Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: neighbourhood

83 Neighbourhood Research in the Global South: An Insight from Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Gideon Baffoe

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Recent evidence shows that neighbourhood research is largely under the hegemony of global north scholars. The current situation is a reflection of a privileged world of rich-country academics studying ‘first world’ built environment and varied social problems. The most difficult, dangerous and urgent neighbourhood problems, however, are found in the global south cities. The north orientation highlights a major knowledge gap in the south, which is a wakeup call for urban scholars. Until now, it remains unclear how the neighbourhood has been studied in the global south. This study aims to review the state of neighbourhood scholarship in developing countries. In particular, the study brings to the fore the scholarship growth pattern, main research focus areas, key players and methodological approaches that scholars have adopted. The review provides a direction which can form the bases for future neighbourhood research in the global south, particularly in Africa and Asia.

Keywords: neighbourhood, global south, bibliometric analysis, scholarship

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82 Ten Minutes Neighbourhood as a Basic PlanningUnit for Happiness in Egypt

Authors: Abeer Elshater

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This paper pursues the relationship between the inhabitants’ happiness and the right to the city in an Egyptian neighbourhood status quo. Although the optimum of getting the services comes from ten mints walking in a suitable ambiance, the happiness is not acquired. The research objective is, first, to review the literature that get a guideline of 10 minutes neighbourhoods. Second make a comparative content analysis to recent online articles to the right to the city. Third is to test the concluded principles in Egyptian neighbourhood settings. The idea of ten minutes neighbourhood is manageable. The hypothesis concerns a compliant design. The logic of people who live close to within ten minutes’ walk to essential settings in their area can minimize several problems and maximize a healthy lifestyle. The supposed issue makes the right to the city affect the relationship between ten minutes neighbourhood and citizen happiness. This assumption can be intervention through site observation and oriented questionnaire. The contribution comes from presenting new planning units in away suits the current context of the old cities in MENA region based on ten-minute walking or less distance with a reference to the right to the city. This planning unit can find it way to citizens' happiness.

Keywords: happiness, ten-minute neighbourhood, urban design, well-being

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81 Evaluating the Relationship between Neighbourhood Satisfaction and Urban Safety: The Case Study of Riverwood, Sydney

Authors: Samaneh Arasteh

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Neighbourhood satisfaction and safety are the two main components of urban life and have a substantial impact on residents’ quality of life. The relationship between these two components, especially in areas surrounding our individual private dwellings, is highly influential on many social, economic, and wellbeing activities that may benefit neighbourhood residents. Neighbourhood and urban design – which are liable to be affected by the perceived quality of local public spaces – are likely to be significant factors influencing broader residents’ feelings of safety. With this in mind, this study reviews recent normative literature on how these design processes have influenced neighbourhood satisfaction including perceived safety with a focus on different aspects of public spaces including planning, management, and design in a mix-tenure neighbourhood. Following the study aim, Riverwood in Sydney’s southwest was chosen as a case study to gain a detailed understanding of the context by engaging with community members, residents, non-government organisations, and experts. Moreover, archival studies on neighbourhood satisfaction and safety, expert interviews, and resident questionnaires are presented to shed light on the relationship between neighbourhood satisfaction and perception of safety. The study argues that for the safer neighbourhood in urban areas, social-cultural factors need to be aligned toward strengthening physical factors and since making the environments safer, it is important to understand practical and achievable mechanisms which are required to improve existing estates. Findings show that increasing the clarity of community social and physical environmental involvements can promote residents’ feelings of safety and following neighbourhood satisfaction.

Keywords: neighbourhood satisfaction, public space, Riverwood, urban safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
80 Perception of Neighbourhood-Level Built Environment in Relation to Youth Physical Activity in Malaysia

Authors: A. Abdullah, N. Faghih Mirzaei, S. Hany Haron

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Neighbourhood environment walkability on reported physical activity (PA) levels of students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in Malaysia. Compared with previous generations, today’s young people spend less time playing outdoors and have lower participation rates in PA. Research suggests that negative perceptions of neighbourhood walkability may be a potential barrier to adolescents’ PA. The sample consisted of 200 USM students (to 24 years old) who live outside of the main campus and engage in PA in sport halls and sport fields of USM. The data were analysed using the t-test, binary logistic regression, and discriminant analysis techniques. The present study found that youth PA was affected by neighbourhood environment walkability factors, including neighbourhood infrastructures, neighbourhood safety (crime), and recreation facilities, as well as street characteristics and neighbourhood design variables such as facades of sidewalks, roadside trees, green spaces, and aesthetics. The finding also illustrated that active students were influenced by street connectivity, neighbourhood infrastructures, recreation facilities, facades of sidewalks, and aesthetics, whereas students in the less active group were affected by access to destinations, neighbourhood safety (crime), and roadside trees and green spaces for their PAs. These results report which factors of built environments have more effect on youth PA and they message to the public to create more awareness about the benefits of PA on youth health.

Keywords: fear of crime, neighbourhood built environment, physical activities, street characteristics design

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79 Strategies for a Sustainable Neighbourhood in a Smart City: A Case of Pattoor, Thiruvananthapuram

Authors: Vijaya Nhaloor, Suja Kumari Leela, Jose Devadasan

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Planning of neighbourhood development strategies in Tier 2 Indian city is highly significant when it has also been selected as a Smart city by the Ministry of Urban Development in India. Smart city mission of India proposes the development of infrastructure in a city in an inclusive way. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala state, India, has been selected as the city to conduct the research. The master plan for the city of Thiruvananthapuram envisions it as a Compact city and proposes densification as a tool for development. Densification may adversely affect the quality of life after a tipping point. This may lead to urban decay which in turn directly or indirectly affects the surrounding neighbourhoods also, thus spreading blight areas in the city. The author thinks that density in urban planning is not a well detailed subject in India, with respect to its varied links on infrastructure, quality of life, transportation, scope of vertical planning, affordability etc. Neighbourhoods are vital tissues of an urban area, and their development directly affects the development of the region. The methodology would involve skimming of proactive neighbourhood planning principles compatible with the Smart city mission in India. United Nations proposes sustainability as a way of planning development of a neighbourhood. After defining various terminologies involved, a framework shall be developed to analyse an existing neighbourhood and prepare planning guidelines in a sustainable manner. The framework shall comply with international and national policy guidelines. The research shall explore and identify a neighbourhood with the potential to meet the housing demand from the investment regions nearby and analyse its potential and weakness as per this framework. Later, a set of indicators shall be enlisted to guide the development of the neighbourhood, leading to recommendations that shall serve as a replicable model for the other neighbourhoods in the Smart city.

Keywords: key indicators, neighbourhood planning, sustainability, smart city

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78 The Impact of Neighbourhood Built-Environment on the Formulation and Facilitation of Bottom-up Mutual Help Networks for Senior Residents in Singapore

Authors: Wei Zhang, Chye Kiang Heng, John Chye Fung

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Background: The world’s demographics is currently undergoing the largest wave of both rapid ageing and dramatic urbanisation in human history. As one of the most rapidly ageing countries, Singapore will see about one in four residents aged 65 years and above by 2030 in its high-rise and high-density urban environment. Research questions: To support urban seniors ageing in place and interdependence among senior residents and their informal caregivers, this study argues a community-based care model with bottom-up mutual help networks and asks how neighbourhood built-environment influences the formulation and facilitation of bottom-up mutual help networks in Singapore. Methods: Two public housing communities with different physical environment and rich age-friendly neighbourhood initiatives were chosen as the case studies. The categories, participants and places of bottom-up mutual help activities will be obtained via field observation, non-structural interviews of participants, service providers and managers of care facilities, and documents. Mapping and content analysis will be used to explore the influences of neighbourhood built-environment on the formulation and facilitation of bottom-up mutual help networks. Results and conclusions: The results showed that neighbourhood design, place programming, and place governance have a confluence on the bottom-up mutual help networks for senior residents. Significance: The outcomes of this study will provide fresh evidence for paradigm shifts of community-based care for the elderly and neighbourhood planning. In addition, the research findings will shed light on meaningful implications of urban planners and policy makers as they tackle with the issues arising from the ageing society.

Keywords: Built environment, Mutual help, Neighbourhood, Senior residents, Singapore

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77 Studyt on New Strategies of Sustainable Neighbourhood Design Based on the 2014 Waf

Authors: Zhou Xiaowen China, Zhang Sanming China

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Neighbourhood space as a very important part of city spaces, is an organic combination of material environment and spiritual achievement in people’ daily life, and has a real impact upon the sustainable development of the whole city. Looking back on the past 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), 4 out of 35winning buildings were neighbourhood designs, and all of them mentioned about space-sharing and sustainable development. In this paper, three award-winning cases were studied, including the world building of the year—the chapel (Vietnam, A21 studio), The Carve (Norway, A-Lab) and House for Trees (Vietnam, Vo Trong Nghia Architects). Urban context, planning, space construction and sustainable technology were discussed. Based on those, it was discovered that passive energy-saving technologies have been paid more and more attention, sharing space has been designed ingeniously, and the architectural forms of them reflect social inclusion and equity. This paper is aimed at summarizing the excellent works on the Festival and providing reference for the future design.

Keywords: neighbourhood design, 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), sustainable development, space-sharing

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76 The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level

Authors: M. Moeinaddini, Z. Asadi-Shekari, Z. Sultan, M. Zaly Shah

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Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.

Keywords: neighbourhood land use, neighbourhood design, happiness, socio-economic factors, generalised linear modelling

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75 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

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Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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74 Neighbourhood Walkability and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Place Adherence and Social Interaction

Authors: Michał Jaśkiewicz

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The relation between walkability, place adherence, social relations and quality of life was explored in a Polish context. A considerable number of studies have suggested that environmental factors may influence the quality of life through indirect pathways. The list of possible psychological mediators includes social relations and identity-related variables. Based on the results of Study 1, local identity is a significant mediator in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and quality of life. It was assumed that pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods enable residents to interact and that these spontaneous interactions can help to strengthen a sense of local identity, thus influencing the quality of life. We, therefore, conducted further studies, testing the relationship experimentally in studies 2a and 2b. Participants were exposed to (2a) photos of walkable/non-walkable neighbourhoods or (2b) descriptions of high/low-walkable neighbourhoods. They were then asked to assess the walkability of the neighbourhoods and to evaluate their potential social relations and quality of life in these places. In both studies, social relations with neighbours turned out to be a significant mediator between walkability and quality of life. In Study 3, we implemented the measure of overlapping individual and communal identity (fusion with the neighbourhood) and willingness to collective action as mediators. Living in a walkable neighbourhood was associated with identity fusion with that neighbourhood. Participants who felt more fused expressed greater willingness to engage in collective action with other neighbours. Finally, this willingness was positively related to the quality of life in the city. In Study 4, we used commuting time (an aspect of walkability related to the time that people spend travelling to work) as the independent variable. The results showed that a shorter average daily commuting time was linked to more frequent social interactions in the neighbourhood. Individuals who assessed their social interactions as more frequent expressed a stronger city identification, which was in turn related to quality of life. To sum up, our research replicated and extended previous findings on the association between walkability and well-being measures. We introduced potential mediators of this relationship: social interactions in the neighbourhood and identity-related variables.

Keywords: walkability, quality of life, social relations, analysis of mediation

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73 Metaheuristic to Align Multiple Sequences

Authors: Lamiche Chaabane

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In this study, a new method for solving sequence alignment problem is proposed, which is named ITS (Improved Tabu Search). This algorithm is based on the classical Tabu Search (TS). ITS is implemented in order to obtain results of multiple sequence alignment. Several ideas concerning neighbourhood generation, move selection mechanisms and intensification/diversification strategies for our proposed ITS is investigated. ITS have generated high-quality results in terms of measure of scores in comparison with the classical TS and simple iterative search algorithm.

Keywords: multiple sequence alignment, tabu search, improved tabu search, neighbourhood generation, selection mechanisms

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72 A Two Phase VNS Algorithm for the Combined Production Routing Problem

Authors: Nejah Ben Mabrouk, Bassem Jarboui, Habib Chabchoub

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Production and distribution planning is the most important part in supply chain management. In this paper, a NP-hard production-distribution problem for one product over a multi-period horizon is investigated. The aim is to minimize the sum of costs of three items: production setups, inventories and distribution, while determining, for each period, the amount produced, the inventory levels and the delivery trips. To solve this difficult problem, we propose a bi-phase approach based on a Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS). This heuristic is tested on 90 randomly generated instances from the literature, with 20 periods and 50, 100, 200 customers. Computational results show that our approach outperforms existing solution procedures available in the literature

Keywords: logistic, production, distribution, variable neighbourhood search

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71 A Method Intensive Top-down Approach for Generating Guidelines for an Energy-Efficient Neighbourhood: A Case of Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Rituparna Pal, Faiz Ahmed

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Neighbourhood energy efficiency is a newly emerged term to address the quality of urban strata of built environment in terms of various covariates of sustainability. The concept of sustainability paradigm in developed nations has encouraged the policymakers for developing urban scale cities to envision plans under the aegis of urban scale sustainability. The concept of neighbourhood energy efficiency is realized a lot lately just when the cities, towns and other areas comprising this massive global urban strata have started facing a strong blow from climate change, energy crisis, cost hike and an alarming shortfall in the justice which the urban areas required. So this step of urban sustainability can be easily referred more as a ‘Retrofit Action’ which is to cover up the already affected urban structure. So even if we start energy efficiency for existing cities and urban areas the initial layer remains, for which a complete model of urban sustainability still lacks definition. Urban sustainability is a broadly spoken off word with end number of parameters and policies through which the loop can be met. Out of which neighbourhood energy efficiency can be an integral part where the concept and index of neighbourhood scale indicators, block level indicators and building physics parameters can be understood, analyzed and concluded to help emerge guidelines for urban scale sustainability. The future of neighbourhood energy efficiency not only lies in energy efficiency but also important parameters like quality of life, access to green, access to daylight, outdoor comfort, natural ventilation etc. So apart from designing less energy-hungry buildings, it is required to create a built environment which will create less stress on buildings to consume more energy. A lot of literary analysis has been done in the Western countries prominently in Spain, Paris and also Hong Kong, leaving a distinct gap in the Indian scenario in exploring the sustainability at the urban strata. The site for the study has been selected in the upcoming capital city of Amaravati which can be replicated with similar neighbourhood typologies in the area. The paper suggests a methodical intent to quantify energy and sustainability indices in detail taking by involving several macro, meso and micro level covariates and parameters. Several iterations have been made both at macro and micro level and have been subjected to simulation, computation and mathematical models and finally to comparative analysis. Parameters at all levels are analyzed to suggest the best case scenarios which in turn is extrapolated to the macro level finally coming out with a proposal model for energy efficient neighbourhood and worked out guidelines with significance and correlations derived.

Keywords: energy quantification, macro scale parameters, meso scale parameters, micro scale parameters

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70 Trends and Inequalities in Distance to and Use of Nearest Natural Space in the Context of the 20-Minute Neighbourhood: A 4-Wave National Repeat Crosssectional Study, 2013 to 2019

Authors: Jonathan R Olsen, Natalie Nicholls, Jenna Panter, Hannah Burnett, Michael Tornow, Richard Mitchell

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The 20-minute neighborhood is a policy priority for governments worldwide and a key feature of this policy is providing access to natural space within 800 meters of home. The study aims were to (1) examine the association between distance to nearest natural space and frequent use over time and (2) examine whether frequent use and changes in use were patterned by income and housing tenure over time. Bi-annual Scottish Household Survey data were obtained for 2013 to 2019 (n:42128 aged 16+). Adults were asked the walking distance to their nearest natural space, the frequency of visits to this space and their housing tenure, as well as age, sex and income. We examined the association between distance from home of nearest natural space, housing tenure, and the likelihood of frequent natural space use (visited once a week or more). Two-way interaction terms were further applied to explore variation in the association between tenure and frequent natural space use over time. We found that 87% of respondents lived within 10 minute walk of a natural space, meeting the policy specification for a 20-minute neighbourhood. Greater proximity to natural space was associated with increased use; individuals living a 6 to 10 minute walk and over 10 minute walk were respectively 53% and 78% less likely to report frequent natural space use than those living within a 5 minute walk. Housing tenure was an important predictor of frequent natural space use; private renters and homeowners were more likely to report frequent natural space use than social renters. Our findings provide evidence that proximity to natural space is a strong predictor of frequent use. Our study provides important evidence that time-based access measures alone do not consider deep-rooted socioeconomic variation in use of Natural space. Policy makers should ensure a nuanced lens is applied to operationalising and monitoring the 20-minute neighbourhood to safeguard against exacerbating existing inequalities.

Keywords: natural space, housing, inequalities, 20-minute neighbourhood, urban design

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69 Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Cornelius Olatunji Omojola, Dayo Martins Oyeshomo

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The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, neighbourhood development, recreational park, Nigeria

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68 Family, Neighbourhood and Psychosocial Environmental Factors and Their Association with Asthma in Australia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: K. M. Shahunja, Peter D. Sly, Tahmina Begum, Tuhin Biswas, Abdullah Mamun

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Background: Various associations between different environmental exposures and asthma have been reported in different countries and populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between family, neighbourhood, and psychosocial environmental factors and asthma in Australia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We analysed the primary research studies conducted in Australia across multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and published between 2000 and 2020. The reviews and analyses focused on the overall association of different environmental exposures with the development or exacerbation of asthma symptoms or asthma-related hospital visits. Quality-effect meta-analysis was done to estimate the pooled odds ratio for different environmental exposures for asthma symptoms. Findings: Among the 4,799 unique published articles found, 46 were included here for systematic review and 28 for meta-analysis. Our review found that psychosocial factors, including low socioeconomic condition, maternal depression, mental stress, ethnicity, and discrimination, are associated with asthma symptoms. Pooled analysis was conducted on family and neighbourhood environmental factors and revealed that environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR 1·69, 95% CI 1·19–2.38), synthetic bedding (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·48–2·47) and gas heaters (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·12–1·76) had significant overall associations with asthma-symptoms in Australia. Conclusion: Although the studies were heterogeneous, both systematic review and meta-analysis found several psychosocial and family environmental exposures to be significantly associated with asthma symptoms. Further study to identify their causal relationship and modification may reduce asthma symptoms in the Australian population.

Keywords: asthma, Australia, environment, systematic review

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67 Location Choice: The Effects of Network Configuration upon the Distribution of Economic Activities in the Chinese City of Nanning

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Zhong Wang, Panagiotis Psimoulis

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Contemporary studies investigating the association between the spatial configuration of the urban network and economic activities at the street level were mostly conducted within space syntax conceptual framework. These findings supported the theory of 'movement economy' and demonstrated the impact of street configuration on the distribution of pedestrian movement and land-use shaping, especially retail activities. However, the effects varied between different urban contexts. In this paper, the relationship between economic activity distribution and the urban configurational characters was examined at the segment level. In the study area, three kinds of neighbourhood types, urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhood, were included. And among all neighbourhoods, three kinds of urban network form, 'tree-like', grid, and organic pattern, were recognised. To investigate the nested effects of urban configuration measured by space syntax approach and urban context, multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were constructed. Additionally, considering the spatial autocorrelation, spatial lag was also concluded in the model as an independent variable. The random effect ZINB model shows superiority over the ZINB model or multilevel linear (ML) model in the explanation of economic activities pattern shaping over the urban environment. And after adjusting for the neighbourhood type and network form effects, connectivity and syntax centrality significantly affect economic activities clustering. The comparison between accumulative and new established economic activities illustrated the different preferences for economic activity location choice.

Keywords: space syntax, economic activities, multilevel model, Chinese city

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66 Making the Neighbourhood: Analyzing Mapping Procedures to Deal with Plurality and Conflict

Authors: Barbara Roosen, Oswald Devisch

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Spatial projects are often contested. Despite participatory trajectories in official spatial development processes, citizens engage often by their power to say no. Participatory mapping helps to produce more legible and democratic ways of decision-making. It has proven its value in producing a multitude of knowledges and views, for individuals and community groups and local stakeholders to imagine desired and undesired futures and to give them the rhetorical power to present their views throughout the development process. From this perspective, mapping works as a social process in which individuals and groups share their knowledge, learn from each other and negotiate their relationship with each other as well as with space and power. In this way, these processes eventually aim to activate communities to intervene in cooperation in real problems. However, these are fragile and bumpy processes, sometimes leading to (local) conflict and intractable situations. Heterogeneous subjectivities and knowledge that become visible during the mapping process and which are contested by members of the community, is often the first trigger. This paper discusses a participatory mapping project conducted in a residential subdivision in Flanders to provide a deeper understanding of how or under which conditions the mapping process could moderate discordant situations amongst inhabitants, local organisations and local authorities, towards a more constructive outcome. In our opinion, this implies a thorough documentation and presentation of the different steps of the mapping process to design and moderate an open and transparent dialogue. The mapping project ‘Make the Neighbourhood’, is set up in the aftermath of a socio-spatial design intervention in the neighbourhood that led to polarization within the community. To start negotiation between the diverse claims that came to the fore, we co-create a desired future map of the neighbourhood together with local organisations and inhabitants as a way to engage them in the development of a new spatial development plan for the area. This mapping initiative set up a new ‘common’ goal or concern, as a first step to bridge the gap that we experienced between different sociocultural groups, bottom-up and top-down initiatives and between professionals and non-professionals. An atlas of elements (materials), an atlas of actors with different roles and an atlas of ways of cooperation and organisation form the work and building material of the future neighbourhood map, assembled in two co-creation sessions. Firstly, we will consider how the mapping procedures articulate the plurality of claims and agendas. Secondly, we will elaborate upon how social relations and spatialities are negotiated and reproduced during the different steps of the map making. Thirdly, we will reflect on the role of the rules, format, and structure of the mapping process in moderating negotiations between much divided claims. To conclude, we will discuss the challenges of visualizing the different steps of mapping process as a strategy to moderate tense negotiations in a more constructive direction in the context of spatial development processes.

Keywords: conflict, documentation, participatory mapping, residential subdivision

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65 Evaluation of Housing Quality in the Urban Fringes of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Amao Funmilayo Lanrewaju

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The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of the residents in selected urban fringes of Ibadan; identified and examined the housing and neighbourhood characteristics and evaluated housing quality in the study area. It analysed the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics as well as housing quality in the study area. This was with a view to providing information that would enhance the housing quality in urban fringes of Ibadan. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. A survey of eleven purposively selected communities from Oluyole and Egbeda local government areas in the urban fringes was conducted through a questionnaire administration and expert rating by five independent assessors (Qualified Architects) using penalty scoring within similar time-frames. The study employed a random sampling method to select a sample size of 480 houses representing 5% of the sampling frame of 9600 houses. Respondent in the first house was selected randomly and subsequently every 20th house in the streets involved was systematically selected for questionnaire administration, usually a household-head per building. The structured questionnaire elicited information on socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics, factors affecting housing quality and housing quality in the study area. Secondary data obtained for the study included the land-use plan of Ibadan from previous publications, housing demographics, population figures from relevant institutions and other published materials. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, Cross tabulation, Correlation Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Relative Importance Index (RII). The result of the survey revealed that respondents from the Yoruba ethnic group constituted the majority, comprising 439 (91.5%) of the 480 respondents from the two local government areas selected. It also revealed that the type of tenure status of majority of the respondents in the two local government areas was self-ownership (234, 48.8%), while 44.0% of the respondents acquired their houses through personal savings. Cross tabulation indicated that majority (67.1%, 322 out of 480) of the respondents were low-income earners. The study showed that both housing and neighbourhood services were not adequately provided across neighbourhoods in the study area. Correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship between respondents’ socio–economic status and their general housing quality (r=0.46; p-value of 0.01< 0.05). The ANOVA indicated that the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics in the study area was significant (F=18.289, p=0.00; the coefficient of determination R2= 0.192). The findings from the study however revealed that there was no significant difference in the results obtained from users based evaluation and expert rating. The study concluded that housing quality in the urban fringes of Ibadan is generally poor and the socio-economic status of the residents significantly influenced the housing quality.

Keywords: housing quality, urban fringes, economic status, poverty

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64 Guiding Urban Development in a Traditional Neighbourhood: Case Application of Kolkata

Authors: Nabamita Nath, Sanghamitra Sarkar

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Urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of cities is undergoing a sea change due to imposition of irregular development patterns on a predominantly inclusive urban fabric. In recent times, traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata have experienced irregular urban development which has resulted in transformation of its immediate urban character. The goal is to study and analyse impact of new urban developments within traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata and establish development guidelines to balance the old with the new. Various cities predominantly in third world countries are also experiencing similar development patterns in their traditional neighbourhoods. Existing literature surveys of development patterns in such neighbourhoods have established 9 major parameters viz. edge, movement, node, landmark, size-density, pattern-grain-texture, open spaces, urban spaces, urban form and views-vistas of the neighbourhood. To evaluate impact of urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata, 3 different areas have been chronologically selected based on their settlement patterns. Parameters established through literature surveys have been applied to the selected areas to study and analyse the existing patterns of development. The main sources of this study included extensive on-site surveys, academic archive, census data, organisational records and informational websites. Applying the established parameters, 5 major conclusions were derived. Firstly, it was found that pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods of the city were becoming more car-centric. This has resulted in loss of interactive and social spaces which defined the cultural heritage of Kolkata. Secondly, the urban pattern which was composed of dense and compact fabric is gradually losing its character due to incorporation of new building typologies. Thirdly, the new building typologies include gated communities with private open spaces which is a stark departure from the existing built typology. However, these open spaces have not contributed in creation of inclusive public places for the community which are a significant part of such heritage neighbourhood precincts. Fourthly, commercial zones that primarily developed along major access routes have now infiltrated within these neighbourhoods. Gated communities do not favour formation of on-street commercial activities generating haphazard development patterns. Lastly, individual residential buildings that reflected Indo-saracenic and Neo-gothic architectural styles are converting into multi-storeyed residential apartments. As a result, the axis that created a definite visual identity for a neighbourhood is progressively following an irregular pattern. Thus, uniformity of the old skyline is gradually becoming inconsistent. The major issue currently is threat caused by irregular urban development to heritage zones and buildings of traditional neighbourhoods. Streets, lanes, courtyards, open spaces and buildings of old neighbourhoods imparted a unique cultural identity to the city that is disappearing with emerging urban development patterns. It has been concluded that specific guidelines for urban development should be regulated primarily based on existing urban form of traditional neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhood development strategies should be formulated for various cities of third world countries to control irregular developments thereby balancing heritage and development.

Keywords: heritage, Kolkata, traditional neighbourhood, urban development

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63 Addressing Urban Security Challenges in Nigeria through Neighborhood Renewal: A Reflection of Mokola World Bank Slum Upgrading Pilot Project

Authors: Tabiti S. Tabiti, A. M. Jinadu, Daramola Japheth

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Urban insecurity is among the challenges militating against sustainable urban governance; in the first place it distorts the peace of urban areas making them unsafe. On the other hand it hinders the effective performance of urban functions. Urban security challenges manifest in different forms such as, street violence, theft and robbery, accidents of different types kidnapping, killings etc.. Efforts to address urban security challenges in Nigeria have been concentrated in legislative, law enforcement and the use of community vigilante groups. However in this study, the place of physical planning strategy through effective neighbourhood renewal as practiced in Mokola is presented as an effective complementary approach for addressing urban insecurity. On this backdrop, the paper recommends the need for gradual rehabilitation of urban slum neighborhoods by the state government in collaboration with World Bank and other development financiers. The local governments should be made autonomy in Nigeria so as to make them more responsible to the people. Other recommendations suggested in the paper include creating enabling environment that will promote economic empowerment and public enlightment on personal and community sanitation. It is certain that if these recommendations are adopted the challenge of urban insecurity will reduce significantly in Nigerian cities.

Keywords: neighbourhood renewal, pilot project, slum upgrading, urban security

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62 Contextual and Personal Factors as Predictor of Academic Resilience among Female Undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ndidi Ofole

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Ongoing Boko Haram crisis and instability in North-Eastern Nigeria has placed additional stress on academic resilience of female undergraduates who are already challenged by gender discrimination in educational opportunities. Students without resilience lack stress hardiness to cope with academic challenges. There is a limited study on academic resilience targeting this disadvantaged population in Nigeria. Consequently, survey research design was employed to investigate the contextual and personal factors that could predict academic resilience among female undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern, Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty female students with age range of 18 to 24 years ( = 19.2; SD=6.9) were randomly drawn from 3 Universities in North-Eastern Nigeria. They responded to five instruments, namely; Academic Resilience scale (r=0.72); Social Support questionnaire (r=0. 64); Social Connectedness questionnaire (r=0.75); Self-Efficacy scale (r=0. 68) and Emotional Regulation questionnaire (r=78). Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between the four independent variables and academic resilience. The variables jointly contributed 5.9% variance in the prediction of academic resilience. In terms of magnitude, social support was most potent while self-efficacy was the least. It concluded that the factors considered in this study are academic resilience facilitators. The outcomes of the study have both theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: academic resilience, emotional regulation, school connectedness, self-efficacy , social support

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61 725 Arcadia Street in Pretoria: A Pretoria Case Study Focusing on Urban Acupuncture

Authors: Konrad Steyn, Jacques Laubscher

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South African urban design solutions are mostly aligned with European and North American models that are often not appropriate in addressing some of this country’s challenges such as multiculturalism and decaying urban areas. Sustainable urban redevelopment in South Africa should be comprehensive in nature, sensitive in its manifestation, and should be robust and inclusive in order to achieve social relevance. This paper argues that the success of an urban design intervention is largely dependent on the public’s perceptions and expectations, and the way people participate in shaping their environments. The concept of sustainable urbanism is thus more comprehensive than – yet should undoubtedly include – methods of construction, material usage and climate control principles. The case study is a central element of this research paper. 725 Arcadia Street in Pretoria, was originally commissioned as a food market structure. A starkly contrasting existing modernist adjacent building forms the morphological background. Built in 1969, it is a valuable part of Pretoria’s modernist fabric. It was realised early on that the project should not be a mere localised architectural intervention, but rather an occasion to revitalise the neighbourhood through urban regeneration. Because of the complex and comprehensive nature of the site and rich cultural diversity of the area, a multi-faceted approach seemed the most appropriate response. The methodology for collating data consisted of a combination of literature reviews (regarding the historic original fauna and flora and current plants, observation (frequent site visits) and physical surveying on the neighbourhood level (physical location, connectivity to surrounding landmarks as well as movement systems and pedestrian flows). This was followed by an exploratory design phase, culminating in the present redevelopment proposal. Since built environment interventions are increasingly based on generalised normative guidelines, an approach focusing of urban acupuncture could serve as an alternative. Celebrating the specific urban condition, urban acupuncture offers an opportunity to influence the surrounding urban fabric and achieve urban renewal through physical, social and cultural mediation.

Keywords: neighbourhood, urban renewal, South African urban design solutions, sustainable urban redevelopment

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60 Towards a Methodology for the Assessment of Neighbourhood Design for Happiness

Authors: Tina Pujara

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Urban and regional research in the new emerging inter-disciplinary field of happiness is seemingly limited. However, it is progressively being recognized that there is enormous potential for social and behavioral scientists to add a spatial dimension to it. In fact, the happiness of communities can be notably influenced by the design and maintenance of the neighborhoods they inhabit. The probable key reasons being that places can facilitate human social connections and relationships. While it is increasingly being acknowledged that some neighborhood designs appear better suited for social connectedness than others, the plausible reasons for places to deter these characteristics and perhaps their influence on happiness are outwardly unknown. In addition, an explicit step wise methodology to assess neighborhood designs for happiness (of their communities) is not known to exist. This paper is an attempt towards developing such a methodological framework. The paper presents the development of a methodological framework for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, with a particular focus on the outdoor shared spaces in neighborhoods. The developed methodological framework of investigation follows a mixed method approach and draws upon four different sources of information. The framework proposes an empirical examination of the contribution of neighborhood factors, particularly outdoor shared spaces, to individual happiness. One of the main tools proposed for this empirical examination is Jan Gehl’s Public Space Public Life (PSPL) Survey. The developed framework, as presented in the paper, is a contribution towards the development of a consolidated methodology for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, which can further serve as a unique tool to inform urban designers, architects and other decision makers.

Keywords: happiness, methodology, neighbourhood design, outdoor shared spaces

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59 Facets of an Upcoming Urban Industrial Hub: A Case Study of Gurgaon-Manesar

Authors: Raman Kumar Singh

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Urbanization and economic growth are considered to be the most striking features of the past century. There is currently a radical demographic shift in progress worldwide, wherein people are moving from rural to urban areas at an increasing rate. The UN-Habitat report 2005 indicates that in 2025, 61 per cent of the 5 billion world population will reside in the urban areas with about 85 per cent of the development process taking place in the urban hinterlands widely referred to as ‘peri-urban’, ‘suburbs’, ‘urban fringe’, ‘city edge’, ‘metropolitan shadow’, or ‘urban sprawl’. In this context the study is broadly concerned with understanding the development of the industrial hub in the Gurgaon and its impact on the immediate neighbourhood. However studies have revealed that with the increase of industrial development the growth pattern changes rapidly, not only the growth of the urban area but the overall economy shifts from more agrarian to non-agrarian, with the change in the occupational pattern of the people. The process is mainly known as tertiarization, where a number of tertiary activities increase in comparison to primary or secondary. The change in the occupational pattern creates a pull factor on its immediate neighbourhood, which triggers the in- migrations from the rural areas as people come in the core urban area in search of the better job opportunities and increased standards of living. But this gives way to the unplanned growth of the urban fringe and the villages which tend to accommodate the migrants and in turn the pressure on the socio-economic infrastructure increases. Therefore, it becomes increasing necessary for the government institution and policy level intervention to provide an overall socio-economic growth along with rapid industrial growth.

Keywords: policy intervention, urban morphology, urban industrial hub, livelihood transformation

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58 The Essential but Uncertain Role of the Vietnamese Association of Cities of Vietnam in Promoting Community-Based Housing Upgrading

Authors: T. Nguyen, H. Rennie, S. Vallance, M. Mackay

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Municipal Associations, also called Unions, Leagues or Federations of municipalities have been established worldwide to represent the interests and needs of urban governments in the face of increasing urban issues. In 2008, the Association of Cities of Vietnam (ACVN) joined the Asian Coalition of Community Action Program (ACCA program) and introduced the community-based upgrading approach to help Vietnamese cities to address urban upgrading issues. While this community-based upgrading approach has only been implemented in a small number of Vietnamese cities and its replication has faced certain challenges, it is worthy to explore insights on how the Association of cities of Vietnam played its role in implementing some reportedly successful projects. This paper responds to this inquiry and presents results extracted from the author’s PhD study that sets out with a general objective to critically examine how social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) were formed, mobilized and maintained in a local collective and community-based upgrading process. Methodologically, the study utilized the given general categorization of bonding, bridging and linking capitals to explore and confirm how social capital operated in the real context of a community-based upgrading process, particularly in the context of Vietnam. To do this, the study conducted two exploratory and qualitative case studies of housing projects in Friendship neighbourhood (Vinh city) and Binh Dong neighbourhood (Tan An city). This paper presents the findings of the Friendship neighbourhood case study, focusing on the role of the Vietnamese municipal association in forming, mobilizing and maintaining bonding, bridging and linking capital for a community-based upgrading process. The findings highlight the essential but uncertain role of ACVN - the organization that has a hybrid legitimacy status - in such a process. The results improve our understanding both practically and theoretically. Practically, the results offer insights into the performance of a municipal association operating in a transitioning socio-political context of Vietnam. Theoretically, the paper questions the necessity of categorizing social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) by suggesting a holistic approach of looking at social capital for urban governance issues within the Vietnamese context and perhaps elsewhere.

Keywords: bonding capital, bridging capital, municipal association, linking capital, social capital, housing upgrading

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57 The Documentation of Modernisation Processes in Spain Based on the Residential Architecture of the 1960s. A Patrimonial Perspective on El Plantinar Neighbourhood in Seville

Authors: Julia Rey-Pérez, Julia Díaz Borrego

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The modernisation process of the city of Sevilla in Spain and the transformation of the city took place through national and local government initiatives from the 1960s onwards. Part of these actions was the execution of numerous residential neighbourhoodsthat prepared Sevilla for the change of era. This process was possible thanks to the implementation of public policies that showed the imminent need for new architectural programmes, as well as for high-rise architecture built in reinforced concrete. However, very little is known to this day about the modernisation process in Sevilla and the development of these neighbourhoods, which were designed to house a large number of people and are today a key reference point in the Historic Urban Landscape of the city of Seville. Therefore, the present research aims to learn and reflect upon the urban transformation of the city at this time andto deepen the heritage uniqueness of these neighbourhoods, as is the case of ElPlantinarneighbourhood.The methodology proposed for this research is structured in three phases, where in the first stage, a general study of the El Plantinarneighbourhood was carried out on three scales: urban, object-typological and perceptive. In the second stage, the cultural attributes and values of the urban complex in question were identified in order to determine whether the case study is truly representative of the beginnings of modernity in Spain and whether it needs a heritage approach. Finally, a third phase is proposed in which criteria will be defined on how to intervene in this neighbourhood to guarantee its presence in the urban landscape of the city of Seville. The expected results will help to understand the process of modernisation that the city has undergone, as well as the heritage value of this architecture in the construction of the collective memory.

Keywords: modern heritage, urban obsolescence, methodology, develop

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56 Socially Sustainable Urban Rehabilitation Projects: Case Study of Ortahisar, Trabzon

Authors: Elif Berna Var

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Cultural, physical, socio-economic, or politic changes occurred in urban areas might be resulted in the decaying period which may cause social problems. As a solution to that, urban renewal projects have been used in European countries since World War II whereas they have gained importance in Turkey after the 1980s. The first attempts were mostly related to physical or economic aspects which caused negative effects on social pattern later. Thus, social concerns have also started to include in renewal processes in developed countries. This integrative approach combining social, physical, and economic aspects promotes creating more sustainable neighbourhoods for both current and future generations. However, it is still a new subject for developing countries like Turkey. Concentrating on Trabzon-Turkey, this study highlights the importance of socially sustainable urban renewal processes especially in historical neighbourhoods where protecting the urban identity of the area is vital, as well as social structure, to create sustainable environments. Being in the historic city centre and having remarkable traditional houses, Ortahisar is an important image for Trabzon. Because of the fact that architectural and historical pattern of the area is still visible but need rehabilitations, it is preferred to use 'urban rehabilitation' as a way of urban renewal method for this study. A project is developed by the local government to create a secondary city centre and a new landmark for the city. But it is still ambiguous if this project can provide social sustainability of area which is one of the concerns of the research. In the study, it is suggested that social sustainability of an area can be achieved by several factors. In order to determine the factors affecting the social sustainability of an urban rehabilitation project, previous studies have been analysed and some common features are attempted to define. To achieve this, firstly, several analyses are conducted to find out social structure of Ortahisar. Secondly, structured interviews are implemented to 150 local people which aims to measure satisfaction level, awareness, the expectation of them, and to learn their demographical background in detail. Those data are used to define the critical factors for a more socially sustainable neighbourhood in Ortahisar. Later, the priority of those factors is asked to 50 experts and 150 local people to compare their attitudes and to find common criterias. According to the results, it can be said that social sustainability of Ortahisar neighbourhood can be improved by considering various factors like quality of urban areas, demographical factors, public participation, social cohesion and harmony, proprietorial factors, facilities of education and employment. In the end, several suggestions are made for Ortahisar case to promote more socially sustainable urban neighbourhood. As a pilot study highlighting the importance of social sustainability, it is hoped that this attempt might be the contributory effect on achieving more socially sustainable urban rehabilitation projects in Turkey.

Keywords: urban rehabilitation, social sustainability, Trabzon, Turkey

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55 Socio-Demographic Factors and Testing Practices Are Associated with Spatial Patterns of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Australian Capital Territory, 2004-2014

Authors: Aparna Lal, Ashwin Swaminathan, Teisa Holani

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Background: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have been on the rise globally. In Australia, rates of CDI in all States and Territories have increased significantly since mid-2011. Identifying risk factors for CDI in the community can help inform targeted interventions to reduce infection. Methods: We examine the role of neighbourhood socio-economic status, demography, testing practices and the number of residential aged care facilities on spatial patterns in CDI incidence in the Australian Capital Territory. Data on all tests conducted for CDI were obtained from ACT Pathology by postcode for the period 1st January 2004 through 31 December 2014. Distribution of age groups and the neighbourhood Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage Disadvantage (IRSAD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 National Census data. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the postcode level to quantify the relationship between CDI and socio-demographic factors. To identify CDI hotspots, exceedance probabilities were set at a threshold of twice the estimated relative risk. Results: CDI showed a positive spatial association with the number of tests (RR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and the resident population over 65 years (RR=1.00, 95% CI 1.00, 1.01). The standardized index of relative socio-economic advantage disadvantage (IRSAD) was significantly negatively associated with CDI (RR=0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.94). We identified three postcodes with high probability (0.8-1.0) of excess risk. Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate geographic variations in CDI in the ACT with a positive association of CDI with socioeconomic disadvantage and identify areas with a high probability of elevated risk compared with surrounding communities. These findings highlight community-based risk factors for CDI.

Keywords: spatial, socio-demographic, infection, Clostridium difficile

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54 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

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In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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