Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Erin T. Carey

20 Pathology of Explanted Transvaginal Meshes

Authors: Vladimir V. Iakovlev, Erin T. Carey, John Steege

Abstract:

The use of polypropylene mesh devices for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) spread rapidly during the last decade, yet our knowledge of the mesh-tissue interaction is far from complete. We aimed to perform a thorough pathological examination of explanted POP meshes and describe findings that may explain mechanisms of complications resulting in product excision. We report a spectrum of important findings, including nerve ingrowth, mesh deformation, involvement of detrusor muscle with neural ganglia, and polypropylene degradation. Analysis of these findings may improve and guide future treatment strategies.

Keywords: transvaginal, mesh, nerves, polypropylene degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
19 Psychological and Ethical Factors in African American Custody Litigation

Authors: Brian Carey Sims

Abstract:

The current study examines psychological factors relevant to child custody litigation among African American fathers. Thirty-seven fathers engaged in various stages of custody litigation involving their children were surveyed about their perceptions of racial stereotypes, parental motivations, and racialized dynamics of the court/ legal process. Data were analyzed using a Critical Race Theory model designed to statistically isolate fathers’ perceptions of the existence and maintenance of structural racism through the legal process. Results indicate significant correlations between fathers’ psychological measures and structural outcomes of their cases. Findings are discussed in terms of ethical implications for family court judicial systems and attorney practice.

Keywords: ethics, family, legal psychology, policy, race

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
18 Hybrid Knowledge Approach for Determining Health Care Provider Specialty from Patient Diagnoses

Authors: Erin Lynne Plettenberg, Jeremy Vickery

Abstract:

In an access-control situation, the role of a user determines whether a data request is appropriate. This paper combines vetted web mining and logic modeling to build a lightweight system for determining the role of a health care provider based only on their prior authorized requests. The model identifies provider roles with 100% recall from very little data. This shows the value of vetted web mining in AI systems, and suggests the impact of the ICD classification on medical practice.

Keywords: electronic medical records, information extraction, logic modeling, ontology, vetted web mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
17 Viewing Entrepreneurship Through a Goal Congruity Lens: The Roles of Dominance and Communal Goal Orientations in Women’s and Men’s Venture Interests

Authors: Xiaoming Yang, Abby Folberg, Carey Ryan, Lwetzel, Tgoering

Abstract:

We examined gender differences in entrepreneurial career interests drawing on goal congruity theory, which posits that people adopt gender-stereotypic goal orientations in response to social pressures to conform to traditional gender roles. Aspiring entrepreneurs (N = 351) first wrote three to five sentences about what they believed made an entrepreneur successful. They then completed measures of agentic and communal goal orientations (i.e., male and female stereotypic orientations, respectively) and indicated their interests in starting ventures in stereotypically feminine (e.g., salon), masculine (e.g., auto-repair) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM; e.g., software developer) ventures. Qualitative analyses demonstrated that participants ascribed agentic and, more specifically, dominance, attributes to entrepreneurs; few participants ascribed communal attributes (e.g., warmth). Bifactor structural equation modeling indicated that, as expected, agentic goal orientations included dimensions of competence, self-direction, and dominance orientations and communal goal orientations were unidimensional. Further, as expected, dominance and communal orientations partially accounted for gender differences in all three career types. We discuss implications for entrepreneurial education and practice from a goal congruity perspective and the use of bifactor modeling to improve the measurement of goal orientations.

Keywords: gender, entrepreneurship, gender stereotypes, agentic and communal goal orientations, entrepreneurship education

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
16 First 1000 Days: Mothers’ Understanding of an Attachment Bond and the Role That It Plays in Early Childhood

Authors: Athena Pedro, Carushca de Beer, Erin Cupido, Tarryn Johnson, Tawana Keneilwe, Crystal Stoffels, Carinne Annfred Lorraine Petersen, Kuan Michael Truskey

Abstract:

The early experiences of children during their first 1000 days of life are the main determining factor of their development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore mothers' understanding of an attachment bond and the role that it plays in early childhood. A qualitative exploratory research design guided this study. Ethics approval was granted by appropriate ethics committees. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews with 15 participants within the Cape Town area, South Africa. Participants completed informed consents and were informed of confidentiality, anonymity, their rights, and voluntary participation. Thematically analysed data revealed that many participants were unaware of the term ‘the first 1000 days of a child’s life’; however, they were aware of the methods to be used for forming an attachment bond with their children. There is a need for more awareness on the subject matter within South Africa.

Keywords: awareness, children, first 1000 days, milestones, South Africa, understanding

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
15 Determining Current and Future Training Needs of Ontario Workers Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities

Authors: Erin C. Rodenburg, Jennifer McWhirter, Andrew Papadopoulos

Abstract:

Support workers for adults with developmental disabilities promote the care and wellbeing of a historically underserved population. Poor employment training and low work satisfaction for these disability support workers are linked to low productivity, poor quality of care, turnover, and intention to leave employment. Therefore, to improve the lives of those within disability support homes, both client and caregiver, it is vital to determine where improvements to training and support for those providing direct care can be made. The current study aims to explore disability support worker’s perceptions of the training received in their employment at the residential homes, how it prepared them for their role, and where there is room for improvement with the aim of developing recommendations for an improved training experience. Responses were collected from 85 disability support workers across 40 Ontario group homes. Findings suggest most disability support workers within the 40 support homes feel adequately trained in their responsibilities of employment. For those who did not feel adequately trained, the main issues expressed were a lack of standardization in training, a need for more continuous training, and a move away from trial and error in performing tasks to support clients with developmental disabilities.

Keywords: developmental disabilities, disability workers, support homes, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
14 Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Yunzi Chen, James Laybourne, Sarah Steven, Peter Carey, David Steel, Maria Sandinha

Abstract:

Introduction: Bariatric surgery is popular with the rising incidence of obesity. Its well-known benefits include significant and rapid glycaemic control. However, cases of paradoxical worsening in diabetic retinopathy (DR) despite improved glycaemic control have been reported. Purpose: clarification on the evolution of diabetic retinopathy after bariatric surgery. Method: retrospective study of 40 patients with Type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery in a UK specialist bariatric unit between 2009 and 2011. Pre-operative and post-operative visual acuity (VA), weight, HbA1c and annual DRSS screening results were analysed. Median follow up was 50 months. Results: No significant change in VA was found during the post-operative period. 85% of patients improved HbA1c post-operatively of which 53% achieved non-diabetic HbA1c of <6.1% - despite this, 2 patients developed new DR. First post-operative screening showed 80% of patients experienced no change, 8% improved but 13% of patients developed new DR (1 case with sight-threatening maculopathy). 80% of these cases persisted up to 24 months. The proportion of patients developing new or worse DR fluctuated over time, peaking at the 3rd annual screening with 26% (15% regressed, 56% stable). The probability of developing new or worse DR postoperatively was significantly associated with a high pre-operative HbA1c (>8%) and male gender. Conclusions: bariatric surgery does not guarantee long-term improvement or prevention of DR. Asymptomatic changes in DR occurred up to 5 years postoperatively. We therefore consider it prudent to continue screening in this cohort of patients.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, diabetic retinopathy, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
13 Come Play with Me: An Exploration of Rough-and-Tumble Play Interactions in Australian Families

Authors: Erin Louise Robinson, Emily Elsa Freeman

Abstract:

Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a physical and competitive type of play that parents engage in with their children. While past research has reported RTP to be the preferred play type for western fathers, the frequency of these interactions in Australian families have not been explored. With parental perceptions of play importance playing a major role in the frequency of activity engagement, the present study investigated how perceptions and parent gender impact on RTP play frequency. By utilising child gender in our approach, we also examined the historical trend of boys receiving more physical play interactions with their parents. Three hundred and seventy-nine respondents completed the study with their 0–10-year-old children. The results indicated that, in line with past research, parents engaged more frequently in RTP with their sons than their daughters. While, both mothers and fathers participated in RTP with their children, fathers perceived RTP to be of greater important to their child’s development than mothers did. Moreover, supporting previous findings, this more positive perception of the play was related to greater frequency of RTP in these father-child dyads. Although RTP literature remains heavily focussed on fathers, the fact that mothers are engaging in these interactions as well, establishes the need to explore maternal influences in future research.

Keywords: parenting, play, child development, family, Australia

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
12 Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Cornelius Olatunji Omojola, Dayo Martins Oyeshomo

Abstract:

The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, neighbourhood development, recreational park, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
11 I Feel Pretty: Using Discretization to Unpack Gender Disparity in Musical Theatre - A Study of Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story

Authors: Erin McKellar, Narelle Yeo

Abstract:

Gender disparity can be found in the representation of the female characters in Leonard Bernstein’s musical West Side Story. As a postmodern composer, Bernstein was open about his social activism, yet did not consider his compositional portrayal of female characters as part of that activism. Using discretization as an analysis tool, this thesis explores the melodic contours of male and female songs in West Side Story to show differences in complexity between male and female characterisation. The analysis explores the intervallic relationship between the vocal line and melodic color in relation to the accompaniment harmony, taking into consideration the use of consonance and dissonance. West Side Story is commonly known for its distinct use of the tritone motif and its inherent dissonance. It is evident when reviewing the findings of this study that there is a distinct disparity between male-led and female-led music. The male-led numbers consistently adhere to a dissonant aesthetic with the tritone motif implemented in all of the extracted songs. By contrast, the female songs remain consonant with simple intervallic movements. By examining the results of this study through the lens of Equality Feminism, this thesis finds that Bernstein has simplified the characterisations of the female leads. The thesis further proposes that without cognisant consideration of the compositional portrayal of women, the musical theatre will continue to reinforce gender stereotypes, as evident through this study of Bernstein’s West Side Story.

Keywords: music theatre, gender bias, composition, Leonard Bernstein

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
10 In vitro Skin Model for Enhanced Testing of Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote, Erin Anderson, Molly Richards

Abstract:

There are numerous standard test methods for antimicrobial textiles that measure activity against specific microorganisms. However, many times these results do not translate to the performance of treated textiles when worn by individuals. Standard test methods apply a single target organism grown under optimal conditions to a textile, then recover the organism to quantitate and determine activity; this does not reflect the actual performance environment that consists of polymicrobial communities in less than optimal conditions or interaction of the textile with the skin substrate. Here we propose the development of in vitro skin model method to bridge the gap between lab testing and wear studies. The model will consist of a defined polymicrobial community of 5-7 commensal microbes simulating the skin microbiome, seeded onto a solid tissue platform to represent the skin. The protocol would entail adding a non-commensal test organism of interest to the defined community and applying a textile sample to the solid substrate. Following incubation, the textile would be removed and the organisms recovered, which would then be quantitated to determine antimicrobial activity. Important parameters to consider include identification and assembly of the defined polymicrobial community, growth conditions to allow the establishment of a stable community, and choice of skin surrogate. This model could answer the following questions: 1) is the treated textile effective against the target organism? 2) How is the defined community affected? And 3) does the textile cause unwanted effects toward the skin simulant? The proposed model would determine activity under conditions comparable to the intended application and provide expanded knowledge relative to current test methods.

Keywords: antimicrobial textiles, defined polymicrobial community, in vitro skin model, skin microbiome

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
9 Personality-Focused Intervention for Adolescents: Impact on Bullying and Distress

Authors: Erin V. Kelly, Nicola C. Newton, Lexine A. Stapinski, Maree Teesson

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a lack of targeted prevention programs for reducing bullying and distress among adolescents involved in bullying. The current study aimed to examine the impact of a personality-targeted intervention (Preventure) on bullying (victimization and perpetration) and distress among adolescent victims/bullies with high-risk personality types. Method: A cluster randomized trial (RCT) was conducted in 26 secondary schools (2190 students) in NSW and Victoria, Australia, as part of the Climate Schools and Preventure trial. The schools were randomly allocated to Preventure (13 schools received Preventure, 13 did not). Students were followed up at 4 time points (6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-baseline). Preventure involves two group sessions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and tailored to four personality types shown to increase risk of substance misuse and other emotional and behavioural problems, including impulsivity, sensation-seeking, anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Students were allocated to the personality-targeted groups based on their scores on the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Bullying was measured using an amended version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Scale. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: Among high-risk students classified as victims at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less victimization and distress over time than those in control schools. Among high-risk students classified as bullies at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less distress over time than those in control schools (no difference for perpetration). Conclusion: Preventure is a promising intervention for reducing bullying victimization and psychological distress among adolescents involved in bullying.

Keywords: adolescents, bullying, personality, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
8 Medical Authorizations for Cannabis-Based Products in Canada: Sante Cannabis Data on Patient’s Safety and Treatment Profiles

Authors: Rihab Gamaoun, Cynthia El Hage, Laura Ruiz, Erin Prosk, Antonio Vigano

Abstract:

Introduction: Santé Cannabis (SC), a Canadian medical cannabis-specialized group of clinics based in Montreal and in the province of Québec, has served more than 5000 patients seeking cannabis-based treatment prescription for medical indications over the past five years. Within a research frame, data on the use of medical cannabis products from all the above patients were prospectively collected, leading to a large real-world database on the use of medical cannabis. The aim of this study was to gather information on the profiles of both patients and prescribed medical cannabis products at SC clinics and to assess the safety of medical cannabis among Canadian patients. Methods: Using a retrospective analysis of the database, records of 2585 patients who were prescribed medical cannabis products for therapeutic purposes between 01-November 2017 and 04-September 2019 were included. Patients’ demographics, primary diagnosis, route of administration, and chemovars recorded at the initial visits were investigated. Results: At baseline: 9% of SC patients were female, with a mean age of 57 (SD= 15.8, range= [18-96]); Cannabis products were prescribed mainly for patients with a diagnosis of chronic pain (65.9% of patients), cancer (9.4%), neurological disorders (6.5%), mood disorders (5.8 %) and inflammatory diseases (4.1%). Route of administration and chemovars of prescribed cannabis products were the following: 96% of patients received cannabis oil (51% CBD rich, 42.5% CBD:THC); 32.1% dried cannabis (21.3% CBD:THC, 7.4% THC rich, 3.4 CBD rich), and 2.1% oral spray cannabis (1.1% CBD:THC, 0.8% CBD rich, 0.2% THC rich). Most patients were prescribed simultaneously, a combination of products with different administration routes and chemovars. Safety analysis is undergoing. Conclusion: Our results provided initial information on the profile of medical cannabis products prescribed in a Canadian population and the experienced adverse events over the past three years. The Santé Cannabis database represents a unique opportunity for comparing clinical practices in prescribing and titrating cannabis-based medications across different centers. Ultimately real-world data, including information about safety and effectiveness, will help to create standardized and validated guidelines for choosing dose, route of administration, and chemovars types for the cannabis-based medication in different diseases and indications.

Keywords: medical cannabis, real-world data, safety, pharmacovigilance

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
7 Engagement as a Predictor of Student Flourishing in the Online Classroom

Authors: Theresa Veach, Erin Crisp

Abstract:

It has been shown that traditional students flourish as a function of several factors including level of academic challenge, student/faculty interactions, active/collaborative learning, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment. With the increase in demand for remote or online courses, factors that result in academic flourishing in the virtual classroom have become more crucial to understand than ever before. This study seeks to give insight into those factors that impact student learning, overall student wellbeing, and flourishing among college students enrolled in an online program. 4160 unique students participated in the completion of End of Course Survey (EOC) before final grades were released. Quantitative results from the survey are used by program directors as a measure of student satisfaction with both the curriculum and the faculty. In addition, students also submitted narrative comments in an open comment field. No prompts were given for the comment field on the survey. The purpose of this analysis was to report on the qualitative data available with the goal of gaining insight into what matters to students. Survey results from July 1st, 2016 to December 1st, 2016 were compiled into spreadsheet data sets. The analysis approach used involved both key word and phrase searches and reading results to identify patterns in responses and to tally the frequency of those patterns. In total, just over 25,000 comments were included in the analysis. Preliminary results indicate that it is the professor-student relationship, frequency of feedback and overall engagement of both instructors and students that are indicators of flourishing in college programs offered in an online format. This qualitative study supports the notion that college students flourish with regard to 1) education, 2) overall student well-being and 3) program satisfaction when overall engagement of both the instructor and the student is high. Ways to increase engagement in the online college environment were also explored. These include 1) increasing student participation by providing more project-based assignments, 2) interacting with students in meaningful ways that are both high in frequency and in personal content, and 3) allowing students to apply newly acquired knowledge in ways that are meaningful to current life circumstances and future goals.

Keywords: college, engagement, flourishing, online

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6 Pre-Operative Psychological Factors Significantly Add to the Predictability of Chronic Narcotic Use: A Two Year Prospective Study

Authors: Dana El-Mughayyar, Neil Manson, Erin Bigney, Eden Richardson, Dean Tripp, Edward Abraham

Abstract:

Use of narcotics to treat pain has increased over the past two decades and is a contributing factor to the current public health crisis. Understanding the pre-operative risks of chronic narcotic use may be aided through investigation of psychological measures. The objective of the reported study is to determine predictors of narcotic use two years post-surgery in a thoracolumbar spine surgery population, including an array of psychological factors. A prospective observational study of 191 consecutively enrolled adult patients having undergone thoracolumbar spine surgery is presented. Baseline measures of interest included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scales for back and leg pain (NRS-B/L), SF-12’s Mental Component Summary (MCS), narcotic use and demographic variables. The post-operative measure of interest is narcotic use at 2-year follow-up. Narcotic use is collapsed into binary categories of use and no use. Descriptive statistics are run. Chi Square analysis is used for categorical variables and an ANOVA for continuous variables. Significant variables are built into a hierarchical logistic regression to determine predictors of post-operative narcotic use. Significance is set at α < 0.05. Results: A total of 27.23% of the sample were using narcotics two years after surgery. The regression model included ODI, NRS-Leg, time with condition, chief complaint, pre-operative drug use, gender, MCS, PCS subscale helplessness, and CPAQ subscale pain willingness and was significant χ² (13, N=191)= 54.99; p = .000. The model accounted for 39.6% of the variance in narcotic use and correctly predicted in 79.7% of cases. Psychological variables accounted for 9.6% of the variance over and above the other predictors. Conclusions: Managing chronic narcotic usage is central to the patient’s overall health and quality of life. Psychological factors in the preoperative period are significant predictors of narcotic use 2 years post-operatively. The psychological variables are malleable, potentially allowing surgeons to direct their patients to preventative resources prior to surgery.

Keywords: narcotics, psychological factors, quality of life, spine surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5 Characterization of Particle Charge from Aerosol Generation Process: Impact on Infrared Signatures and Material Reactivity

Authors: Erin M. Durke, Monica L. McEntee, Meilu He, Suresh Dhaniyala

Abstract:

Aerosols are one of the most important and significant surfaces in the atmosphere. They can influence weather, absorption, and reflection of light, and reactivity of atmospheric constituents. A notable feature of aerosol particles is the presence of a surface charge, a characteristic imparted via the aerosolization process. The existence of charge can complicate the interrogation of aerosol particles, so many researchers remove or neutralize aerosol particles before characterization. However, the charge is present in real-world samples, and likely has an effect on the physical and chemical properties of an aerosolized material. In our studies, we aerosolized different materials in an attempt to characterize the charge imparted via the aerosolization process and determine what impact it has on the aerosolized materials’ properties. The metal oxides, TiO₂ and SiO₂, were aerosolized expulsively and then characterized, using several different techniques, in an effort to determine the surface charge imparted upon the particles via the aerosolization process. Particle charge distribution measurements were conducted via the employment of a custom scanning mobility particle sizer. The results of the charge distribution measurements indicated that expulsive generation of 0.2 µm SiO₂ particles produced aerosols with upwards of 30+ charges on the surface of the particle. Determination of the degree of surface charging led to the use of non-traditional techniques to explore the impact of additional surface charge on the overall reactivity of the metal oxides, specifically TiO₂. TiO₂ was aerosolized, again expulsively, onto a gold-coated tungsten mesh, which was then evaluated with transmission infrared spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The TiO₂ aerosols were exposed to O₂, H₂, and CO, respectively. Exposure to O₂ resulted in a decrease in the overall baseline of the aerosol spectrum, suggesting O₂ removed some of the surface charge imparted during aerosolization. Upon exposure to H₂, there was no observable rise in the baseline of the IR spectrum, as is typically seen for TiO₂, due to the population of electrons into the shallow trapped states and subsequent promotion of the electrons into the conduction band. This result suggests that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization fills the trapped states, therefore no rise is seen upon exposure to H₂. Dosing the TiO₂ aerosols with CO showed no adsorption of CO on the surface, even at lower temperatures (~100 K), indicating the additional charge on the aerosol surface prevents the CO molecules from adsorbing to the TiO₂ surface. The results observed during exposure suggest that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization impacts the interaction with each probe gas.

Keywords: aerosols, charge, reactivity, infrared

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4 Analysis of Scholarly Communication Patterns in Korean Studies

Authors: Erin Hea-Jin Kim

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate scholarly communication patterns in Korean studies, which focuses on all aspects of Korea, including history, culture, literature, politics, society, economics, religion, and so on. It is called ‘national study or home study’ as the subject of the study is itself, whereas it is called ‘area study’ as the subject of the study is others, i.e., outside of Korea. Understanding of the structure of scholarly communication in Korean studies is important since the motivations, procedures, results, or outcomes of individual studies may be affected by the cooperative relationships that appear in the communication structure. To this end, we collected 1,798 articles with the (author or index) keyword ‘Korean’ published in 2018 from the Scopus database and extracted the institution and country of the authors using a text mining technique. A total of 96 countries, including South Korea, was identified. Then we constructed a co-authorship network based on the countries identified. The indicators of social network analysis (SNA), co-occurrences, and cluster analysis were used to measure the activity and connectivity of participation in collaboration in Korean studies. As a result, the highest frequency of collaboration appears in the following order: S. Korea with the United States (603), S. Korea with Japan (146), S. Korea with China (131), S. Korea with the United Kingdom (83), and China with the United States (65). This means that the most active participants are S. Korea as well as the USA. The highest rank in the role of mediator measured by betweenness centrality appears in the following order: United States (0.165), United Kingdom (0.045), China (0.043), Japan (0.037), Australia (0.026), and South Africa (0.023). These results show that these countries contribute to connecting in Korean studies. We found two major communities among the co-authorship network. Asian countries and America belong to the same community, and the United Kingdom and European countries belong to the other community. Korean studies have a long history, and the study has emerged since Japanese colonization. However, Korean studies have never been investigated by digital content analysis. The contributions of this study are an analysis of co-authorship in Korean studies with a global perspective based on digital content, which has not attempted so far to our knowledge, and to suggest ideas on how to analyze the humanities disciplines such as history, literature, or Korean studies by text mining. The limitation of this study is that the scholarly data we collected did not cover all domestic journals because we only gathered scholarly data from Scopus. There are thousands of domestic journals not indexed in Scopus that we can consider in terms of national studies, but are not possible to collect.

Keywords: co-authorship network, Korean studies, Koreanology, scholarly communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3 Female Autism Spectrum Disorder and Understanding Rigid Repetitive Behaviors

Authors: Erin Micali, Katerina Tolstikova, Cheryl Maykel, Elizabeth Harwood

Abstract:

Female ASD is seldomly studied separately from males. Further, females with ASD are disproportionately underrepresented in the research at a rate of 3:1 (male to female). As such, much of the current understanding about female rigid repetitive behaviors (RRBs) stems from research’s understanding of male RRBs. This can be detrimental to understanding female ASD because this understanding of female RRBs largely discounts female camouflaging and the possibility that females present their autistic symptoms differently. Current literature suggests that females with ASD engage in fewer RRBs than males with ASD and when females do engage in RRBs, they are likely to engage in more subtle, less overt obsessions and repetitive behaviors than males. Method: The current study utilized a mixed methods research design to identify the type and frequency of RRBs that females with ASD engaged in by using a cross-sectional design. The researcher recruited only females to be part of the present study with the criteria they be at least age six and not have co-occurring cognitive impairment. Results: The researcher collected previous testing data (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Child or Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile-2, Autism/ Empathy Quotient, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist, Rigid Repetitive Behavior Checklist (evaluator created list), and demographic questionnaire) from 25 total participants. The participants ages ranged from six to 52. The participants were 96% Caucasion and 4% Latin American. Qualitative analysis found the current participant pool engaged in six RRB themes including repetitive behaviors, socially restrictive behaviors, repetitive speech, difficulty with transition, obsessive behaviors, and restricted interests. The current dataset engaged in socially restrictive behaviors and restrictive interests most frequently. Within the main themes 40 subthemes were isolated, defined, and analyzed. Further, preliminary quantitative analysis was run to determine if age impacted camouflaging behaviors and overall presentation of RRBs. Within this dataset this was not founded. Further qualitative data will be run to determine if this dataset engaged in more overt or subtle RRBs to confirm or rebuff previous research. The researcher intends to run SPSS analysis to determine if there was statistical difference between each RRB theme and overall presentation. Secondly, each participant will be analyzed for presentation of RRB, age, and previous diagnoses. Conclusion: The present study aimed to assist in diagnostic clarity. This was achieved by collecting data from a female only participant pool across the lifespan. Current data aided in clarity of the type of RRBs engage in. A limited sample size was a barrier in this study.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, camouflaging, rigid repetitive behaviors, gender disparity

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2 A Patient-Centered Approach to Clinical Trial Development: Real-World Evidence from a Canadian Medical Cannabis Clinic

Authors: Lucile Rapin, Cynthia El Hage, Rihab Gamaoun, Maria-Fernanda Arboleda, Erin Prosk

Abstract:

Introduction: Sante Cannabis (SC), a Canadian group of clinics dedicated to medical cannabis, based in Montreal and in the province of Quebec, has served more than 8000 patients seeking cannabis-based treatment over the past five years. As randomized clinical trials with natural medical cannabis are scarce, real-world evidence offers the opportunity to fill research gaps between scientific evidence and clinical practice. Data on the use of medical cannabis products from SC patients were prospectively collected, leading to a large real-world database on the use of medical cannabis. The aim of this study was to report information on the profiles of both patients and prescribed medical cannabis products at SC clinics, and to assess the safety of medical cannabis among Canadian patients. Methods: This is an observational retrospective study of 1342 adult patients who were authorized with medical cannabis products between October 2017 and September 2019. Information regarding demographic characteristics, therapeutic indications for medical cannabis use, patterns in dosing and dosage form of medical cannabis and adverse effects over one-year follow-up (initial and 4 follow-up (FUP) visits) were collected. Results: 59% of SC patients were female, with a mean age of 56.7 (SD= 15.6, range= (19-97)). Cannabis products were authorized mainly for patients with a diagnosis of chronic pain (68.8% of patients), cancer (6.7%), neurological disorders (5.6%), and mood disorders (5.4 %). At initial visit, a large majority (70%) of patients were authorized exclusively medical cannabis products, 27% were authorized a combination of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and medical cannabis and 3% were prescribed only pharmaceutical cannabinoids. This pattern was recurrent over the one-year follow-up. Overall, oil was the preferred formulation (average over visits 72.5%) followed by a combination of oil and dry (average 19%), other routes of administration accounted for less than 4%. Patients were predominantly prescribed products with a balanced THC:CBD ratio (59%-75% across visits). 28% of patients reported at least one adverse effect (AE) at the 3-month follow-up visit and 12% at the six-month FUP visit. 84.8% of total AEs were mild and transient. No serious AE was reported. Overall, the most common side effects reported were dizziness (11.95% of total AEs), drowsiness (11.4%), dry mouth (5.5%), nausea (4.8%), headaches (4.6%), cough (4.4%), anxiety (4.1%) and euphoria (3.5%). Other adverse effects accounted for less than 3% of total AE. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the primary area of clinical use for medical cannabis is in pain management. Patients in this cohort are largely utilizing plant-based cannabis oil products with a balanced ratio of THC:CBD. Reported adverse effects were mild and included dizziness and drowsiness. This real-world data confirms the tolerable safety profile of medical cannabis and suggests medical indications not yet validated in controlled clinical trials. Such data offers an important opportunity for the investigation of the long-term effects of cannabinoid exposure in real-life conditions. Real-world evidence can be used to direct clinical trial research efforts on specific indications and dosing patterns for product development.

Keywords: medical cannabis, safety, real-world data, Canada

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1 A Scoping Review of Technology-Facilitated Gender-Based Violence: Findings from Asia

Authors: Vaiddehi Bansal, Laura Hinson, Mayumi Rezwan, Erin Leasure, Mithila Iyer, Connor Roth, Poulomi Pal, Kareem Kysia

Abstract:

As digital usage becomes increasingly ubiquitous worldwide, technology-facilitated gender-based violence (GBV) has garnered increasing attention in the recent years, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This form of violence is defined as “action by one or more people that harms others based on their sexual or gender identity or by enforcing harmful gender norms. This action is carried out using the internet and/or mobile technology that harms others based on their sexual or gender identity or by enforcing harmful gender norms”.Common forms of technology-facilitated GBV include cyberstalking, cyberbullying, sexual harassment, image-based abuse, doxing, hacking, gendertrolling, hate speech, and impersonation. Most literature on this pervasive yet complex issue has emerged from high-income countries, and few studies comprehensively summarize its prevalence, manifestations, and implications. This rigorous scoping review examines the evidence base of this phenomenon in low and middle-income countries across Asia, summarizing trends and gaps to inform actionable recommendations. The research team developed search terms to conduct a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Query results were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English between 2006-2021 and with an explicit emphasis on technology-facilitated violence, gender, and the countries of interest in the Asia region. Title, abstracts, and full-texts were independently screened by two reviewers based on inclusion criteria, and data was extracted through deductive coding. Of 2,042 articles screened, 97 met inclusion criteria. The review revealed a gap in the evidence-base in Central Asia and the Pacific Islands. Findings across South and Southeast Asia indicate that technology-facilitated GBV comprises various forms of abuse, violence, and harassment that are largely shaped by country-specific societal norms and technological landscapes. The literature confirms that women, girls, and sexual minorities, especially those with intersecting marginalized identities, are often more vulnerable to experiencing online violence. Cultural norms and patriarchal structures tend to stigmatize survivors, limiting their ability to seek social and legal support. Survivors are also less likely to report their experience due to barriers such as lack of awareness of reporting mechanisms, the perception that digital platforms will not address their complaints, and cumbersome reporting systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated perpetration and strained support mechanisms. Prevalence varies by the form of violence but is difficult to estimate accurately due to underreporting and disjointed, outdated, or non-existent legal definitions. Addressing technology-facilitated GBV in Asia requires collective action from multiple actors, including government authorities, technology companies, digital and feminist movements, NGOs, and researchers.

Keywords: gender-based violence, technology, online sexual harassment, image-based abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 3