Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3004

Search results for: space syntax

3004 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu

Abstract:

Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village

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3003 The Analysis of Space Syntax Used in the Development Explore of Hangzhou city’s Centratity

Authors: Liu Junzhu

Abstract:

In contemporary China,city is expanding with an amazing speed. And because of the unexpected events’ interference, spatial structure could change itself in a short time, That will lead to the new urban district livingness and unfortunately, this phenomenon is very common.On the one hand,it fail to achieve the goal of city planning, On the other hand,it is unfavourable to the sustainable development of city. Bill Hillier’stheory Space Syntax shows organzation pattern of each space,it explains the characteristics of urban spatial patterns and its transformation regulation from the point of self-organization in system and also, it gives confirmatory and predictive ways to the building and city. This paper used axial model to summarize Hangzhou City’s special structure and enhanced comprehensive understanding of macroscopic space and environment, space structure,developing trend, ect, by computer analysis of Space Syntax. From that, it helps us to know the operation law in the urban system and to understand Hangzhou City’s spatial pattern and indirect social effect it has mad more clearly, Thus, it could comply with the tendency of cities development in process and planning of policy and plan our cities’ future sustainably.

Keywords: sustainable urban design, space syntax, spatial network, segment angular analysis, social inclusion

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3002 Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China

Authors: Dai Zhimei, Hua Chen

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The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.

Keywords: block, space syntax and methodology, street, urban space, Yangzhou

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3001 Interaction between Space Syntax and Agent-Based Approaches for Vehicle Volume Modelling

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Panagiotis Psimoulis, Zhong Wang

Abstract:

Modelling and understanding vehicle volume distribution over the urban network are essential for urban design and transport planning. The space syntax approach was widely applied as the main conceptual and methodological framework for contemporary vehicle volume models with the help of the statistical method of multiple regression analysis (MRA). However, the MRA model with space syntax variables shows a limitation in vehicle volume predicting in accounting for the crossed effect of the urban configurational characters and socio-economic factors. The aim of this paper is to construct models by interacting with the combined impact of the street network structure and socio-economic factors. In this paper, we present a multilevel linear (ML) and an agent-based (AB) vehicle volume model at an urban scale interacting with space syntax theoretical framework. The ML model allowed random effects of urban configurational characteristics in different urban contexts. And the AB model was developed with the incorporation of transformed space syntax components of the MRA models into the agents’ spatial behaviour. Three models were implemented in the same urban environment. The ML model exhibit superiority over the original MRA model in identifying the relative impacts of the configurational characters and macro-scale socio-economic factors that shape vehicle movement distribution over the city. Compared with the ML model, the suggested AB model represented the ability to estimate vehicle volume in the urban network considering the combined effects of configurational characters and land-use patterns at the street segment level.

Keywords: space syntax, vehicle volume modeling, multilevel model, agent-based model

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3000 Correlation of Residential Community Layout and Neighborhood Relationship: A Morphological Analysis of Tainan Using Space Syntax

Authors: Ping-Hung Chen, Han-Liang Lin

Abstract:

Taiwan has formed diverse settlement patterns in different time and space backgrounds. Various socio-network links are created between individuals, families, communities, and societies, and different living cultures are also derived. But rapid urbanization and social structural change have caused the creation of densely-packed assembly housing complexes and made neighborhood community upward developed. This, among others, seemed to have affected neighborhood relationship and also created social problems. To understand the complex relations and socio-spatial structure of the community, it is important to use mixed methods. This research employs the theory of space syntax to analyze the layout and structural indicators of the selected communities in Tainan city. On the other hand, this research does the survey about residents' interactions and the sense of community by questionnaire of the selected communities. Then the mean values of the syntax measures from each community were correlated with the results of the questionnaire using a Pearson correlation to examine how elements in physical design affect the sense of community and neighborhood relationship. In Taiwan, most urban morphology research methods are qualitative study. This paper tries to use space syntax to find out the correlation between the community layout and the neighborhood relationship. The result of this study could be used in future studies or improve the quality of residential communities in Taiwan.

Keywords: community layout, neighborhood relationship, space syntax, mixed-method

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2999 Research on the Evolution of Public Space in Tourism-Oriented Traditional Rural Settlements

Authors: Yu Zhang, Mingxue Lang, Li Dong

Abstract:

The hundreds of years of slow succession of living environment in rural area is a crucial carrier of China’s long history of culture and national wisdom. In recent years, the space evolution of traditional rural settlements has been promoted by the intervention of tourism development, among which the public architecture and outdoor activity areas together served as the major places for villagers, and tourists’ social activities are an important characterization for settlement spatial evolution. Traditional public space upgrade and layout study of new public space can effectively promote the tourism industry development of traditional rural settlements. This article takes Qi County, one China Traditional Culture Village as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Space Syntax, studies the evolution features of public space of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements in four steps. First, acquire the 2003 and 2016 image data of Qi County, using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6. Second, vectorize the basic maps of Qi County including its land use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3 meanwhile, associating with architectural and site information concluded from field research. Third, analyze the accessibility and connectivity of the inner space of settlements using space syntax; run cross-correlation with the public space data of 2003 and 2016. Finally, summarize the evolution law of the public space of settlements; study the upgrade pattern of traditional public space and location plan for new public space. Major findings of this paper including: first, location layout of traditional public space has a larger association with the calculation results of space syntax and further confirmed the objective value of space syntax in expressing the space and social relations. Second, the intervention of tourism development generates remarkable impact on public space location of tradition rural settlements. Third, traditional public space produces the symbols of both strengthening and decline and forms a diversified upgrade pattern for the purpose of meeting the different tourism functional needs. Finally, space syntax provides an objective basis for location plan of new public space that meets the needs of tourism service. Tourism development has a significant impact on the evolution of public space of traditional rural settlements. Two types of public space, architecture, and site are both with changes seen from the perspective of quantity, location, dimension and function after the intervention of tourism development. Function upgrade of traditional public space and scientific layout of new public space are two important ways in achieving the goal of sustainable development of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements.

Keywords: public space evolution, Qi county, space syntax, tourism oriented, traditional rural settlements

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2998 The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transportation Planning and Evaluation: Limits and Potentials

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Yueh-Lung Lin, Zhong Wang

Abstract:

Transportation planning is an academic integration discipline combining research and practice with the aim of mobility and accessibility improvements at both strategic-level policy-making and operational dimensions of practical planning. Transportation planning could build the linkage between traffic and social development goals, for instance, economic benefits and environmental sustainability. The transportation planning analysis and evaluation tend to apply empirical quantitative approaches with the guidance of the fundamental principles, such as efficiency, equity, safety, and sustainability. Space syntax theory has been applied in the spatial distribution of pedestrian movement or vehicle flow analysis, however rare has been written about its application in transportation planning. The correlated relationship between the variables of space syntax analysis and authentic observations have declared that the urban configurations have a significant effect on urban dynamics, for instance, land value, building density, traffic, crime. This research aims to explore the potentials of applying Space Syntax methodology to evaluate urban transportation planning through studying the effects of urban configuration on cities transportation performance. By literature review, this paper aims to discuss the effects that urban configuration with different degrees of integration and accessibility have on three elementary components of transportation planning - transportation efficiency, transportation safety, and economic agglomeration development - via intensifying and stabilising the nature movements generated by the street network. And then the potential and limits of Space Syntax theory to study the performance of urban transportation and transportation planning would be discussed in the paper. In practical terms, this research will help future research explore the effects of urban design on transportation performance, and identify which patterns of urban street networks would allow for most efficient and safe transportation performance with higher economic benefits.

Keywords: transportation planning, space syntax, economic agglomeration, transportation efficiency, transportation safety

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2997 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price

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2996 Interaction between River and City Morphology

Authors: Ehsan Abshirini

Abstract:

Rivers as one of the most important topographic factors have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper author intends to find out how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. The pilot study is Angers, a city in western France, in which it is influenced by the Maine River. To this purpose space syntax method integrating with GIS is used to extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, accessibility and choice value. Simulating the state of absence of river in this city and comparing the result to the current state of city according to the effect of river on the morphology of areas located in different banks of river is also part of interest in this paper. The results show that although a river is not comparable to the city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of the city in both global and local properties. In addition, this study endorses that tracking the effect of river-cities and their interaction to rivers in a hybrid of space syntax and GIS may lead researchers to improve their interpretation of physical form of these types of cities.

Keywords: river-cities, Physical form, space syntax properties, GIS, topographic factor

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2995 Spatial Structure of First-Order Voronoi for the Future of Roundabout Cairo Since 1867

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The Haussmannization plan of Cairo in 1867 formed a regular network of roundabout spaces, though deteriorated at present. The method of identifying the spatial structure of roundabout Cairo for conservation matches the voronoi diagram with the space syntax through their geometrical property of spatial convexity. In this initiative, the primary convex hull of first-order voronoi adopts the integral and control measurements of space syntax on Cairo’s roundabout generators. The functional essence of royal palaces optimizes the roundabout structure in terms of spatial measurements and the symbolic voronoi projection of 'Tahrir Roundabout' over the Giza Nile and Pyramids. Some roundabouts of major public and commercial landmarks surround the pole of 'Ezbekia Garden' with a higher control than integral measurements, which filter the new spatial structure from the adjacent traditional town. Nevertheless, the least integral and control measures correspond to the voronoi contents of pollutant workshops and the plateau of old Cairo Citadel with the visual compensation of new royal landmarks on top. Meanwhile, the extended suburbs of infinite voronoi polygons arrange high control generators of chateaux housing in 'garden city' environs. The point pattern of roundabouts determines the geometrical characteristics of voronoi polygons. The measured lengths of voronoi edges alternate between the zoned short range at the new poles of Cairo and the distributed structure of longer range. Nevertheless, the shortest range of generator-vertex geometry concentrates at 'Ezbekia Garden' where the crossways of vast Cairo intersect, which maximizes the variety of choice at different spatial resolutions. However, the symbolic 'Hippodrome' which is the largest public landmark forms exclusive geometrical measurements, while structuring a most integrative roundabout to parallel the royal syntax. Overview of the symbolic convex hull of voronoi with space syntax interconnects Parisian Cairo with the spatial chronology of scattered monuments to conceive one universal Cairo structure. Accordingly, the approached methodology of 'voronoi-syntax' prospects the future conservation of roundabout Cairo at the inferred city-level concept.

Keywords: roundabout Cairo, first-order Voronoi, space syntax, spatial structure

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2994 Research on Road Openness in the Old Urban Residential District Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study on Kunming within the First Loop Road

Authors: Haoyang Liang, Dandong Ge

Abstract:

With the rapid development of Chinese cities, traffic congestion has become more and more serious. At the same time, there are many closed old residential area in Chinese cities, which seriously affect the connectivity of urban roads and reduce the density of urban road networks. After reopening the restricted old residential area, the internal roads in the original residential area were transformed into urban roads, which was of great help to alleviate traffic congestion. This paper uses the spatial syntactic theory to analyze the urban road network and compares the roads with the integration and connectivity degree to evaluate whether the opening of the roads in the residential areas can improve the urban traffic. Based on the road network system within the first loop road in Kunming, the Space Syntax evaluation model is established for status analysis. And comparative analysis method will be used to compare the change of the model before and after the road openness of the old urban residential district within the first-ring road in Kunming. Then it will pick out the areas which indicate a significant difference for the small dimensions model analysis. According to the analyzed results and traffic situation, the evaluation of road openness in the old urban residential district will be proposed to improve the urban residential districts.

Keywords: Space Syntax, Kunming, urban renovation, traffic jam

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2993 Location Choice: The Effects of Network Configuration upon the Distribution of Economic Activities in the Chinese City of Nanning

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Zhong Wang, Panagiotis Psimoulis

Abstract:

Contemporary studies investigating the association between the spatial configuration of the urban network and economic activities at the street level were mostly conducted within space syntax conceptual framework. These findings supported the theory of 'movement economy' and demonstrated the impact of street configuration on the distribution of pedestrian movement and land-use shaping, especially retail activities. However, the effects varied between different urban contexts. In this paper, the relationship between economic activity distribution and the urban configurational characters was examined at the segment level. In the study area, three kinds of neighbourhood types, urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhood, were included. And among all neighbourhoods, three kinds of urban network form, 'tree-like', grid, and organic pattern, were recognised. To investigate the nested effects of urban configuration measured by space syntax approach and urban context, multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were constructed. Additionally, considering the spatial autocorrelation, spatial lag was also concluded in the model as an independent variable. The random effect ZINB model shows superiority over the ZINB model or multilevel linear (ML) model in the explanation of economic activities pattern shaping over the urban environment. And after adjusting for the neighbourhood type and network form effects, connectivity and syntax centrality significantly affect economic activities clustering. The comparison between accumulative and new established economic activities illustrated the different preferences for economic activity location choice.

Keywords: space syntax, economic activities, multilevel model, Chinese city

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2992 Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-Arranged Hospital Building

Authors: Burak Köken, Hatice D. Arslan, Bilgehan Y. Çakmak

Abstract:

Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and self-innovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, connectivity, visual mean depth, beta and visual integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.

Keywords: architecture, hospital building, space syntax, strengthening

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2991 Analysis of Spatiotemporal Efficiency and Fairness of Railway Passenger Transport Network Based on Space Syntax: Taking Yangtze River Delta as an Example

Authors: Lin Dong, Fei Shi

Abstract:

Based on the railway network and the principles of space syntax, the study attempts to reconstruct the spatial relationship of the passenger network connections from space and time perspective. According to the travel time data of main stations in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration obtained by the Internet, the topological drawing of railway network under different time sections is constructed. With the comprehensive index composed of connection and integration, the accessibility and network operation efficiency of the railway network in different time periods is calculated, while the fairness of the network is analyzed by the fairness indicators constructed with the integration and location entropy from the perspective of horizontal and vertical fairness respectively. From the analysis of the efficiency and fairness of the railway passenger transport network, the study finds: (1) There is a strong regularity in regional system accessibility change; (2) The problems of efficiency and fairness are different in different time periods; (3) The improvement of efficiency will lead to the decline of horizontal fairness to a certain extent, while from the perspective of vertical fairness, the supply-demand situation has changed smoothly with time; (4) The network connection efficiency of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang regions is higher than that of the western regions such as Anqing and Chizhou; (5) The marginalization of Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Taizhou is obvious. The study explores the application of spatial syntactic theory in regional traffic analysis, in order to provide a reference for the development of urban agglomeration transportation network.

Keywords: spatial syntax, the Yangtze River Delta, railway passenger time, efficiency and fairness

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2990 Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India

Authors: S. Pramanik

Abstract:

Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).

Keywords: Hindu temple architecture, point isovist, space syntax analysis, visibility graph analysis

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2989 Spatial Integration at the Room-Level of 'Sequina' Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The slum survey of 'Sequina' area in Alexandria details the building rooms of twenty-building samples according to the integral measure of space syntax. The essence of room organization sets the most integrative 'visitor' domain between the 'inhabitant' wings of less integrated 'parent' than the 'children' structure with visual ring of 'balcony' space. Despite the collective real relative asymmetry of 'pheno-type' aggregation, the relative asymmetry of individual layouts reveals 'geno-type' structure of spatial diversity. The multifunction of rooms optimizes the integral structure of graph and visibility merge, which contrasts with the deep tailing structure of distinctive social domains. The most integrative layout inverts the geno-type into freed rooms of shallow 'inhabitant' domain against the off-centered 'visitor' space, while the most segregated layout further restricts the pheno-type through isolated 'visitor' from 'inhabitant' domains across the 'staircase' public domain. The catalyst 'kitchen & living' spaces demonstrate multi-structural dimensions among the various social domains. The former ranges from most exposed central integrity to the most hidden 'motherhood' territories. The latter, however, mostly integrates at centrality or at the further ringy 'childern' domain. The study concludes social structure of spatial integrity for redevelopment, which is determined through the micro-level survey of rooms with integral dimensions.

Keywords: Alexandria, Sequina slum, spatial integration, space syntax

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2988 Syntax-Related Problems of Translation

Authors: Anna Kesoyan

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian. Although Syntax is a part of grammar, syntax-related problems of translation are studied separately during the process of translation. Translation from one language to another is widely accepted as a challenging problem. This becomes even more challenging when the source and target languages are widely different in structure and style, as is the case with English and Armenian. Syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian are mainly connected with the syntactical structures of these languages, and particularly, with the word order of the sentence. The word order of the sentence of the Armenian language, which is a synthetic language, is usually characterized as “rather free”, and the word order of the English language, which is an analytical language, is characterized “fixed”. The following research examines the main translation means, particularly, syntactical transformations as the translator has to take real steps while trying to solve certain syntax-related problems. Most of the means of translation are based on the transformation of grammatical components of the sentence, without changing the main information of the text. There are several transformations that occur during translation such as word order of the sentence, transformations of certain grammatical constructions like Infinitive participial construction, Nominative with the Infinitive and Elliptical constructions which have been covered in the following research.

Keywords: elliptical constructions, nominative with the infinitive constructions, fixed and free word order, syntactic structures

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2987 A Theoretical and Corpus-Based Analysis of English and Spanish Syntax Derived from Método de Los Relojes Verb Types According to Systemic-Functional Grammar as a Foundation for Methodological Adaption

Authors: Timothy William Lawrence

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to research and categorize the four basic verb types found in the Spanish descriptive grammar book Método de los Relojes using verb clauses as representation as found in M.A.K. Halliday's Systemic-Functional Grammar with the purpose of establishing theoretical along with syntactical parallels and deviations between English and Spanish. Results confirm theoretical correlations exist therefore leading to an analysis of English grammar syntax resulting in delineating commonalities and differences from Spanish. Corpora searches were carried out on different patterns of syntactical structures confirming divergences in verb syntax, making it possible to establish parameters to adapt English verbs to the criteria of the four basic Método de los Relojes verb types.

Keywords: corpus studies, Método de los Relojes, structural-functional grammar, verb syntax

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2986 Assessment on the Collective Memory after Alteration of Urban Heritage: Case Study of Hengshan Mansions in Shanghai

Authors: Yueying Chen

Abstract:

A city can be developed through memory, and memory is one of the most important elements for urban contexts. Collective memory is a collection of personal memories that can be preserved with objects, places, and events of heritage, expressing culture through spatial changes. These preserved forms can evoke a sense of community and certain emotions. Collective memory in cities reflects urban spatial alterations and historical developments. It can be preserved and reflected by revitalisation projects. A major current focus in collective memory research is how to identify and preserve memory in an intangible way. The influential elements within the preservation of collective memory mainly include institutions and objects. However, current research lacks the assessment of the collective memory after alterations of urban heritage. The assessment of urban heritage lacks visualization and qualitative methods. The emergence of the application of space syntax can fill in this gap. Hengshan Mansions was a new project in 2015. The original residential area has been replaced with a comprehensive commercial area integrating boutique shopping, upscale restaurants, and creative offices. Hengshan Mansions is located in the largest historic area in Shanghai, and its development is the epitome of the traditional culture in Shanghai. Its alteration is the newest project in this area and presents the new concept of revitalisation of urban heritage. For its physical parts, modern vitality is created, and historical information is preserved at the same time. However, most of the local people are moved away, and its functions are altered a lot. The preservation of its collective memory needs to discuss furtherly. Thus, the article builds a framework to assess the collective memory of urban heritage, including spatial configuration, spatial interaction, and cultural cognition. Then, it selects Hengshan Mansions in Shanghai as a case to analyse the assessed framework. Space syntax can be applied to visualize the assessment. Based on the analysis, the article will explore the influential reasons for the collective memory after alterations and proposes relevant advice for the preservation of the collective memory of urban heritage.

Keywords: collective memory, alternation of urban heritage, space syntax, Hengshan Mansions

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2985 Towards Developing Social Assessment Tool for Siwan Ecolodge Case Study: Babenshal Ecolodge

Authors: Amr Ali Bayoumi, Ola Ali Bayoumi

Abstract:

The aim of this research is enhancing one of the main aspects (Social Aspect) for developing an eco-lodge in Siwa oasis in Egyptian Western Desert. According to credible weightings built in this research through formal and informal questionnaires, the researcher detected one of the highest credible aspects, 'Social Aspect': through which it carries the maximum priorities among the total environmental and economic categories. From here, the researcher suggested the usage of ethnographic design approach and Space Syntax as observational and computational methods for developing future Eco-lodge in Siwa Oasis. These methods are used to study social spaces of Babenshal eco-lodge as a case study. This hybrid method is considered as a beginning of building Social Assessment Tool (SAT) for ecological tourism buildings located in Siwa as a case of Egyptian Western desert community. Towards livable social spaces, the proposed SAT was planned to be the optimum measurable weightings for social aspect's priorities of future Siwan eco-lodge(s). Finally, recommendations are proposed for enhancing SAT to be more correlated with sensitive desert biome (Siwa Oasis) to be adapted with the continuous social and environmental changes of the oasis.

Keywords: ecolodge, social aspect, space syntax, Siwa Oasis

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2984 Definition of a Computing Independent Model and Rules for Transformation Focused on the Model-View-Controller Architecture

Authors: Vanessa Matias Leite, Jandira Guenka Palma, Flávio Henrique de Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a model-oriented development approach to software development in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural standard. This approach aims to expose a process of extractions of information from the models, in which through rules and syntax defined in this work, assists in the design of the initial model and its future conversions. The proposed paper presents a syntax based on the natural language, according to the rules agreed in the classic grammar of the Portuguese language, added to the rules of conversions generating models that follow the norms of the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Meta-Object Facility MOF.

Keywords: BNF Syntax, model driven architecture, model-view-controller, transformation, UML

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2983 Urban Neighborhood Center Location Evaluating Method Based On UNA the GIS Spatial Analysis Tools: Kerman's Neighborhood in Tehran Case

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Shadabeh Gashtasbi Iraei, Elnaz Mohsenin, MohammadAli Aghajani

Abstract:

Urban neighborhoods, as important urban forming cells, play a key role in creating urban texture and integrated form. Nowadays, most of neighborhood divisions are based on urban management systems but without considering social issues and the other aspects of urban life. This can cause problems such as providing inappropriate services for city dwellers, the loss of local identity and etc. In this regard for regenerating of such neighborhoods, it is essential to locate neighborhood centers with appropriate access and services for all residents. The main objective of this article is reaching to the location of neighborhood centers in a way that, most of issues relating to the physical features (such as the form of access network and texture permeability and etc.) and other qualities such as land uses, densities and social and economic features can be done simultaneously. This paper attempts to use methods of spatial analysis in order to surveying spatial structure and space syntax of urban textures and Urban Network Analysis Systems. This can be done by one of GIS toolbars which is named UNA (Urban Network Analysis) with the use of its five functions (include: Reach, Betweenness, Gravity, Closeness, Straightness).These functions were written according to space syntax theory and offer its relating output. This paper tries to locate and evaluate the optimal location of neighborhood centers in order to create local centers. This is done through weighing of each of these functions and taking into account of spatial features.

Keywords: evaluate optimal location, Local centers, location of neighborhood centers, Spatial analysis, Urban network

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2982 Towards the Effectiveness/ Performance of Spatial Communication within the Composite Interior Spaces: Wayfinding System in the Saudi National Museum as a Case Study

Authors: Afnan T. Bagasi, Donia M. Bettaieb, Abeer Alsobahi

Abstract:

The wayfinding system is related to the course of the museum journey for visitors directly and indirectly. The design aspects of this system play an important role, making it an effective and communication system within the museum space. However, translating the concepts that pertain to its design, such as Intelligibility that is based on integration and connectivity in museum space design, needs more customization in the form of specific design considerations with reference to the most important approaches. Those approaches link the organizational and practical aspects to the semiotic and semantic aspects related to the space syntax by targeting the visual and perceived consistency of visitors. In this context, the study aims to identify how to apply the concept of intelligibility and clarity by employing integration and connectivity to design a wayfinding system in museums as a kind of composite interior space. Using the available plans and images to extrapolate the design considerations used to design the wayfinding system in the Saudi National Museum as a case study, a descriptive-analytical method was used to understand the basic organizational and morphological principles of the museum space through four main aspects in space design: morphological, semantic, semiotic, and pragmatic. The study's findings will assist designers, professionals, and researchers in the field of museum design in understanding the significance of the wayfinding system by delving into it through museum spaces by highlighting the essential aspects using a clear analytical method.

Keywords: wayfinding system, museum journey, intelligibility, integration, connectivity

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2981 Syntactic Analyzer for Tamil Language

Authors: Franklin Thambi Jose.S

Abstract:

Computational Linguistics is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the computer and linguistic levels. It is also said, as a branch of language studies which applies computer techniques to linguistics field. In Computational Linguistics, Natural Language Processing plays an important role. This came to exist because of the invention of Information Technology. In computational syntax, the syntactic analyser breaks a sentence into phrases and clauses and identifies the sentence with the syntactic information. Tamil is one of the major Dravidian languages, which has a very long written history of more than 2000 years. It is mainly spoken in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. It is an official language in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. In Malaysia Tamil speaking people are considered as an ethnic group. In Tamil syntax, the sentences in Tamil are classified into four for this research, namely: 1. Main Sentence 2. Interrogative Sentence 3. Equational Sentence 4. Elliptical Sentence. In computational syntax, the first step is to provide required information regarding the head and its constituent of each sentence. This information will be incorporated to the system using programming languages. Now the system can easily analyse a given sentence with the criteria or mechanisms given to it. Providing needful criteria or mechanisms to the computer to identify the basic types of sentences using Syntactic parser in Tamil language is the major objective of this paper.

Keywords: tamil, syntax, criteria, sentences, parser

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2980 Research on the Updating Strategy of Public Space in Small Towns in Zhejiang Province under the Background of New-Style Urbanization

Authors: Chen Yao, Wang Ke

Abstract:

Small towns are the most basic administrative institutions in our country, which are connected with cities and rural areas. Small towns play an important role in promoting local urban and rural economic development, providing the main public services and maintaining social stability in social governance. With the vigorous development of small towns and the transformation of industrial structure, the changes of social structure, spatial structure, and lifestyle are lagging behind, causing that the spatial form and landscape style do not belong to both cities and rural areas, and seriously affecting the quality of people’s life space and environment. The rural economy in Zhejiang Province has started, the society and the population are also developing in relative stability. In September 2016, Zhejiang Province set out the 'Technical Guidelines for Comprehensive Environmental Remediation of Small Towns in Zhejiang Province,' so as to comprehensively implement the small town comprehensive environmental remediation with the main content of strengthening the plan and design leading, regulating environmental sanitation, urban order and town appearance. In November 2016, Huzhou City started the comprehensive environmental improvement of small towns, strived to use three years to significantly improve the 115 small towns, as well as to create a number of high quality, distinctive and beautiful towns with features of 'clean and livable, rational layout, industrial development, poetry and painting style'. This paper takes Meixi Town, Zhangwu Town and Sanchuan Village in Huzhou City as the empirical cases, analyzes the small town public space by applying the relative theory of actor-network and space syntax. This paper also analyzes the spatial composition in actor and social structure elements, as well as explores the relationship of actor’s spatial practice and public open space by combining with actor-network theory. This paper introduces the relevant theories and methods of spatial syntax, carries out research analysis and design planning analysis of small town spaces from the perspective of quantitative analysis. And then, this paper proposes the effective updating strategy for the existing problems in public space. Through the planning and design in the building level, the dissonant factors produced by various spatial combination of factors and between landscape design and urban texture during small town development will be solved, inhabitant quality of life will be promoted, and town development vitality will be increased.

Keywords: small towns, urbanization, public space, updating

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2979 A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition

Authors: Annie Gedion, Johan Severinus Tati, Jacinta Caroline Peter

Abstract:

Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.

Keywords: errors analysis, syntactic analysis, English as a second language, ESL writing

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2978 BodeACD: Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Detecting Based on Abstract Syntax Tree, Control Flow Graph, and Data Dependency Graph

Authors: Xinghang Lv, Tao Peng, Jia Chen, Junping Liu, Xinrong Hu, Ruhan He, Minghua Jiang, Wenli Cao

Abstract:

As one of the most dangerous vulnerabilities, effective detection of buffer overflow vulnerabilities is extremely necessary. Traditional detection methods are not accurate enough and consume more resources to meet complex and enormous code environment at present. In order to resolve the above problems, we propose the method for Buffer overflow detection based on Abstract syntax tree, Control flow graph, and Data dependency graph (BodeACD) in C/C++ programs with source code. Firstly, BodeACD constructs the function samples of buffer overflow that are available on Github, then represents them as code representation sequences, which fuse control flow, data dependency, and syntax structure of source code to reduce information loss during code representation. Finally, BodeACD learns vulnerability patterns for vulnerability detection through deep learning. The results of the experiments show that BodeACD has increased the precision and recall by 6.3% and 8.5% respectively compared with the latest methods, which can effectively improve vulnerability detection and reduce False-positive rate and False-negative rate.

Keywords: vulnerability detection, abstract syntax tree, control flow graph, data dependency graph, code representation, deep learning

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2977 Syntactic Ambiguity and Syntactic Analysis: Transformational Grammar Approach

Authors: Olufemi Olupe

Abstract:

Within linguistics, various approaches have been adopted to the study of language. One of such approaches is the syntax. The syntax is an aspect of the grammar of the language which deals with how words are put together to form phrases and sentences and how such structures are interpreted in language. Ambiguity, which is also germane in this discourse is about the uncertainty of meaning as a result of the possibility of a phrase or sentence being understood and interpreted in more than one way. In the light of the above, this paper attempts a syntactic study of syntactic ambiguities in The English Language, using the Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) Approach. In doing this, phrases and sentences were raised with each description followed by relevant analysis. Finding in the work reveals that ambiguity cannot always be disambiguated by the means of syntactic analysis alone without recourse to semantic interpretation. The further finding shows that some syntactical ambiguities structures cannot be analysed on two surface structures in spite of the fact that there are more than one deep structures. The paper concludes that in as much as ambiguity remains in language; it will continue to pose a problem of understanding to a second language learner. Users of English as a second language, must, however, make a conscious effort to avoid its usage to achieve effective communication.

Keywords: language, syntax, semantics, morphology, ambiguity

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2976 Information Society-Education Space

Authors: Monica Lia

Abstract:

This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. Second step was to identify how information space intersects the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school). Interrelationship between the above-mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support for the family space, education and institutional space. In addition, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. However, this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or be support systems if we know the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work for accomplish the educational objectives.

Keywords: informational space, education, educational tool, social diagram, information, information structure, lessons

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2975 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

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