Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: morphometry

25 Age–Related Changes of the Sella Turcica Morphometry in Adults Older Than 20-25 Years

Authors: Yu. I. Pigolkin, M. A. Garcia Corro


Age determination of unknown dead bodies in forensic personal identification is a complicated process which involves the application of numerous methods and techniques. Skeletal remains are less exposed to influences of environmental factors. In order to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimation additional properties of bones correlating with age are required to be revealed. Material and Methods: Dimensional examination of the sella turcica was carried out on cadavers with the cranium opened by a circular vibrating saw. The sample consisted of a total of 90 Russian subjects, ranging in age from two months and 87 years. Results: The tendency of dimensional variations throughout life was detected. There were no observed gender differences in the morphometry of the sella turcica. The shared use of the sella turcica depth and length values revealed the possibility to categorize an examined sample in a certain age period. Conclusions: Based on the results of existing methods of age determination, the morphometry of the sella turcica can be an additional characteristic, amplifying the received values, and accordingly, increasing the accuracy of forensic biological age diagnosis.

Keywords: age–related changes in bone structures, forensic personal identification, sella turcica morphometry, body identification

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24 Channel Characteristics and Morphometry of a Part of Umtrew River, Meghalaya

Authors: Pratyashi Phukan, Ranjan Saikia


Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area ,altitude,volume, slope profiles of a land and drainage basin characteristics of the area concerned.Fluvial geomorphology includes the consideration of linear,areal and relief aspects of a fluvially originated drainage basin. The linear aspect deals with the hierarchical orders of streams, numbers, and lenghts of stream segments and various relationship among them.The areal aspect includes the analysis of basin perimeters,basin shape, basin area, and related morphometric laws. The relief aspect incorporates besides hypsometric, climographic and altimetric analysis,the study of absolute and relative reliefs, relief ratios, average slope, etc. In this paper we have analysed the relationship among stream velocity, channel shape,sediment load,channel width,channel depth, etc.

Keywords: morphometry, hydraulic geometry, Umtrew river, Meghalaya

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23 Morphometry of Female Reproductive Tract in Small Ruminants Using Ultrasonography

Authors: R. Jannat, N. S. Juyena, F. Y. Bari, M. N. Islam


Understanding anatomy of female reproductive organs is very much important to identify any variation in disease condition. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the morphometry of female reproductive tract in small ruminant using ultrasonography. The reproductive tracts of 2l does and 20 ewes were collected, and both gross and ultrasonographic image measurements were performed to study morphometry of cervix, body of uterus, horn of uterus and ovary. Water bath ultrasonography technique was used with trans-abdominal linear probe for image measurements. Results revealed significant (P<0.001) variation among gross and image measurements of cervix, body of uterus and ovaries in does whereas, significant (P<0.001) variation existed between gross and image measurements of ovaries diameter in ewes. Gross measurements were proportionately higher than image measurements in both species. The mean length and width were found higher in right ovaries than those of left ovaries. In addition, the diameter of right ovaries was higher than those of left ovaries in both species. Pearson's correlation revealed a positive relation between two measurements. Moreover, it was found that echogenicity varied with reproductive organs. This is a model study. This study may help to identify female reproductive structures by trans-abdominal ultrasonography.

Keywords: female reproductive tract, morphometry, small ruminants, ultrasonography

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22 Combined Use of FMRI and Voxel-Based Morphometry in Assessment of Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: A. V. Sokolov, S. V. Vorobyev, A. Yu. Efimtcev, V. Yu. Lobzin, I. A. Lupanov, O. A. Cherdakov, V. A. Fokin


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Different brain regions are involved to the pathological process of AD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate brain activation by visual memory task in patients with Alzheimer's disease and determine correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. To investigate the organization of memory and localize cortical areas activated by visual memory task we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and to evaluate brain atrophy of patients with Alzheimer's disease we used voxel-based morphometry. FMRI was performed on 1.5 T MR-scanner Siemens Magnetom Symphony with BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) technique, based on distinctions of magnetic properties of hemoglobin. For test stimuli we used series of 12 not related images for "Baseline" and 12 images with 6 presented before for "Active". Stimuli were presented 3 times with reduction of repeated images to 4 and 2. Patients with Alzheimer's disease showed less activation in hippocampal formation (HF) region and parahippocampal gyrus then healthy persons of control group (p<0.05). The study also showed reduced activation in posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.001). Voxel-based morphometry showed significant atrophy of grey matter in Alzheimer’s disease patients, especially of both temporal lobes (fusiform and parahippocampal gyri); frontal lobes (posterior cingulate and superior frontal gyri). The study showed correlation between memory impairment and atrophy of memory specific brain regions of frontal and medial temporal lobes. Thus, reduced activation in hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyri, in posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with Alzheimer's disease correlates to significant atrophy of these regions, detected by voxel-based morphometry, and to deterioration of specific cognitive functions.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry

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21 Subthalamic Nucleus in Adult Human Cadaveric Brain: A Morphometric Study

Authors: Mangala Kohli, P. A. Athira, Reeha Mahajan


The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a biconvex nucleus situated in the diencephalon. The knowledge of the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus is essential for accurate targeting of the nucleus during Deep Brain Stimulation. The present study aims to note the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus in both the cerebral hemispheres which will prove to be of great value to radiologists and neurosurgeons. A cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in the Departments of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals, New Delhi on thirty adult cadaveric brain specimens of unclaimed and donated corpses. The specimens were categorized into 3 age groups: 20-35, 35-50 and above 50 years. All samples were collected after following the standard protocol for ethical clearance. The morphometric study of 60 subthalamic nucleus was thus conducted. Transverse section of the brain was made at a plane 4mm ventral to the plane containing mid commissural point. The dimensions of the subthalamic nucleus were measured bilaterally with the aid of digital Vernier caliper and magnifying glass. In the present study, the mean length and width and AC-PC length of the subthalamic nucleus was recorded on the right and left side in Group A, B and C. On comparison of mean of subthalamic nucleus dimensions between the right and left side in Group C, no statistically significant difference was observed. The length and width of subthalamic nucleus measured in the 3 age groups were compared with each other and the p value calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the dimensions of Group A and B, Group B and C as well as Group A and C. The present study reveals that there is no significant reduction in the size of the nucleus was noted with increasing age. Thus, the values obtained in the present study can be used as a reference for various invasive and non-invasive procedures on subthalamic nucleus.

Keywords: cerebral hemisphere, deep brain stimulation, morphometry, subthalamic nucleus

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20 Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Kernel Inclusion in Broiler Diet on Growth Performance, Organ Weight and Gut Morphometry

Authors: Olatundun Bukola Ezekiel, Adejumo Olusoji


A feeding trial was conducted with 100 two-weeks old broiler chicken to evaluate the influence of inclusion in broiler diets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel (used to replace equal quantity of maize) on their performance, organ weight and gut morphometry. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, each treatment having four replicates consisting of five broilers in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (23% CP). Weekly feed intake and changes in body weight were calculated and feed efficiency determined. At the end of the 28-day feeding trial, four broilers per treatment were selected and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance procedures of Statistical Analysis Software The treatment means were presented with group standard errors of means and where significant, were compared using the Duncan multiple range test of the same software. The results showed that broilers fed 2.5% neem kernel inclusion diets had growth performance statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Birds on 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets showed significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of liver. The absolute weight of spleen also increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds on 10 % neem kernel diet. More than 5 % neem kernel diets gave significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weight of the kidney. The length of the small intestine significantly increased in birds fed 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets. Significant differences (P<0.05) did not occur in the length of the large intestine, right and left caeca. It is recommended that neem kernel can be included up to 2.5% in broiler chicken diet without any deleterious effects on the performance and physiological status of the birds.

Keywords: broiler chicken, growth performance, gut morphometry, neem kernel, organ weight

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19 Age and Population Structure of the Goby Parapocryptes Serperaster in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, Based on Length-Frequency and Otolith Analyses

Authors: Quang Minh Dinh, Jian Guang Qin, Sabine Dittmann, Dinh Dac Tran


The age and population structure the dermal gopy Parapocryptes serperaster were studied using length distributions, otolith and von Bertalanffy model in the Mekong Delta over a whole year through monthly sampling. The sex ratio of P. serperaster was near 1:1, and von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 25.2 cm, K = 0.74 yr-1, and t0 = -0.22 yr-1. Fish size at first entry to fishery was 14.6 cm, and fishing mortality (1.57 yr-1) and natural mortality (1.51 yr-1) accounted for 51% and 49% of the total mortality (3.07 yr-1), respectively. Relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses revealed the levels of maximum exploitation yield (Emax = 0.83), maximum economic yield (E0.1 = 0.71) and the yield at 50% reduction of exploitation (E0.5 = 0.37). Otoliths from 164 female and 196 male gobies were readable, and the otolith morphometry data were used for age identification. The mean age estimated by reading otolith annual rings and by analysing length frequency distribution was consistent. This study shows that the otolith morphometry is a reliable method for aging this goby and possibly also applicable for other tropical gobies. The fishery analysis indicates that this goby stock has not been overexploited in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Parapcryptes serperaster, otolith, age, pulation structure, Vietnam

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18 Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Allometric Variation in the Hand Morphology of Adults

Authors: Aleksandr S. Ermolenko


Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration, contributing to the organization of the phenotype and its variability. The allometric change in the shape of the hand is particularly important in primate evolution, as the hand has important taxonomic features. Some of these features are known to parts with the shape, especially the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers (2d: 4d ratio). The hand is a fairly well-studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures since it consists of various departments (basipodium, metapodium, acropodium) that form a single structure –autopodium. In the present study, we examined the allometric variability of acropodium. We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Geometric morphometry based on a procrustation of 16 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks was analyzed using multivariate shape-by-size regressions in samples from 100 people (50 men and 50 women). The results obtained show that men have significantly greater allometric variability for the ring finger (variability in the transverse axis prevails), while women have significantly greater allometric variability for the index finger (variability in the longitudinal axis prevails). The influence of the middle finger on the shape of the hand is typical for both men and women. The influence of the little finger on the shape of the hand, regardless of gender, was not revealed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in the human hand.

Keywords: human hand, size and shape, 2d:4d ratio, geometric morphometry

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17 The Morphological and Morphometrical Evaluation of the Bores That Transmit Emissary Veins in Terms of Surgery

Authors: Fikri Turk, Sahika Pinar Akyer, Mevci Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent Ozdemir, Ilgaz Akdogan


The complications such as bleeding, thrombosis and air embolism depend on injuries emissary veins is often encountered in surgery. Detailed descriptions of the mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal and foramen vesalius are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the purpose of our study was to explore and represent the morphology and morphometry of these emissary foramina in order to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons. The present study was made on 60 dry human skull in the laboratories of Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine Department of Anatomy. After taken photograph of emissary foramens by Canon 650D professional camera, the evaluation and measurement’s these foramens made with Matlab program by computer. The overall prevalence of mastoid foramen was 90.52%, occipital foramen was 72.52%, parietal foramen was 42.85%, posterior condylar canal was 91.25% and foramen vesalius was 78.26%. The mean diameter of the mastoid foramen was 1.81±0.76 mm, occipital foramen was 1.20±0.25 mm, parietal foramen was 1.49±0.46 mm, posterior condylar canal was 2.83±1.33 mm and foramen vesalius was 1.74±0.60 mm. Distances between emissary foramina and fixed bony landmarks were measured. Emissary veins are important in clinic practice and surgical procedures because they act a route of spread of exracranial infection to the intracranial structures and these veins may be a significant bleeding during surgery of the skull and they can be source of thrombosis and air embolism. The detailed anatomical knowledge of these veins and foraminas may help to prevent complications and to guide for surgeons.

Keywords: emissary foramina, mastoid foramen, occipital foramen, parietal foramen, posterior condylar canal, foramen vesalius, morphology, morphometry

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16 Phenotypic Characterization of Desi Naked Neck Chicken and Its Association with Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Pakistan

Authors: Akbar Nawaz Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Naeem Riaz


The study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic features, morphometry and production potentialities of indigenous naked neck chicken (NN) of Pakistan under intensive management condition. A total of 35 NN chicks were randomly selected, and the experiment was performed at Poultry and wildlife research section NARC Islamabad for a period of 22 weeks. The predominant plumage color was black and golden while skin color was observed white. The average shank length, leg length, thigh length, keel length, chest breadth, head width, wing space, wing length, body length, body girth, body height and pubic bone width in adult males and females were 69.19 ± 3.34mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 90.87 ± 6.53mm, 95.03 ± 4.56mm, 49.77 ± 2.53mm, 30.63 ± 1.50cm, 27.24 ± 2.71cm, 18.88 ± 0.65cm, 17.77 ± 1.01cm, 25.96 ± 0.56cm, 47.81 ± 1.41cm and 35.69 ± 4.09mm respectively. The average age and live body weight of NN chicken at sexual maturity were recorded as 165.85 days and 1269.38 g. While hen-day egg production of NN was recorded as 45%. The present study was aimed to investigate the existence of polymorphism at IGF-I gene in indigenous naked neck chicken through PCR based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Based on restriction analysis using Hinf I restriction enzyme, three genotypes were detected designated as AA, AC, and CC. Restriction analysis of PCR amplified product showed the presence of DNA fragments of 622, 378, 244 and 191, (genotypes). The PCR-RFLP analysis is easy, cost effective method which permits the easy characterization of IGF-I gene. This showed the investigated IGF-I genes can serve as good molecular markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) concerning growth related traits in chicken.

Keywords: Desi chicken, naked neck, morphology, morphometry, production potential, egg traits, egg geometry, IGF-I, growth, PCR- RFLP, chicken

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15 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Lariouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche


The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, egg, morphometry of eggs, analysis of variance

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14 Morphometric Study of the Eggs of Pheasant Eggs Phasianus colchicus (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Larinouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche


Pheasant, is a bird of great ornamental value through the beauty of its form and colors, it is among the most popular birds. The present study was conducted in an experimental breeding. The objective of this work is to know the quality of the eggs of this bird. A total of 938 eggs were collected. To deepen the knowledge about the characteristics of external shell quality, biometric parameters were studied, among them we find the weight with a mean value of 29.2± 2, 24 g. Egg length (mm) and egg width (mm) mean value are respectively 43.01 ± 1,84 cm and 34.05 ± 1,44cm. The volume and shape index of eggs obtained are respectively 25,63±2,88cm3 and 79.00 ± 3%, shell index which recorded an average of 68%. Water loss recorded is 13%. Note that all these parameters and others may influence hatching. The analysis of variance applied for the comparison of egg weight shows that there is no significant difference in the same form factor (P> 0.05). Otherwise, the comparison test used shows a significant difference with P <0.05 for length, width, volume, density, indices of shell and water loss of eggs between the different. Indeed, several factors may explain the difference as the absence of sorting eggs during incubation and other factors that will be exposing later.

Keywords: analysis of variance, egg, hatching, morphometry of eggs Phaisan (Phasianus colchicus.L.)

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13 Geomorphology Evidence of Climate Change in Gavkhouni Lagoon, South East Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Manijeh Ghahroudi Tali, Ladan Khedri Gharibvand


Gavkhouni lagoon, in the South East of Isfahan (Iran), is one of the pluvial lakes and legacy of Quaternary era which has emerged during periods with more precipitation and less evaporation. Climate change, lack of water resources and dried freshwater of Zayandehrood resulted in increased entropy and activated a dynamic which in turn is converted to Playa. The morphometry of 61 polygonal clay microforms in wet zone soil, 52 polygonal clay microforms in pediplain zone soil and 63 microforms in sulfate soil, is evaluated by fractal model. After calculating the microforms’ area–perimeter fractal dimension, their turbulence level was analyzed. Fractal dimensions (DAP) obtained from the microforms’ analysis of pediplain zone, wet zone, and sulfate soils are 1/21-1/39, 1/27-1/44 and 1/29-1/41, respectively, which is indicative of turbulence in these zones. Logarithmic graph drawn for each region also shows that there is a linear relationship between logarithm of the microforms’ area and perimeter so that correlation coefficient (R2) obtained for wet zone is larger than 0.96, for pediplain zone is larger than 0.99 and for sulfated zone is 0.9. Increased turbulence in this region suggests morphological transformation of the system and lagoon’s conversion to a new ecosystem which can be accompanied with serious risks.

Keywords: fractal, Gavkhouni, microform, Iran

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12 Application of Watershed Modeling System for Urbanization Management in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abd-Alrahman Embaby, Ayman Abu Halawa, Medhat Ramadan


The infiltrated water into the subsurface activates expansive soil in localized manner, leading to the differential heaving and destructive of the construction. The Watershed Modeling System (WMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-1) are used to delineate and identify the drainage system and basin morphometry in Tabuk area, where flash floods and accumulation of water may take place. Eight drainage basins effect on Tabuk city. Three of them are expected to be high. The flash floods and surface runoff behavior in these basins are important for any protection projects. It was found that the risky areas that contain Tabuk shale could be expanded when exposed to flash floods and/or surface runoff. The resident neighborhoods in the middle of Tabuk city and affected by surface runoff of the tributaries of the basin of Wadi Abu Nishayfah, Na'am and Atanah outlet, represent high-risk zones. These high-risk neighborhoods are Al Qadsiyah, Al Maseif, Arrwdah, Al Nakhil and Al Rajhi. It can be avoided new constructions on these districts. The low or very low-risk zones include the western and the eastern districts. The western side of the city is lying in the upstream of the small basin. It is suitable for a future urban extension. The direction of surface runoff flow or storm water drain discharge should be away from Tabuk city. The quicker the water can flow out, the better it is.

Keywords: digital elevation model (DEM), flash floods, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk City, watershed modeling system (WMS)

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11 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa


Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

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10 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Ramazan F. Akkoc, Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, D. Özlem Dabak, Enver Ozan


Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bone, morphometry, rat, tobacco smoke

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9 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom


Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

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8 Comparative Assessment of hCG with Estrogen in Increasing Pregnancy Rate in Mixed Parity Buffaloes

Authors: Sanan Raza, Tariq Abbas, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Muhammad Younus, Hamayun Khan, Mujahid Zafar


Water Buffaloes contribute significantly in Asian agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two synchronization protocols in enhancing pregnancy rate in 105 mixed parity buffaloes particularly in summer season. Buffaloes are seasonal breeders showing more fertility from October to January in subtropical environment of Pakistan. In current study 105 lactating buffaloes of mixed parity were used having normal estrous cycle, age ranging 5-9 years, weighing between 400-650 kg, BCS 4 ± 0.5 (1-5) and lactation varied from first to 5th. Experimental animals were divided into three groups based on corpus leteummorphometry. Morphometry of C.L was done using rectal population and ultrasonography. All animals were injected 25mg of PGi.m. (Cloprostenol). In Group-1 (n=35) hCG was administered at follicular size of 10mm having scanned after detection of heat. Similarly Group-2 (n=35) received 25 mg EB i.m (Estradiol Benzoate) after confirmation of follicular size of 10mm with ultrasound. Likewise, buffaloes of Group-3 (n=35) were administered normal saline respectively using as control. All buffaloes of three groups were inseminated after 12h of hCG, EB, and normal saline administration respectively. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasound at 18th and 45th day post insemination. Pregnancy rates at 18th day were 38.2%, 34.5%, and 27.3% for G1, G2, and G3 respectively indicating that hCG and EB administered groups have no difference in results except control group having lower conception rate than both groups respectively. Similarly on 42nd day, these were 40.4%, 32.7% for G1 and G2 which are significantly higher than G3= 26.6 (control Group). Also, hCG and EB treated buffaloes have more probability of pregnancy than control group. Based on the findings of current study, it seems reasonable that the use of hCG and EB has been associated with improving pregnancy rates in non-breeding season of buffaloes.

Keywords: buffalo, hCG, EB, pregnancy rate, follicle, insemination

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7 Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters

Authors: Victor U. Odoemelam, Ihemdirim C. Unamba-Opara, Martins C. Anyanwuocha


Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P<0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P<0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P<0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P<0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.

Keywords: antibiotics, body weight, feed additives, intestinal morphology, phytogenics

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6 Morphometric and Radiographic Studies on the Tarsal Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii)

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib-Ur Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah


The present study was carried out on the gross anatomy, biometery and radiographic analysis of tarsal bones in twenty specimens of adult chinkara (Gazella bennettii). The desired bones were collected from the graveyards present in the locality of the different safari parks and zoos in Pakistan. To observe the edges and articulations between the bones, the radiographic images were acquired in craniocaudals and mediolateral views of the intact limbs. The gross and radiographic studies of the tarsus of adult Chinkara were carried out in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The tarsus of chinkara comprised of five bones both grossly and radiographically, settled in three transverse rows: tibial and fibular tarsal in the proximal, central and fourth fused tarsal in the middle row, the first, second and third fused tarsal in the distal row. The fibular tarsal was the largest and longest bone of the hock, situated on the lateral side and had a bulbous tuber calcis 'point of the hock' at the proximal extremity which projects upward and backward. The average maximum height and breadth for fibular tarsal was 5.61 ± 0.23 cm and 2.06 ± 0.13 cm, respectively. The tibial tarsal bones were the 2nd largest bone of the proximal row and lie on the medial side of the tarsus bears trochlea at either end. The average maximum height and breadth for tibial tarsal was 2.79 ± 0.05 cm and 1.74 ± 0.01 cm, respectively. The central and the fourth tarsals were fused to form a large bone which extends across the entire width of the tarsus and articulates with all bones of the tarsus. A nutrient foramen was present in the center of the non auricular area, more prominent on the ventral surface. The average maximum height and breadth for central and fourth fused tarsal was 1.51 ± 0.13 cm and 2.08 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. The first tarsal was a quadrilateral piece of bone placed on the poteriomedial surface of the hock. The greatest length and maximum breadth of the first tarsal was 0.94 ± 0.01 cm and 1.01 ± 0.01 cm, respectively. The second and third fused tarsal bone resembles the central but was smaller and triangular in outline. It was situated between the central above and the large metatarsal bone below. The greatest length and maximum breadth of second and third fused tarsal was 0.98 ± 0.01 cm and 1.49 ± 0.01 cm.

Keywords: chinkara, morphometry, radiography, tarsal bone

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5 Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Yelganga-Shivbhadra and Kohilla River Sub-Basins in Aurangabad District Maharashtra India

Authors: Chandrakant Gurav, Md Babar, Ajaykumar Asode


Morphometric analysis is the first stage of any basin analysis. By using these morphometric parameters we give indirect information about the nature and relations of stream with other streams, Geology of the area, groundwater condition and tectonic history of the basin. In the present study, Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla rivers, tributaries of the Godavari River in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India are considered to compare and study their morphometric characters. The linear, areal and relief morphometric aspects of the sub-basins have been assessed and evaluated in GIS environment. For this study, ArcGIS 10.1 software has been used for delineating, digitizing and generating different thematic maps. The Survey of India (SOI) toposheets maps and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on resolution 30 m downloaded from United States Geological Survey (USGS) have been used for preparation of map and data generation. Geologically, the study area is covered by Central Deccan Volcanic Province (CDVP). It mainly consists of ‘aa’ type of basaltic lava flows of Late (upper) Cretaceous to Early (lower) Eocene age. The total geographical area of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla river sub-basins are 185.5 sq. km., 142.6 sq. km and 122.3 sq. km. respectively The stream ordering method as suggested by the Strahler has been employed for present study and found that all the sub-basins are of 5th order streams. The average bifurcation ratio value of the sub-basins is below 5, indicates that there appears to be no strong structural control on drainage development, homogeneous nature of lithology and drainage network is in well-developed stage of erosion. The drainage density of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla Sub-basins is 1.79 km/km2, 1.48 km/km2 and 1.89 km/km2 respectively and stream frequency is 1.94 streams/km2, 1.19 streams/km2 and 1.68 streams/km2 respectively, indicating semi-permeable sub-surface. Based on textural ratio values it indicates that the sub-basins have coarse texture. Shape parameters such as form factor ratio, circularity ratio and elongation ratio values shows that all three sub- basins are elongated in shape.

Keywords: GIS, Kohilla, morphometry, Shivbhadra, Yelganga

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4 Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Ambardi and Mangari Watersheds of Kadvi and Kasari River Sub-Basins in Kolhapur District, Maharashtra, India: Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Chandrakant Gurav, Md. Babar


In the present study, an attempt is made to delineate the comparative morphometric analysis of Ambardi and Mangari watersheds of Kadvi and Kasari rivers sub-basins, Kolhapur District, Maharashtra India, using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. GIS is a computer assisted information method to store, analyze and display spatial data. Both the watersheds originate from Masai plateau of Jotiba- Panhala Hill range in Panhala Taluka of Kolhapur district. Ambardi watersheds cover 42.31 Sq. km. area and occur in northern hill slope, whereas Mangari watershed covers 54.63 Sq. km. area and occur on southern hill slope. Geologically, the entire study area is covered by Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP) of late Cretaceous to early Eocene age. Laterites belonging to late Pleistocene age also occur in the top of the hills. The objective of the present study is to carry out the morphometric parameters of watersheds, which occurs in differing slopes of the hill. Morphometric analysis of Ambardi watershed indicates it is of 4th order stream and Mangari watershed is of 5th order stream. Average bifurcation ratio of both watersheds is 5.4 and 4.0 showing that in both the watersheds streams flow from homogeneous nature of lithology and there is no structural controlled in development of the watersheds. Drainage density of Ambardi and Mangari watersheds is 3.45 km/km2 and 3.81 km/km2 respectively, and Stream Frequency is 4.51 streams/ km2 and 5.97 streams/ km2, it indicates that high drainage density and high stream frequency is governed by steep slope and low infiltration rate of the area for groundwater recharge. Textural ratio of both the watersheds is 6.6 km-1 and 9.6 km-1, which indicates that the drainage texture is fine to very fine. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratios of the Ambardi and Mangari watersheds shows that both the watersheds are elongated in shape. The basin relief of Ambardi watershed is 447 m, while Mangari is 456 m. Relief ratio of Ambardi is 0.0428 and Mangari is 0.040. The ruggedness number of Ambardi is 1.542 and Mangari watershed is 1.737. The ruggedness number of both the watersheds is high which indicates the relief and drainage density is high.

Keywords: Ambardi, Deccan basalt, GIS, morphometry, Mangari, watershed

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3 Chronological Skin System Aging: Improvements in Reversing Markers with Different Routes of Green Tea Extract Administration

Authors: Aliaa Mahmoud Issa


Green tea may provide an alternative treatment for many skin system disorders. Intrinsic or chronological aging represents the structural, functional, and metabolic changes in the skin, which depend on the passage of time per se. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of green tea extract administration, in drinking water or topically, on the chronological changes of the old Swiss albino mice skin. A total number of forty Swiss albino female mice (Mus musculus) were used; thirty were old females, 50-52 weeks old and the remaining ten young females were about 10 weeks old. The skin of the back of all the studied mice was dehaired with a topical depilatory cream. Treatment with green tea extract was applied in two different ways: in the drinking water (0.5mg/ml/day) or topically, applied to the skin of the dorsal side (6mg/ml water). They were divided into four main groups each of 10 animals: Group I: young untreated, Group II: old untreated groups, Group III: tea-drinking (TD) group, and Group IV: topical tea (TT) group. The animals were euthanized after 3 and 6 weeks from the beginning of green tea extract treatment. The skin was subject to morphometric (epidermal, dermal, and stratum corneum thicknesses; collagen and elastin content) studies. The skin ultrastructure of the groups treated for 6 weeks with the green tea extract was also examined. The old mouse skin was compared to the young one to investigate the chronological changes of the tissue. The results revealed that the skin of mice treated with green tea extract, either topically or to less extent in drinking water, showed a reduction in the aging features manifested by a numerical but statistically insignificant improvement in the morphometric measurements. A remarkable amelioration in the ultrastructure of the old skin was also observed. Generally, green tea extract in the drinking water revealed inconsistent results. The topical application of green tea extract to the skin revealed that the epidermal, dermal and stratum corneum thicknesses and the elastin content, that were statistically significant, approach those of the young group. The ultrastructural study revealed the same observations. The disjunction of the lower epidermal keratinocytes was reduced. It could be concluded that the topical application of green tea extract to the skin of old mice showed improvement in reversing markers of skin system aging more than using the extract in the drinking water.

Keywords: aging, green tea extract, morphometry, skin, ultrastructure

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2 Stereological and Morphometric Evaluation of Wound Healing Burns Treated with Ulmo Honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) Unsupplemented and Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

Authors: Carolina Schencke, Cristian Sandoval, Belgica Vasquez, Mariano Del Sol


Introduction: In a burn injury, the successful repair requires not only the participation of various cells, such as granulocytes and fibroblasts, but also of collagen, which plays a crucial role as a structural and regulatory molecule of scar tissue. Since honey and ascorbic acid have presented a great therapeutic potential to cellular and structural level, experimental studies have proposed its combination in the treatment of wounds. Aim: To evaluate stereological and morphometric parameters of healing wounds, caused by burns, treated with honey Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) unsupplemented, comparing its effect with Ulmo honey supplemented with ascorbic acid. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used, of both sexes, average weight 450 g from the Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Morfológicos y Quirúrgicos (CEMyQ) at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The animals were divided at random into three groups: positive control (C+), honey only (H) and supplemented honey (SH) and were fed on pellets supplemented with ascorbic acid and water ad libitum, under ambient conditions controlled for temperature, ambient noise and a cycle of 12h light–darkness. The protocol for the experiment was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The parameters measured were number density per area (NA), volume density (VV), and surface density (SV) of fibroblast; NA and VV of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and, evaluation of the content of collagen fibers in the scar dermis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis and its respective Post hoc tests. Results: The ANOVA analysis for NA, VV and SV of fibroblasts, NA and VV of PMN, and evaluation of collagen content, type I and III, showed that at least one group differs from other (P≤ 0.001). There were differences (P= 0.000) in NA of fibroblast between the groups [C+= 3599.560 mm-2 (SD= 764.461), H= 3355.336 mm-2 (SD= 699.443) and SH= 4253.025 mm-2 (SD= 1041.751)]. The VV and SV of fibroblast increased (P= 0.000) in the SH group [20.400% (SD= 5.897) and 100.876 mm2/mm3 (SD= 29.431), respectively], compared to the C+ [16.324% (SD= 7.719) and 81.676 mm2/mm3 (SD= 28.884), respectively). The mean values of NA and VV of PMN were higher (P= 0.000) in the H [756.875 mm-2 (SD= 516.489) and 2.686% (SD= 2.380), respectively) group. Regarding to the evaluation of the content of collagen fibers, type I and III, the one-way analysis of ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). The content of collagen fibers type I was higher in C+ (1988.292 μm2; SD= 1312.379), while the content of collagen fibers type III was higher in SH (1967.163 μm2; SD= 1047.944 μm2) group. Conclusions: The stereological results were correlated with the stage of healing observed for each group. These results suggest that the combination of honey with ascorbic acid potentiate the healing effect, where both participated synergistically.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, morphometry, stereology, Ulmo honey

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1 Structural and Functional Correlates of Reaction Time Variability in a Large Sample of Healthy Adolescents and Adolescents with ADHD Symptoms

Authors: Laura O’Halloran, Zhipeng Cao, Clare M. Kelly, Hugh Garavan, Robert Whelan


Reaction time (RT) variability on cognitive tasks provides the index of the efficiency of executive control processes (e.g. attention and inhibitory control) and is considered to be a hallmark of clinical disorders, such as attention-deficit disorder (ADHD). Increased RT variability is associated with structural and functional brain differences in children and adults with various clinical disorders, as well as poorer task performance accuracy. Furthermore, the strength of functional connectivity across various brain networks, such as the negative relationship between the task-negative default mode network and task-positive attentional networks, has been found to reflect differences in RT variability. Although RT variability may provide an index of attentional efficiency, as well as being a useful indicator of neurological impairment, the brain substrates associated with RT variability remain relatively poorly defined, particularly in a healthy sample. Method: Firstly, we used the intra-individual coefficient of variation (ICV) as an index of RT variability from “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. We then examined the functional and structural neural correlates of ICV in a large sample of 14-year old healthy adolescents (n=1719). Of these, a subset had elevated symptoms of ADHD (n=80) and was compared to a matched non-symptomatic control group (n=80). The relationship between brain activity during successful and unsuccessful inhibitions and gray matter volume were compared with the ICV. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine if specific brain regions mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and ICV. Lastly, we looked at functional connectivity across various brain networks and quantified both positive and negative correlations during “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. Results: The brain data revealed that higher ICV was associated with increased structural and functional brain activation in the precentral gyrus in the whole sample and in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Lower ICV was associated with lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus in the whole sample and in the control group. Furthermore, our results indicated that activation in the precentral gyrus (Broadman Area 4) mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and behavioural ICV. Conclusion: This is the first study first to investigate the functional and structural correlates of ICV collectively in a large adolescent sample. Our findings demonstrate a concurrent increase in brain structure and function within task-active prefrontal networks as a function of increased RT variability. Furthermore, structural and functional brain activation patterns in the ACC, and medial frontal gyrus plays a role-optimizing top-down control in order to maintain task performance. Our results also evidenced clear differences in brain morphometry between adolescents with symptoms of ADHD but without clinical diagnosis and typically developing controls. Our findings shed light on specific functional and structural brain regions that are implicated in ICV and yield insights into effective cognitive control in healthy individuals and in clinical groups.

Keywords: ADHD, fMRI, reaction-time variability, default mode, functional connectivity

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