Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 245

Search results for: 3D Printing

245 Comparison of Tensile Strength and Folding Endurance of (FDM Process) 3D Printed ABS and PLA Materials

Authors: R. Devicharan

Abstract:

In a short span 3D Printing is expected to play a vital role in our life. The possibility of creativity and speed in manufacturing through various 3D printing processes is infinite. This study is performed on the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method of 3D printing, which is one of the pre-dominant methods of 3D printing technologies. This study focuses on physical properties of the objects produced by 3D printing which determine the applications of the 3D printed objects. This paper specifically aims at the study of the tensile strength and the folding endurance of the 3D printed objects through the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method using the ABS (Acronitirile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) plastic materials. The study is performed on a controlled environment and the specific machine settings. Appropriate tables, graphs are plotted and research analysis techniques will be utilized to analyse, verify and validate the experiment results.

Keywords: FDM process, 3D printing, ABS for 3D printing, PLA for 3D printing, rapid prototyping

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244 The Bloom of 3D Printing in the Health Care Industry

Authors: Mihika Shivkumar, Krishna Kumar, C. Perisamy

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3D printing is a method of manufacturing wherein materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited in layers one on top of the other to produce a three dimensional object. 3D printing is most commonly associated with creating engineering prototypes. However, its applications in the field of human health care have been frequently disregarded. Medical applications for 3D printing are expanding rapidly and are envisaged to revolutionize health care. Medical applications for 3D printing, both present and its potential, can be categorized broadly, including: creation of customized prosthetics tissue and organ fabrication; creation of implants, and anatomical models and pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms. This piece breaks down bioprinting in the healthcare sector. It focuses on the better subtle elements of every particular point, including how 3D printing functions in the present, its impediments, and future applications in the health care sector.

Keywords: bio-printing, prototype, drug delivery, organ regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
243 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali

Abstract:

3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
242 3D Printing Technology in Housing Projects Construction

Authors: Mohammed F. Haddad, Mohammad A. Albenayyan

Abstract:

Realistically, 3-D printing as a technology has not yet reached the required maturity level to handle construction housing projects for citizens on a country scale. However, potentially, it has all of the required elements for addressing this issue. There are two main high-level elements of this technology that need to be capitalized on in order for the technology to reach its full potential, technical and logistical. This paper aims to cover how 3-D printing can be a viable technical solution for housing projects and describe the impact of 3-D printing technical features on the logistical aspects of completing a housing project. Additionally, a perspective about 3-D printing in Saudi Arabia will be presented in order to give the reader an idea of where the kingdom stands in the deployment of this technology. Finally, a glimpse will be given regarding the potential utilization of this technology for space applications.

Keywords: large-scale 3-D printing, additive manufacturing, D- shape, contour crafting

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
241 3D Printing: Rebounding from Global Supply Chain Disruption Due to Natural Disaster

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Jasmeen Kaur, Mukul Dhiman

Abstract:

This paper mainly describes the significance of 3D printing in the supply chain management in a scenario when there is disruption in global supply chain. Furthermore, the development and implementation of supply chain strategies in context of 3D printing technology is framed to make supply chain of an organization resilient to disruption caused by natural disasters.

Keywords: 3D printing, global supply chain, supply chain management, supply chain strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
240 In Situ Production of Nano-Cu on a Cotton Fabric Surface by Ink-Jet Printing

Authors: N. Zoghi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The nano-Cu particles were produced on cotton fabric substrate by ink-jet printing technology with water-soluble ink, which was based on copper. The surface tension and viscosity of the prepared inks were evaluated. The ink-jet printing process was repeated 1, 3, and 5 times in order to evaluate variations in the optical properties by changing thickness of printed film. Following initial drying of the printed film, the samples were annealed at different temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the parameters set out in this experiment. The prepared nano-Cu particles were characterized by XRD and UV spectroscopy. The appearance of printed image and the nano-Cu particles morphology were observed by SEM. The results demonstrated that the ink-jet printing technology can be used to produce nano-particles on the cotton fabrics surface.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, nano-cu, fabric ink, in situ production, cotton fabric, water-soluble ink, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
239 Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process

Authors: Kai-Jui Kou, Tzu-Ling Shen, Ying-Fang Wang

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The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, particle emission, 3D printing, number concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
238 Geopolymer Stabilization of Earth Building Material for Construction 3D Printing

Authors: Timur Mukhametkaliyev

Abstract:

The earthen material possesses low compression strength, and it is highly sensitive to the water content. Different binders can be added (Portland cement or lime) to improve the durability and the mechanical characteristics of earthen material, but the production of these binders has high embodied energy and results in an increase in world CO₂ emission. Geopolymers are binders which can be synthesized at low temperature in alkaline solutions from raw materials consisting of amorphous aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are an attractive substitution of Portland cement and can be used as an excellent stabilization for earthen material. In this study, earthen material stabilized with geopolymer binder for use in construction 3D printing was developed. Construction 3D printing offers freedom of design, waste minimisation, customisation, reduced labour, and automation. For successful 3D printing, the properties of used material are the most important aspects because they require adaptability for extrusion and controlled time of hardening for the binder.

Keywords: 3D printing, building construction, geopolymer, architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
237 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

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As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
236 Ketones Emission during Pad Printing Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Aksentijević M. Snežana, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna, Djogo Z. Maja

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The paper investigates the effect of light intensity on the formation of two ketones, acetone and methyl ethyl ketone, in working premises of five pad printing departments in Novi Sad, Serbia. Multiple linear regression analysis examined the form of interdependency concentrations of methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and light intensity in five printing presses at seven sampling points, using Statistica software package version 10th. The results show an average stacking variation investigated variable and can be presented by the general regression model: y = b0 + b1xi1 + b2xi2.

Keywords: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, multiple linear regression analysis, pad printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
235 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

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Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
234 Application and Evaluation of 3D Printing Technology in Customized Fashion Industry

Authors: A. Ezza, B. M. Babar Ramzan, C. Hira

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This study deliberates emerging design activates in 3D printing technology, the paper provides the insight into the broad opportunities in 3D printing applications in fashion world. 3D printing is becoming a reason for reduction of lead time. The process engenders the precise models and one of prototype components for design approbation; trail and testing significance through the production components to be utilized in true working environments. This emerging technology have given elevate to an emergent realm of digitally fabricated art and design. Bitonic Creations, CONTINUUM (3D printed shoes), Jiri Evenhuis, Michael Schmidt have be giving extensive amassments of haute couture dresses and accessories. Cosyflex TM, N12 undergarments are examples of an innovative process for 3D printing. Varied types of liquid polymers such as latex, silicon, polyurethane and Teflon as well as a variety of textile fibers such as cotton, viscose and polyamide enable tailor made fabrics for any need. Patterns, perforations, embossing and embellishments may be created by printing on 3D structure base plate. Computer solidifies material feedstock layer by layer with micro-millimeter detail. In lieu of producing textiles by meter, then cutting and sewing them into final product, 3D printing can become a reason to make sewing equipment obsolete. The findings positively corroborates the expected advantage of 3D printed sample that seem to facilitate the first steps for designer.

Keywords: 3D printing, customization, fashion industry, Haute couture

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233 Industrial Revolution: Army Production

Authors: M. Şimşek

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Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, operational cost, operational readiness, supply chain, three dimensional printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
232 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild

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Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

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231 Future Applications of 4D Printing in Dentistry

Authors: Hosamuddin Hamza

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The major concept of 4D printing is self-folding under thermal and humidity changes. This concept relies on understanding how the microstructures of 3D-printed models can undergo spontaneous shape transformation under thermal and moisture changes. The transformation mechanism could be achieved by mixing, in a controllable pattern, a number of materials within the printed model, each with known strain/shrinkage properties. 4D printing has a strong potential to be applied in dentistry as the technology could produce dynamic and adaptable materials to be used as functional objects in the oral environment under the continuously changing thermal and humidity conditions. The motion criteria could override the undesired dimensional changes, thermal instability, polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. 4D printing could produce restorative materials being self-adjusted spontaneously without further intervention from the dentist or patient; that is, the materials could be capable of fixing its failed portions, compensating for some lost tooth structure, while avoiding microleakage or overhangs at the margins. In prosthetic dentistry, 4D printing could provide an option to manage the influence of bone and soft tissue imbalance during mastication (and at rest) with high predictability of the type/direction of forces. It can also produce materials with better fitting and retention characteristics than conventional or 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that 4D-printed objects, having dynamic properties, could provide some cushion as they undergo self-folding compensating for any thermal changes or mechanical forces such as traumatic forces.

Keywords: functional material, self-folding material, 3D printing, 4D printing

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230 Fabric Printing Design: An Inspiration from Thai Kites

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

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This research paper was aimed to study different motifs found on Thai kites in order to be create new fabric printing designs. The objectives of the study were (1) to examine different motifs of Thai kites; and (2) to create appropriate printing designs for fabric based on an examination of motifs of Thai kites from primary and secondary sources. The study found that designs, motifs and colors found on Thai kites were various based on individual artisans’ imagination in each period. From the historical review, there have been 4 kinds of Thai kites namely I-Loom Kite, Pak Pao Kite, Chula Kite and Dui Dui Kite. Nowadays, the kite designs have been developed to be more various by shape and color such as snake- shaped kite, owl-shaped kite and peacock-shaped kite.

Keywords: Thai kites, fabric printing design

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
229 Improving Sustainability of the Apparel Industry with Joining the Forces among the Brand Owners: The Case Study of Digital Textile Printing

Authors: Babak Mohajeri, Elina Ilen, Timo Nyberg

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Sustainability has become an important topic in contemporary business. The apparel industry is a good example to assess sustainability in practice. Value chains in the apparel industry are faced with various challenges regarding sustainability issues. Apparel companies pay higher attention to economic sustainability issues, and environmental and social sustainability issues of the apparel industry are often underrated. In this paper, we analyze the role of the different players in the value chain of the apparel industry in terms of sustainability. We realize that the brand owners have the highest impact on improving the sustainability of the apparel industry. We design a collaborative business model to join the forces among the brand owners for improving the sustainability of the apparel industry throughout the value chain. We have conducted a case study of shifting from conventional screen-printing to more environmentally sustainable digital textile printing. We suggest that this shift can be accelerated if the brand owners join their forces together to shift from conventional printing to digital printing technology in the apparel industry. Based on the proposed business model, we suggest future directions for using joining the forces among the brand owners for case of sustainability

Keywords: sustainability, digital textile printing , joining forces, apparel industry

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228 Design of Quality Assessment System for On-Orbit 3D Printing Based on 3D Construction Technology

Authors: Jianning Tang, Trevor Hocksun Kwan, Xiaofeng Wu

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With the increasing demand for space use in multiple sectors (navigation, telecommunication, imagery, etc.), the deployment and maintenance demand of satellites is growing. Considering the high launching cost and the restrictions on the weight and size of the payload when using a launch vehicles, the technique of on-orbit manufacturing has obtained more attention as its significant potential to support future space missions. 3D printing is the most promising manufacturing technology that could be applied in space. However, due to the lack of autonomous quality assessment, the operation of conventional 3D printers still relies on human presence to guide the printing process. This paper is proposed to develop an automatic 3D reconstruction system used to detect multiple failures on the 3D printed objects by using machine learning and active detection technology. Based on the data obtained from the 3D reconstruction, the 3D printer could locate the failure and has the potential to repair the failure. The system will make the printer more autonomous and provide 3D printing with more feasibilities for space use without human interference.

Keywords: 3D printing, quality assessment, 3D reconstruction, on-orbit manufacture

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227 The Relevance of Bioinspired Architecture and Programmable Materials for Development of 4D Printing

Authors: Daniela Ribeiro, Silvia Lenyra Meirelles Campos Titotto

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Nature has long served as inspiration for humans, since various technologies present in society are a mirror of the natural world. This is due to the fact that nature has adapted for millions of years to possess the characteristics they have today. In this sense, man takes advantage of this situation and uses it to produce his own objects and solve his problems. This concept, which is known as biomimetics, is something relatively new, once it was only denominated in 1957. Nature, in turn, responds directly and consistently to environmental conditions. For example, plants that have touch sensitivity contract with this stimulus. Such a situation resembles a technology that has been gaining ground in the contemporary world of scientific innovation: 4D printing. 4D printing technology emerged in 2012 as a complement to 3D printing and presents numerous benefits since it provides a deficiency in the second kind of printing mentioned. This type of technology reaches several areas, since it is capable of producing materials that change over time, be it in its composition, form or properties and is such a characteristic that determines the additional dimension of the material. Precisely because of these factors, this type of impression resembles nature and is related to biomimetics. However, only certain types of ‘intelligent’ materials are generally employed in this type of impression, since only they will respond well to such stimuli, one of which is the hydrogel. The hydrogel is a biocompatible polymer that presents several applications, these in turn will be briefly mentioned in this article to exemplify its importance and the reason for choosing this material as object of study. In addition, aspects that configure 4D printing will be treated here, such as the importance of architecture, programming language and the reversibility of printed materials.

Keywords: 4D printing, biomimetic, hydrogel, materials

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226 Material Choice Driving Sustainability of 3D Printing

Authors: Jeremy Faludi, Zhongyin Hu, Shahd Alrashed, Christopher Braunholz, Suneesh Kaul, Leulekal Kassaye

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Environmental impacts of six 3D printers using various materials were compared to determine if material choice drove sustainability, or if other factors such as machine type, machine size, or machine utilization dominate. Cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessments were performed, comparing a commercial-scale FDM machine printing in ABS plastic, a desktop FDM machine printing in ABS, a desktop FDM machine printing in PET and PLA plastics, a polyjet machine printing in its proprietary polymer, an SLA machine printing in its polymer, and an inkjet machine hacked to print in salt and dextrose. All scenarios were scored using ReCiPe Endpoint H methodology to combine multiple impact categories, comparing environmental impacts per part made for several scenarios per machine. Results showed that most printers’ ecological impacts were dominated by electricity use, not materials, and the changes in electricity use due to different plastics was not significant compared to variation from one machine to another. Variation in machine idle time determined impacts per part most strongly. However, material impacts were quite important for the inkjet printer hacked to print in salt: In its optimal scenario, it had up to 1/38th the impacts coreper part as the worst-performing machine in the same scenario. If salt parts were infused with epoxy to make them more physically robust, then much of this advantage disappeared, and material impacts actually dominated or equaled electricity use. Future studies should also measure DMLS and SLS processes / materials.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, sustainability, life-cycle assessment, design for environment

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225 3D Medical Printing the Key Component in Future of Medical Applications

Authors: Zahra Asgharpour, Eric Renteria, Sebastian De Boodt

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There is a growing trend towards personalization of medical care, as evidenced by the emphasis on outcomes based medicine, the latest developments in CT and MR imaging and personalized treatment in a variety of surgical disciplines. 3D Printing has been introduced and applied in the medical field since 2000. The first applications were in the field of dental implants and custom prosthetics. According to recent publications, 3D printing in the medical field has been used in a wide range of applications which can be organized into several categories including implants, prosthetics, anatomical models and tissue bioprinting. Some of these categories are still in their infancy stage of the concept of proof while others are in application phase such as the design and manufacturing of customized implants and prosthesis. The approach of 3D printing in this category has been successfully used in the health care sector to make both standard and complex implants within a reasonable amount of time. In this study, some of the clinical applications of 3D printing in design and manufacturing of a patient-specific hip implant would be explained. In cases where patients have complex bone geometries or are undergoing a complex revision on hip replacement, the traditional surgical methods are not efficient, and hence these patients require patient-specific approaches. There are major advantages in using this new technology for medical applications, however, in order to get this technology widely accepted in medical device industry, there is a need for gaining more acceptance from the medical device regulatory offices. This is a challenge that is moving onward and will help the technology find its way at the end as an accepted manufacturing method for medical device industry in an international scale. The discussion will conclude with some examples describing the future directions of 3D Medical Printing.

Keywords: CT/MRI, image processing, 3D printing, medical devices, patient specific implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
224 History and Development of the Printing Industry in Nigeria: The Case of Zaria

Authors: Eunice S. A. Jeje

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The world over no society is homogeneous therefore, there is the presence of migrants from different places who resides in different places due to certain factors that either attracts them to these places or forced them out of their initial environment. The bottom line is that they moved out of their initial environment to other places for survival, therefore, engage in social cum economic activities to sustain a living which at the same time has enhanced the development and growth of such communities. In the case of Zaria, the Yoruba people are one of the major migrant groups who had moved into Zaria over time. Out of the numerous roles they played in the development of Zaria, the establishment and sustenance of the printing industry are one. Selected Yoruba migrants from the South-west of the country who were skilled in the profession due to stiff competition in their region and the desire to eke out a living had to move into Northern Nigeria to establish printing outlets which have consequently developed to what it is today. The printing industry is one of the avenues to which information and knowledge are disseminated. This is achieved through the publishing of texts, books, Newspapers, Magazines, pamphlets, etc. to convey information to the wider public, in this bid, it leads to the spread of knowledge, ideas, and information. The introduction of printing industry to Nigeria was in the 19th century during the incursion of the missionaries to the West Coast of Africa, but it was not until the colonial period (20th Century) that its presence could be felt in the interior of Nigeria especially in Northern Nigeria and to be specific in Zaria. In essence, the influence of the Yoruba people in the growth and expansion of printing industry in Zaria cannot be over emphasized. It is the thrust of this research to bring to the fore through the use of primary and secondary sources the role and contributions of the Yoruba people in the development of the print industry in Zaria and also showcase the importance of migrants in the development of societies.

Keywords: development, printing industry, Yoruba, Zaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
223 3D-printing for Ablation Planning in Patients Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: 3D-GALA Trial

Authors: Terentes Printzios Dimitrios, Loanna Gourgouli, Vlachopoulos Charalambos

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Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the major causes of stroke, heart failure, sudden death and cardiovascular morbidity. Ablation techniques are becoming more appealing after the latest results of randomized trials showing the overall clinical benefit. On the other hand, imaging techniques and the frontier application of 3D printing are emerging as a valuable ally for cardiac procedures. However, no randomized trial has directly assessed the impact of preprocedural imaging and especially 3D printing guidance for AF ablation. The present study is designed to investigate for the first time the effect of 3D printing of the heart on the safety and effectiveness of the ablation procedure. Methods and design: The 3D-GALA trial is a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of 2 parallel groups designed to enroll a total of 100 patients undergoing ablation using cryo-balloon for paroxysmal and persistent AF. Patients will be randomized with a patient allocation ratio of 1: 1 to preprocedural MRI scan of the heart and 3D printing of left atrium and pulmonary veins and cryoablation versus standard cryoablation without imaging. Patients will be followed up to 6 months after the index procedure. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of radiation dose and contrast amount during pulmonary veins isolation. Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of atrial fibrillation relapse at 24h-Holter electrocardiogram monitoring at 6 months after initial treatment. Discussion: To our knowledge, the 3D-GALA trial will be the first study to provide evidence about the clinical impact of preprocedural imaging and 3D printing before cryoablation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cardiac MRI, cryoablation, 3-d printing

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222 3D Printing of Dual Tablets: Modified Multiple Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine

Authors: Veronika Lesáková, Silvia Slezáková, František Štěpánek

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Additive manufacturing technologies producing drug dosage forms aimed at personalized medicine applications are promising strategies with several advantages over the conventional production methods. One of the emerging technologies is 3D printing which reduces manufacturing steps and thus allows a significant drop in expenses. A decrease in material consumption is also a highly impactful benefit as the tested drugs are frequently expensive substances. In addition, 3D printed dosage forms enable increased patient compliance and prevent misdosing as the dosage forms are carefully designed according to the patient’s needs. The incorporation of multiple drugs into a single dosage form further increases the degree of personalization. Our research focuses on the development of 3D printed tablets incorporating multiple drugs (candesartan, losartan) and thermoplastic polymers (e.g., KlucelTM HPC EF). The filaments, an essential feed material for 3D printing,wereproduced via hot-melt extrusion. Subsequently, the extruded filaments of various formulations were 3D printed into tablets using an FDM 3D printer. Then, we have assessed the influence of the internal structure of 3D printed tablets and formulation on dissolution behaviour by obtaining the dissolution profiles of drugs present in the 3D printed tablets. In conclusion, we have developed tablets containing multiple drugs providing modified release profiles. The 3D printing experiments demonstrate the high tunability of 3D printing as each tablet compartment is constructed with a different formulation. Overall, the results suggest that the 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing approach to dual tablet preparation for personalized medicine.

Keywords: 3D printing, drug delivery, hot-melt extrusion, dissolution kinetics

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221 Experimenting with Clay 3D Printing Technology to Create an Undulating Facade

Authors: Naeimehsadat Hosseininam, Rui Wang, Dishita Shah

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In recent years, new experimental approaches with the help of the new technology have bridged the gaps between the application of natural materials and creating unconventional forms. Clay has been one of the oldest building materials in all ancient civilizations. The availability and workability of clay have contributed to the widespread application of this material around the world. The aim of this experimental research is to apply the Clay 3D printing technology to create a load bearing and visually dynamic and undulating façade. Creation of different unique pieces is the most significant goal of this research which justifies the application of 3D printing technology instead of the conventional mass industrial production. This study provides an abbreviated overview of the similar cases which have used the Clay 3D printing to generate the corresponding prototypes. The study of these cases also helps in understanding the potential and flexibility of the material and 3D printing machine in developing different forms. In the next step, experimental research carried out by 3D printing of six various options which designed considering the properties of clay as well as the methodology of them being 3D printed. Here, the ratio of water to clay (W/C) has a significant role in the consistency of the material and the workability of the clay. Also, the size of the selected nozzle impacts the shape and the smoothness of the final surface. Moreover, the results of these experiments show the limitations of clay toward forming various slopes. The most notable consequence of having steep slopes in the prototype is an unpredicted collapse which is the result of internal tension in the material. From the six initial design ideas, the final prototype selected with the aim of creating a self-supported component with unique blocks that provides a possibility of installing the insulation system within the component. Apart from being an undulated façade, the presented prototype has the potential to be used as a fence and an interior partition (double-sided). The central shaft also provides a space to run services or insulation in different parts of the wall. In parallel to present the capability and potential of the clay 3D printing technology, this study illustrates the limitations of this system in some certain areas. There are inevitable parameters such as printing speed, temperature, drying speed that need to be considered while printing each piece. Clay 3D printing technology provides the opportunity to create variations and design parametric building components with the application of the most practiced material in the world.

Keywords: clay 3D printing, material capability, undulating facade, load bearing facade

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
220 Accelerated Aging of Photopolymeric Material Used in Flexography

Authors: S. Mahovic Poljacek, T. Tomasegovic, T. Cigula, D. Donevski, R. Szentgyörgyvölgyi, S. Jakovljevic

Abstract:

In this paper, a degradation of the photopolymeric material (PhPM), used as printing plate in the flexography reproduction technique, caused by accelerated aging has been observed. Since the basis process for production of printing plates from the PhPM is a radical cross-linking process caused by exposing to UV wavelengths, the assumption was that improper storage or irregular handling of the PhPM plate can change the surface and structure characteristics of the plates. Results have shown that the aging process causes degradation in the structure and changes in the surface of the PhPM printing plate.

Keywords: aging process, artificial treatment, flexography, photopolymeric material (PhPM)

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219 Identification of a Print Design Approach for the Application of Multicolour and Pattern Changing Effects

Authors: Dilusha Rajapakse

Abstract:

The main reason for printing coloured imageries, pattern or motif onto textiles is to enhance the visual appearance of the surface so that the final textile product would get the required attention from potential customers. Such colours and patterns are permanently applied onto the textiles using conventional static colourants, and we expect such decorations to be last for the entire lifecycle of the textile product. The focus of this research presentation is to discuss the ability to integrate multicolour and pattern changing aesthetics onto textiles with the application of water based photochromic colourants. By adopting a research through design approach, a number of iterative flatbed screen printing experiments were conducted to explore the process of printing water based photochromic colours on textile surfaces. The research resulted in several technical parameters that have to be considered during the process of screen printing. Moreover, a modified printing technique that could be used to apply decorative photographic imagery onto textile with multicolour changing effects was also identified. A number of product applications for such dynamic printed textiles were revealed, and appropriate visual evidence was referred to justify the finding.

Keywords: dynamic aesthetics, multicolour changing textiles, non-emissive colours, printed textile design

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218 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn

Abstract:

The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

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217 The Impact Evaluation of the Innovation Implementation within the EU Funds on the SMEs Performance Results

Authors: Beata Ślusarczyk, Sebastian Kot

Abstract:

In subjective terms, Polish SME sector occupies a prominent position in the national economic development, in which planning of the management strategies should be primarily based on identifying and meeting the innovation needs. As a research sample, there is chosen a printing sector of industry. SMEs share in printing sector in Poland is estimated at the level of 81% of all enterprises. In recent years, the printing industry achieved one of the highest levels of EU support in Poland. There is a relatively high increase in the development of technological innovations in equipment and the associated significant increase in production capacity. It can be also noticed that on average, every third enterprise belonging to the printing industry has implemented innovations, but not all of them effected in better economic results. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of the implementation of innovation projects financed from the EU funds for performance of SMEs in the printing industry. As the results of research of EU funds co-financing effects on the development of innovation in the printing industry, it was specified that examined SMEs prefer to implement product innovation to receive a grant to the project at a level between 40% to 60%, the remaining part of the investment is usually covered with equity. The most common type of innovation had indicated a single implementation, related only to the change in process, technology, or organization. The relationship between variables of the EU funds and management of innovative activities was verified. It has been observed that the identified variables arising from the support in a form of the EU funds had a positive effect on the level of earned revenue, the increase in margin and in increase in employment as well. It was confirmed that the implemented innovations supported by the European funds have a positive impact on the performance of the printing companies. Although there is a risk that due to the decreasing demand for printing services such a high level of funding the companies in this sector will significantly increase competition in the long term, that may also contribute to the economic problems of the enterprises belonging to the analyzed branch.

Keywords: innovations, SMEs, performance, results

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216 Fluorescent Terbium-organic framework-doped Polyethylene Composites for FDM 3D Printing in Packaging Security Features

Authors: Youssef R. Hassan, Mohamed S. Hasanin, Reda M. Abdelhameed

Abstract:

Recently, innovations in packaging security features become more important to see the originality of packaging in industrial application. Luminescent 3d printing materials have been a promising property which can provides a unique opportunity for the design and application of 3D printing. Lack emission of terbium ions, as a source of green emission, in salt form prevent its uses in industrial applications, so searching about stable and highly emitter material become more essential. Nowadays, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) play an important role in designing light emitter material. In this work, novel fluorescent high density polyethylene (FHDPE) composite filament with Tb-benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Tb-BTC) MOFs for 3D printing have been successfully developed. HDPE pellets were mixed with Tb-BTC and melting extrustion with single screw extruders. It was found that Tb-BTC uniformly dispersed in the HDPE matrix and significantly increased the crystallinity of PE, which not only maintained the good thermal property but also improved the mechanical properties of [email protected] composites. Notably, the composite filaments emitted ultra-bright green light under UV lamp, and the fluorescence intensity increased as the content of Tb-BTC increased. Finally, several brightly luminescent exquisite articles could be manufactured by fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer with these new fluorescent filaments. The development of novel fluorescent [email protected] composites combined with 3D printing technology.

Keywords: 3D printing, packaging, security, fluorescent

Procedia PDF Downloads 58