. This would expedite the clinical workload, clinical processes and improve the overall efficiency of the laboratory. The simulator design visualises the workflow of the laboratory, i.e. the clinical tests being ordered, the specimens arriving, current tests being performed, results being validated and reports being issued. The simulator depicts the movement of specimens through this process, as well as the number of specimens at each stage. This movement is visualised using an animated flow diagram that is updated in real time. A traffic light colour-coding system will be used to indicate the level of flow through each stage (green for normal flow, orange for slow flow, and red for critical flow). This would allow pathologists to clearly see where there are issues and bottlenecks in the process. Graphs would also be used to indicate the status of specimens at each stage of the process. For example, a graph could show the percentage of specimen tests that are on time, potentially late, running late and in error. Clicking on potentially late samples will display more detailed information about those samples, the tests that still need to be performed on them and their urgency level. This would allow any issues to be resolved quickly. In the case of potentially late samples, this could help to ensure that critically needed results are delivered on time. The simulator will be created as a single-page web application. Various web technologies will be used to create the flow diagram showing the workflow of the laboratory. JavaScript will be used to program the logic, animate the movement of samples through each of the stages and to generate the status graphs in real time. This live information will be extracted from an Oracle database. As well as being used in a real laboratory situation, the simulator could also be used for training purposes. ‘Bots’ would be used to control the flow of specimens through each step of the process. Like existing software agents technology, these bots would be configurable in order to simulate different situations, which may arise in a laboratory such as an emerging epidemic. The bots could then be turned on and off to allow trainees to complete the tasks required at that step of the process, for example validating test results.

Keywords: laboratory-process, optimization, pathology, computer simulation, workflow

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190 Disaster Mitigation from an Analysis of a Condemned Building Erected over Collapsible Clay Soil in Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Jesus Kato Avila, Joao Da Costa Pantoja


Differential settlement of foundations is a serious pathology in buildings that put at risk lives and property. A common reason for the occurrence of this specific pathology in central Brazil is the presence of collapsible clay, a typical soil in the region. In this study, the foundation of a condemned building erected above this soil is analyzed. The aim is to prevent problems in new constructions, to predict which buildings may be subjected to damages, and to make possible a more precise treatment in less advanced differential settlements observed in the buildings of the vicinity, which includes a hospital, a Military School, an indoor sporting arena, the Police Academy, and the Military Police Headquarters. The methodology consists of visual inspection, photographic report of the main pathologies, analysis of the existing foundations, determination of the soil properties, the study of the cracking level and assessment of structural failure risk of the building. The findings show that the presence of water weaken the soil structure on which the foundation rest, being the main cause of the pathologic settlement, indicating that even in a one store building it was necessary to consider deeper digging, other categories of foundations, and more elaborated and detailed foundation plans when the soil presents this behavior.

Keywords: building cracks, collapsible clay, differential settlement, structural failure risk

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189 Biometry and Pathology of Internal Genital Organs of Female Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Umair Riaz, Mudassar Iqbal, Umer Farooq, Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris


The present work was designed to establish biometrical norms for ovaries, oviducts and crevices of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and the diseases associated thereof in various age groups viz. calves (< 2 years, n=15), heifers (2-4 years, n=34) and adults (> 4 years, n=81). The genitalia were attained from Lahore Abbatoir, Punjab, Pakistan. Ovaries, oviducts and cervices of experimental genitalia were assessed for their length, width, thickness and weight. Statistically, there was no difference in the length and width of both left and right ovaries which however, increased with the advancement of age of camel. Similar results were noticed regarding the width of oviducts. The mean length of cervices of female camels correlated well with the number of cervical annular rings amongst the age groups. Regarding the abnormalities of ovaries and cervices in the 3 age groups, camel calves did not have any of the abnormalities. However, ovarian hypoplasia in heifers (2.94%) and follicular cyst in adult female camels (1.23%) were revealed in the present study. Mucocervix in heifers (2.96%) and cervicitis 1.23% in adult camels was also noticed. The present work presents a preliminary data on biometrical analysis for one humped camels and envisages a broader study with increased population and sample size.

Keywords: camelus dromedarius, pathology, biometry, female genital tract

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188 Neuroimaging Markers for Screening Former NFL Players at Risk for Developing Alzheimer's Disease / Dementia Later in Life

Authors: Vijaykumar M. Baragi, Ramtilak Gattu, Gabriela Trifan, John L. Woodard, K. Meyers, Tim S. Halstead, Eric Hipple, Ewart Mark Haacke, Randall R. Benson


NFL players, by virtue of their exposure to repetitive head injury, are at least twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia as the general population. Early recognition and intervention prior to onset of clinical symptoms could potentially avert/delay the long-term consequences of these diseases. Since AD is thought to have a long preclinical incubation period, the aim of the current research was to determine whether former NFL players, referred to a depression center, showed evidence of incipient dementia in their structural imaging prior to diagnosis of dementia. Thus, to identify neuroimaging markers of AD, against which former NFL players would be compared, we conducted a comprehensive volumetric analysis using a cohort of early stage AD patients (ADNI) to produce a set of brain regions demonstrating sensitivity to early AD pathology (i.e., the “AD fingerprint”). A cohort of 46 former NFL players’ brain MRIs were then interrogated using the AD fingerprint. Brain scans were done using a T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence. The Free Surfer image analysis suite (version 6.0) was used to obtain the volumetric and cortical thickness data. A total of 55 brain regions demonstrated significant atrophy or ex vacuo dilatation bilaterally in AD patients vs. healthy controls. Of the 46 former NFL players, 19 (41%) demonstrated a greater than expected number of atrophied/dilated AD regions when compared with age-matched controls, presumably reflecting AD pathology.

Keywords: alzheimers, neuroimaging biomarkers, traumatic brain injury, free surfer, ADNI

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187 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari


Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: pushover analysis, earthquake, damage, strengthening

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186 The Utility of Sonographic Features of Lymph Nodes during EBUS-TBNA for Predicting Malignancy

Authors: Atefeh Abedini, Fatemeh Razavi, Mihan Pourabdollah Toutkaboni, Hossein Mehravaran, Arda Kiani


In countries with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, such as Iran, the differentiation of malignant tumors from non-malignant is very important. In this study, which was conducted for the first time among the Iranian population, the utility of the ultrasonographic morphological characteristics in patients undergoing EBUS was used to distinguish the non-malignant versus malignant lymph nodes. The morphological characteristics of lymph nodes, which consist of size, shape, vascular pattern, echogenicity, margin, coagulation necrosis sign, calcification, and central hilar structure, were obtained during Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration and were compared with the final pathology results. During this study period, a total of 253 lymph nodes were evaluated in 93 cases. Round shape, non-hilar vascular pattern, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, distinct margin, and the presence of necrosis sign were significantly higher in malignant nodes. On the other hand, the presence of calcification and also central hilar structure were significantly higher in the benign nodes (p-value ˂ 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that size>1 cm, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, the presence of necrosis signs and, the absence of central hilar structure are independent predictive factors for malignancy. The accuracy of each of the aforementioned factors is 42.29 %, 71.54 %, 71.90 %, 73.51 %, and 65.61 %, respectively. Of 74 malignant lymph nodes, 100% had at least one of these independent factors. According to our results, the morphological characteristics of lymph nodes based on Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration can play a role in the prediction of malignancy.

Keywords: EBUS-TBNA, malignancy, nodal characteristics, pathology

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185 A Clinical Audit on Screening Women with Subfertility Using Transvaginal Scan and Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography

Authors: Aarti M. Shetty, Estela Davoodi, Subrata Gangooly, Anita Rao-Coppisetty


Background: Testing Patency of Fallopian Tubes is among one of the several protocols for investigating Subfertile Couples. Both, Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and Laparoscopy and dye test have been used as Tubal patency test for several years, with well-known limitation. Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography (HyCoSy) can be used as an alternative tool to HSG, to screen patency of Fallopian tubes, with an advantage of being non-ionising, and also, use of transvaginal scan to diagnose pelvic pathology. Aim: To determine the indication and analyse the performance of transvaginal scan and HyCoSy in Broomfield Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analysed fertility workup of 282 women, who attended HyCoSy clinic at our institution from January 2015 to June 2016. An Audit proforma was designed, to aid data collection. Data was collected from patient notes and electronic records, which included patient demographics; age, parity, type of subfertility (primary or secondary), duration of subfertility, past medical history and base line investigation (hormone profile and semen analysis). Findings of the transvaginal scan, HyCoSy and Laparoscopy were also noted. Results: The most common indication for referral were as a part of primary fertility workup on couples who had failure to conceive despite intercourse for a year, other indication for referral were recurrent miscarriage, history of ectopic pregnancy, post reversal of sterilization(vasectomy and tuboplasty), Post Gynaecology surgery(Loop excision, cone biopsy) and amenorrhea. Basic Fertility workup showed 34% men had abnormal semen analysis. HyCoSy was successfully completed in 270 (95%) women using ExEm foam and Transvaginal Scan. Of the 270 patients, 535 tubes were examined in total. 495/535 (93%) tubes were reported as patent, 40/535 (7.5%) tubes were reported as blocked. A total of 17 (6.3%) patients required laparoscopy and dye test after HyCoSy. In these 17 patients, 32 tubes were examined under laparoscopy, and 21 tubes had findings similar to HyCoSy, with a concordance rate of 65%. In addition to this, 41 patients had some form of pelvic pathology (endometrial polyp, fibroid, cervical polyp, fibroid, bicornuate uterus) detected during transvaginal scan, who referred to corrective surgeries after attending HyCoSy Clinic. Conclusion: Our audit shows that HyCoSy and Transvaginal scan can be a reliable screening test for low risk women. Furthermore, it has competitive diagnostic accuracy to HSG in identifying tubal patency, with an additional advantage of screening for pelvic pathology. With addition of 3D Scan, pulse Doppler and other non-invasive imaging modality, HyCoSy may potentially replace Laparoscopy and chromopertubation in near future.

Keywords: hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy), transvaginal scan, tubal infertility, tubal patency test

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184 Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance

Authors: Xin Li, Yan-Rong Guo, Jin-Fang Lin, Yi Feng, Håkan Billig, Ruijin Shao


Background: Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin. Methods: Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. The hospital records and endometrial pathology reports were reviewed. All patients were co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin for 6 months to reverse the endometrial carcinoma and preserve their fertility. Before, during, and after treatment, endometrial biopsies and blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Endometrial pathology was evaluated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin area under curve (IAUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. Results: Clinical stage 1a, low grade endometrial carcinoma was confirmed before treatment. After 6 months of co-treatment, all patients showed normal epithelia. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma was found. Co-treatment resulted in significant decreases in BW, BMI, TT, FAI, IAUC, and HOMA-IR in parallel with a significant increase in SHBG. There were no differences in the FSH and LH levels after co-treatment. Conclusions: Combined treatment with Diane-35 and metformin has the potential to revert the endometrial carcinoma into normal endometrial cells in PCOS-IR women. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this effect merit further investigation.

Keywords: PCOS, progesterone resistance, insulin resistance, steroid hormone receptors, endometrial carcinoma

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183 Liaison Psychiatry in Baixo Alentejo, Portugal: Reality and Perspectives

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, M. Suárez, Célia Santos, Ana Matos Pires


Baixo Alentejo is a region of Portugal characterized by an aging population, geographic isolation, social deprivation and a lack of medical staff. It is one of the most problematic regions in regards to mental health, particularly due to the factors mentioned. The aim of this study is a presentation of liaison psychiatry in Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes; a sample of the work done, the current situation and future perspectives. The aim is to present a retrospective study of internal psychiatric emergencies from January 1st, 2016 to August 31st, 2016. Liaison psychiatry of Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health (Psychiatry Service) of ULSBA includes the following activities: internal psychiatry emergencies, HIV consultation (comprised in the general consultation) and liaison psychology (oncology and pain), consisting of a total of 111 internal psychiatry emergencies during the identified period. Gender distribution was uniform. The most prevalent age group was 71-80 years, and 66,6% of patients were 60 years old and over. The majority of the emergency observations was requested by hospital services of medicine (56,8%) and surgery (24,3%). The most frequent reasons for admission were: respiratory disease (18,0%); tumors (15.3%); other surgical and orthopedic pathology (14,5%) and stroke (11,7%). The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were: neurotic and organic depression (24,3%); delirium (26,1%) and adjustment reaction (14,5%). Major psychiatric pathology (schizophrenia and affective disorders) was found in 10,8%. Antidepressive medication was prescribed in 37,8% patients; antipsychotics in 34,2%. In 9.9% of the cases, no psychotropic drug was prescribed, and 5,4% of patients received psychologic support. Regarding hospital discharge, 42,4% of patients were referred to the general practitioner or to the medical specialist; 22,5% to outpatient gerontopsychiatry; 17,1% to psychiatric outpatient and 14,4% deceased. A future perspective is to start liaison in areas of HIV and psycho oncology in multidisciplinary approach and to improve collaboration with colleagues of other specialties for refining psychiatric referrals.

Keywords: psychiatry, liaison, internal emergency, psychiatric referral

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182 Histopathological Features of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Ten Year Retrospective Statistical Study in Egypt

Authors: Hala M. El-hanbuli, Mohammed F. Darweesh


The incidence rates of any tumor vary hugely with geographical location. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common skin cancer that has many histopathologic subtypes. Objective: The aim was to study the histopathological features of BCC cases that were received in the Pathology Department, Kasr El-Aini hospital, Cairo University, Egypt during the period from Jan 2004 to Dec 2013 and to evaluate the clinical characters through the patient data available in the request sheets. Methods: Slides and data of BCC cases were collected from the archives of the pathology department, Kasr El-Aini hospital. Revision of all available slides and histological classification of BCC according to WHO (2006) was done. Results: A total number of 310 cases of BCC representing about 65% from the total number of malignant skin tumors examined during the 10-years duration in the department. The age ranged from 8 to 84 years, the mean age was (55.7 ± 15.5). Most of the patients (85%) were above the age of 40 years. There was a slight male predominance (55%). Ulcerated BCC was the most common gross picture (60%), followed by nodular lesion (30%) and finally the ulcerated nodule (10%). Most of the lesions situated in the high-risk sites (77%) where the nose was the most common site (35%) followed by the periocular area (22%), then periauricular (15%) and finally perioral (5%). No lesion was reported outside the head. The tumor size was less than 2 centimeters in 65% of cases, and from 2-5 centimeters in the lesions' greatest dimension in the rest of cases. Histopathological reclassification revealed that the nodular BCC was the most common (68%) followed by the pigmented nodular (18.75%). The histologic high-risk groups represented (7.5%) about half of them (3.75%) being basosquamous carcinoma. The total incidence for multiple BCC and 2nd primary was 12%. Recurrent BCC represented 8%. All of the recurrent lesions of BCC belonged to the histologic high-risk group. Conclusion: Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the 10-year survey. Histopathological diagnosis and classification of BCC cases are essential for the determination of the tumor type and its biological behavior.

Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, high risk, histopathological features, statistical analysis

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