Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 177

Search results for: inequalities

177 Heinz-Type Inequalities in Hilbert Spaces

Authors: Jin Liang, Guanghua Shi


In this paper, we are concerned with the further refinements of the Heinz operator inequalities in Hilbert spaces. Our purpose is to derive several new Heinz-type operator inequalities. First, with the help of the Taylor series of some hyperbolic functions, we obtain some refinements of the ordering relations among Heinz means defined by Bhatia with different parameters, which would be more suitable in obtaining the corresponding operator inequalities. Second, we present some generalizations of Heinz operator inequalities. Finally, we give a matrix version of the Heinz inequality for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm.

Keywords: Hilbert space, means inequality, norm inequality, positive linear operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
176 Hermite–Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities Involving k–Riemann–Liouville Fractional Integrals and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko


In this paper, some generalization integral inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard type for functions whose derivatives are s–convex in modulus are given by using k–fractional integrals. Some applications to special means are obtained as well. Some known versions are recovered as special cases from our results. We note that our inequalities can be viewed as new refinements of the previous results. Finally, our results have a deep connection with various fractional integral operators and interested readers can find new interesting results using our idea and technique as well.

Keywords: Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities, Hölder's inequality, k-Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, special means

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175 Multidimensional Integral and Discrete Opial–Type Inequalities

Authors: Maja Andrić, Josip Pečarić


Over the last five decades, an enormous amount of work has been done on Opial’s integral inequality, dealing with new proofs, various generalizations, extensions and discrete analogs. The Opial inequality is recognized as a fundamental result in the analysis of qualitative properties of solution of differential equations. We use submultiplicative convex functions, appropriate representations of functions and inequalities involving means to obtain generalizations and extensions of certain known multidimensional integral and discrete Opial-type inequalities.

Keywords: Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality, integral inequality, discrete inequality

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174 Lyapunov Type Inequalities for Fractional Impulsive Hamiltonian Systems

Authors: Kazem Ghanbari, Yousef Gholami


This paper deals with study about fractional order impulsive Hamiltonian systems and fractional impulsive Sturm-Liouville type problems derived from these systems. The main purpose of this paper devotes to obtain so called Lyapunov type inequalities for mentioned problems. Also, in view point on applicability of obtained inequalities, some qualitative properties such as stability, disconjugacy, nonexistence and oscillatory behaviour of fractional Hamiltonian systems and fractional Sturm-Liouville type problems under impulsive conditions will be derived. At the end, we want to point out that for studying fractional order Hamiltonian systems, we will apply recently introduced fractional Conformable operators.

Keywords: fractional derivatives and integrals, Hamiltonian system, Lyapunov-type inequalities, stability, disconjugacy

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173 Some Inequalities Related with Starlike Log-Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Melike Aydoğan, Dürdane Öztürk


Let H(D) be the linear space of all analytic functions defined on the open unit disc. A log-harmonic mappings is a solution of the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation where w(z) ∈ H(D) is second dilatation such that |w(z)| < 1 for all z ∈ D. The aim of this paper is to define some inequalities of starlike logharmonic functions of order α(0 ≤ α ≤ 1).

Keywords: starlike log-harmonic functions, univalent functions, distortion theorem

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172 Robust Control of a Dynamic Model of an F-16 Aircraft with Improved Damping through Linear Matrix Inequalities

Authors: J. P. P. Andrade, V. A. F. Campos


This work presents an application of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) for the robust control of an F-16 aircraft through an algorithm ensuring the damping factor to the closed loop system. The results show that the zero and gain settings are sufficient to ensure robust performance and stability with respect to various operating points. The technique used is the pole placement, which aims to put the system in closed loop poles in a specific region of the complex plane. Test results using a dynamic model of the F-16 aircraft are presented and discussed.

Keywords: F-16 aircraft, linear matrix inequalities, pole placement, robust control

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171 The Escalation of Incivility in the Light of Social Constructions that Conceal Inequalities

Authors: J. M. B. Mendonça, M. V. S. Siqueira, A. Soares, M. A. F. Santos


The purpose of this article is to understand the dynamics of the increase in incivility through social relations (gender, race, class, sexual orientation, etc.), which hide inequalities in the form of treatment and opportunities within the organizational sphere. For this, we will examine works that address incivility at work, as well as studies that deviate from the mainstream, bringing more obscure organizational facets to light in connection with a critical approach to this issue. Next, some results of a bibliometric study shall be exposed, to analyze contributions connected to the theme and demonstrate gaps for future research. Then, models that facilitate reflection on the dynamics of violence shall be discussed. Finally, a broader concept of incivility in interpersonal relationships in the workplace shall be exposed considering the multiple approaches discussed.

Keywords: incivility, inequalities, organization reflections, preventing violence

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170 Solving Optimal Control of Semilinear Elliptic Variational Inequalities Obstacle Problems using Smoothing Functions

Authors: El Hassene Osmani, Mounir Haddou, Naceurdine Bensalem


In this paper, we investigate optimal control problems governed by semilinear elliptic variational inequalities involving constraints on the state, and more precisely, the obstacle problem. We present a relaxed formulation for the problem using smoothing functions. Since we adopt a numerical point of view, we first relax the feasible domain of the problem, then using both mathematical programming methods and penalization methods, we get optimality conditions with smooth Lagrange multipliers. Some numerical experiments using IPOPT algorithm (Interior Point Optimizer) are presented to verify the efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: complementarity problem, IPOPT, Lagrange multipliers, mathematical programming, optimal control, smoothing methods, variationally inequalities

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169 Decomposing the Socio-Economic Inequalities in Utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries: Insight from Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Geetha Menon, Anita Pal, Rajkumar Verma


Even after encouraging maternal and child wellness programs at worldwide level, lower-middle income nations are not reached the goal set by the UN yet. This study quantified the contribution of socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries. This study used data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) of the selected countries were used, and Oaxaca decomposing were applied for socioeconomic inequalities in utilization of antenatal care. Finding from the multivariate analysis shows that mother’s age at the time of birth, birth order and interval, mother’s education, mass media exposure and economic status were significant determinants of the utilization of antenatal care services in South Asian countries. Considering, concentration index curve, the line of equity was greatest in Pakistan which followed by India and Nepal.

Keywords: antenatal care, decomposition, inequalities, South Asian countries

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168 Identifying the Faces of colonialism: An Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Economic Participation in Pakistan through Postcolonial Feminist Lens

Authors: Umbreen Salim, Anila Noor


This paper analyses the influences and faces of colonialism in women’s participation in economic activity in postcolonial Pakistan, through postcolonial feminist economic lens. It is an attempt to probe the shifts in gender inequalities that have existed in three stages; pre-colonial, colonial, and postcolonial times in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. It delves into an inquiry of pre-colonial as it is imperative to understand the situation and context before colonisation in order to assess the deviations associated with its onset. Hence, in order to trace gender inequalities this paper analyses from Mughal Era (1526-1757) that existed before British colonisation, then, the gender inequalities that existed during British colonisation (1857- 1947) and the associated dynamics and changes in women’s vulnerabilities to participate in the economy are examined. Followed by, the postcolonial (1947 onwards) scenario of discriminations and oppressions faced by women. As part of the research methodology, primary and secondary data analysis was done. Analysis of secondary data including literary works and photographs was carried out, followed by primary data collection using ethnographic approaches and participatory tools to understand the presence of coloniality and gender inequalities embedded in the social structure through participant’s real-life stories. The data is analysed using feminist postcolonial analysis. Intersectionality has been a key tool of analysis as the paper delved into the gender inequalities through the class and caste lens briefly touching at religion. It is imperative to mention the significance of the study and very importantly the practical challenges as historical analysis of 18th and 19th century is involved. Most of the available work on history is produced by a) men and b) foreigners and mostly white authors. Since the historical analysis is mostly by men the gender analysis presented misses on many aspects of women’s issues and since the authors have been mostly white European gives it as Mohanty says, ‘under western eyes’ perspective. Whereas the edge of this paper is the authors’ deep attachment, belongingness as lived reality and work with women in Pakistan as postcolonial subjects, a better position to relate with the social reality and understand the phenomenon. The study brought some key results as gender inequalities existed before colonisation when women were hidden wheel of stable economy which was completely invisible. During the British colonisation, the vulnerabilities of women only increased and as compared to men their inferiority status further strengthened. Today, the postcolonial woman lives in deep-rooted effects of coloniality where she is divided in class and position within the class, and she has to face gender inequalities within household and in the market for economic participation. Gender inequalities have existed in pre-colonial, during colonisation and postcolonial times in Pakistan with varying dynamics, degrees and intensities for women whereby social class, caste and religion have been key factors defining the extent of discrimination and oppression. Colonialism may have physically ended but the coloniality remains and has its deep, broad and wide effects in increasing gender inequalities in women’s participation in the economy in Pakistan.

Keywords: colonialism, economic participation, gender inequalities, women

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167 Reliable Consensus Problem for Multi-Agent Systems with Sampled-Data

Authors: S. H. Lee, M. J. Park, O. M. Kwon


In this paper, reliable consensus of multi-agent systems with sampled-data is investigated. By using a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and some techniques such as Wirtinger Inequality, Schur Complement and Kronecker Product, the results of this systems are obtained by solving a set of Linear Matrix Inequalities(LMIs). One numerical example is included to show the effectiveness of the proposed criteria.

Keywords: multi-agent, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), kronecker product, sampled-data, Lyapunov method

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166 Parameterized Lyapunov Function Based Robust Diagonal Dominance Pre-Compensator Design for Linear Parameter Varying Model

Authors: Xiaobao Han, Huacong Li, Jia Li


For dynamic decoupling of linear parameter varying system, a robust dominance pre-compensator design method is given. The parameterized pre-compensator design problem is converted into optimal problem constrained with parameterized linear matrix inequalities (PLMI); To solve this problem, firstly, this optimization problem is equivalently transformed into a new form with elimination of coupling relationship between parameterized Lyapunov function (PLF) and pre-compensator. Then the problem was reduced to a normal convex optimization problem with normal linear matrix inequalities (LMI) constraints on a newly constructed convex polyhedron. Moreover, a parameter scheduling pre-compensator was achieved, which satisfies robust performance and decoupling performances. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the robust diagonal dominance pre-compensator design method are verified by the numerical simulation of a turbofan engine PLPV model.

Keywords: linear parameter varying (LPV), parameterized Lyapunov function (PLF), linear matrix inequalities (LMI), diagonal dominance pre-compensator

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165 Converse to the Sherman Inequality with Applications in Information Theory

Authors: Ana Barbir, S. Ivelic Bradanovic, D. Pecaric, J. Pecaric


We proved a converse to Sherman's inequality. Using the concept of f-divergence we obtained some inequalities for the well-known entropies, such as Shannon entropies that have many applications in many applied sciences, for example, in information theory, biology and economics Zipf-Mandelbrot law gave improvement in account for the low-rankwords in corpus. Applications of Zipf-Mandelbrot law can be found in linguistics, information sciences and also mostly applicable in ecological eld studies. We also introduced an entropy by applying the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and derived some related inequalities.

Keywords: f-divergence, majorization inequality, Sherman inequality, Zipf-Mandelbrot entropy

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164 Robust H∞ State Feedback Control for Discrete Time T-S Fuzzy Systems Based on Fuzzy Lyapunov Function Approach

Authors: Walied Hanora


This paper presents the problem of robust state feedback H∞ for discrete time nonlinear system represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. Based on fuzzy lyapunov function, the condition ,which is represented in the form of Liner Matrix Inequalities (LMI), guarantees the H∞ performance of the T-S fuzzy system with uncertainties. By comparison with recent literature, this approach will be more relaxed condition. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the proposed result.

Keywords: fuzzy lyapunov function, H∞ control , linear matrix inequalities, state feedback, T-S fuzzy systems

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163 Monotonicity of the Jensen Functional for f-Divergences via the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law

Authors: Neda Lovričević, Đilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić


The Jensen functional in its discrete form is brought in relation to the Csiszar divergence functional, this time via its monotonicity property. This approach presents a generalization of the previously obtained results that made use of interpolating Jensen-type inequalities. Thus the monotonicity property is integrated with the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and applied to f-divergences for probability distributions that originate from the Csiszar divergence functional: Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance, chi-square divergence, total variation distance. The Zipf-Mandelbrot and the Zipf law are widely used in various scientific fields and interdisciplinary and here the focus is on the aspect of the mathematical inequalities.

Keywords: Jensen functional, monotonicity, Csiszar divergence functional, f-divergences, Zipf-Mandelbrot law

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162 Early Childhood Developmental Delay in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Prevalence and Inequalities Estimated from National Health Surveys

Authors: Jesus D. Cortes Gil, Fernanda Ewerling, Leonardo Ferreira, Aluisio J. D. Barros


Background: The sustainable development goals call for inclusive, equitable, and quality learning opportunities for all. This is especially important for children, to ensure they all develop to their full potential. We studied the prevalence and inequalities of suspected delay in child development in 63 low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings: We used the early child development module from national health surveys, which covers four developmental domains (physical, social-emotional, learning, literacy-numeracy) and provides a combined indicator (early child development index, ECDI) of whether children are on track. We calculated the age-adjusted prevalence of suspected delay at the country level and stratifying by wealth, urban/rural residence, sex of the child, and maternal education. We also calculated measures of absolute and relative inequality. We studied 330.613 children from 63 countries. The prevalence of suspected delay for the ECDI ranged from 3% in Barbados to 67% in Chad. For all countries together, 25% of the children were suspected of developmental delay. At regional level, the prevalence of delay ranged from 10% in Europe and Central Asia to 42% in West and Central Africa. The literacy-numeracy domain was by far the most challenging, with the highest proportions of delay. We observed very large inequalities, and most markedly for the literacy-numeracy domain. Conclusions: To date, our study presents the most comprehensive analysis of child development using an instrument especially developed for national health surveys. With a quarter of the children globally suspected of developmental delay, we face an immense challenge. The multifactorial aspect of early child development and the large gaps we found only add to the challenge of not leaving these children behind.

Keywords: child development, inequalities, global health, equity

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161 An Overview of the Risk for HIV/AIDS among Young Women in South Africa: Gender Based Violence

Authors: Shaneil Taylor


Gender-based violence is a reflection of the inequalities that are associated within a society between the men and women that affects the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims. There are various determinants that contribute to the health risk of young women who have experienced sexual violence, in countries that have a high prevalence rate for HIV. For instance, in South Africa, where the highest prevalence rate for HIV is among young women, their susceptibility to the virus has been increased by sexual violence and cultural inequalities. Therefore, this study is a review of literature that explores how gender-based violence increases the possibility for HIV/AIDS among young women in South Africa.

Keywords: gender-based violence, HIV/AIDS transmission, risky sexual behavior, young women

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160 Sampled-Data Control for Fuel Cell Systems

Authors: H. Y. Jung, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee


A sampled-data controller is presented for solid oxide fuel cell systems which is expressed by a sector bounded nonlinear model. The sector bounded nonlinear systems, which have a feedback connection with a linear dynamical system and nonlinearity satisfying certain sector type constraints. Also, the sampled-data control scheme is very useful since it is possible to handle digital controller and increasing research efforts have been devoted to sampled-data control systems with the development of modern high-speed computers. The proposed control law is obtained by solving a convex problem satisfying several linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

Keywords: sampled-data control, fuel cell, linear matrix inequalities, nonlinear control

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159 Evaluating the Performance of 28 EU Member Countries on Health2020: A Data Envelopment Analysis Evaluation of the Successful Implementation of Policies

Authors: Elias K. Maragos, Petros E. Maravelakis, Apostolos I. Linardis


Health2020 is a promising framework of policies provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and aiming to diminish the health and well-being inequalities among the citizens of the European Union (EU) countries. The major demographic, social and environmental changes, in addition to the resent economic crisis prevent the unobstructed and successful implementation of this framework. The unemployment rates and the percentage of people at risk of poverty have increased among the citizens of EU countries. At the same time, the adopted fiscal, economic policies do not help governments to serve their social role and mitigate social and health inequalities. In those circumstances, there is a strong pressure to organize all health system resources efficiently and wisely. In order to provide a unified and value-based framework of valuation, we propose a valuation framework using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and dynamic DEA. We believe that the adopted methodology could provide a robust tool which can capture the degree of success with which policies have been implemented and is capable to determine which of the countries developed the requested policies efficiently and which of the countries have been lagged. Using the proposed methodology, we evaluated the performance of 28 EU member-countries in relation to the Health2020 peripheral targets. We adopted several versions of evaluation, measuring the effectiveness and the efficiency of EU countries from 2011 to 2016. Our results showed stability in technological changes and revealed a group of countries which were benchmarks in most of the years for the inefficient countries.

Keywords: DEA, Health2020, health inequalities, malmquist index, policies evaluation, well-being

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158 Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Ratchagit


This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, Lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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157 New Results on Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Rajchakit


This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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156 Co-Factors of Hypertension and Decomposition of Inequalities in Its Prevalence in India: Evidence from NFHS-4

Authors: Ayantika Biswas


Hypertension still remains one of the most important preventable contributors to adult mortality and morbidity and a major public health challenge worldwide. Studying regional and rural-urban differences in prevalence and assessment of the contributions of different indicators is essential in determining the drivers of this condition. The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey data has been used for the study. Bivariate analysis, multinomial regression analysis, concentration indices and decomposition of concentration indices assessing contribution of factors has been undertaken in the present study. An overall concentration index of 0.003 has been found for hypertensive population, which shows its concentration among the richer wealth quintiles. The contribution of factors like age 45 to 49 years, years of schooling between 5 to 9 years are factors that are important contributors to inequality in hypertension occurrence. Studies should be conducted to find approaches to prevent or delay the onset of the condition.

Keywords: hypertension, decomposition, inequalities, India

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155 Some Integral Inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard Type on Time Scale and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko


In this paper, the authors establish an integral identity using delta differentiable functions. By applying this identity, some new results via a general class of convex functions with respect to two nonnegative functions on a time scale are given. Also, for suitable choices of nonnegative functions, some special cases are deduced. Finally, in order to illustrate the efficiency of our main results, some applications to special means are obtained as well. We hope that current work using our idea and technique will attract the attention of researchers working in mathematical analysis, mathematical inequalities, numerical analysis, special functions, fractional calculus, quantum mechanics, quantum calculus, physics, probability and statistics, differential and difference equations, optimization theory, and other related fields in pure and applied sciences.

Keywords: convex functions, Hermite-Hadamard inequality, special means, time scale

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154 Determinants of Child Nutritional Inequalities in Pakistan: Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis

Authors: Nilam Bano, Uzma Iram


Globally, the dilemma of undernutrition has become a notable concern for the researchers, academicians, and policymakers because of its severe consequences for many centuries. The nutritional deficiencies create hurdles for the people to achieve goals related to live a better lifestyle. Not only at micro level but also at the macro level, the consequences of undernutrition affect the economic progress of the country. The initial five years of a child’s life are considered critical for the physical growth and brain development. In this regard, children require special care and good quality food (nutrient intake) to fulfill their nutritional demand of the growing body. Having the sensitive stature and health, children specially under the age of 5 years are more vulnerable to the poor economic, housing, environmental and other social conditions. Beside confronting economic challenges and political upheavals, Pakistan is also going through from a rough patch in the context of social development. Majority of the children are facing serious health problems in the absence of required nutrition. The complexity of this issue is getting severe day by day and specially children are left behind with different type of immune problems and vitamins and mineral deficiencies. It is noted that children from the well-off background are less likely affected by the undernutrition. In order to underline this issue, the present study aims to highlight the existing nutritional inequalities among the children of under five years in Pakistan. Moreover, this study strives to decompose those factors that severely affect the existing nutritional inequality and standing in the queue to capture the consideration of concerned authorities. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13 was employed to assess the relevant indicators of undernutrition such as stunting, wasting, underweight and associated socioeconomic factors. The objectives were executed through the utilization of the relevant empirical techniques. Concentration indices were constructed to measure the nutritional inequalities by utilizing three measures of undernutrition; stunting, wasting and underweight. In addition to it, the decomposition analysis following the logistic regression was made to unfold the determinants that severely affect the nutritional inequalities. The negative values of concentration indices illustrate that children from the marginalized background are affected by the undernutrition more than their counterparts who belong from rich households. Furthermore, the result of decomposition analysis indicates that child age, size of a child at birth, wealth index, household size, parents’ education, mother’s health and place of residence are the most contributing factors in the prevalence of existing nutritional inequalities. Considering the result of the study, it is suggested to the policymakers to design policies in a way so that the health sector of Pakistan can stimulate in a productive manner. Increasing the number of effective health awareness programs for mothers would create a notable difference. Moreover, the education of the parents must be concerned by the policymakers as it has a significant association with the present research in terms of eradicating the nutritional inequalities among children.

Keywords: concentration index, decomposition analysis, inequalities, undernutrition, Pakistan

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153 Digital Demands: Addressing the Digital Divide in Basic Education and Its Relation to Academic Performance and Aspirations

Authors: Jose Rodrigo Zubiri, Sofia Carmen Tomacruz


Amidst an increasingly digitalized society, information and communication technologies have been seamlessly integrated into the economic, social, and political life of individuals. Information has been regarded as a primary good, essential to the wellbeing and self-respect of individuals in society. The digital engagements of an individual play a key role in a variety of life outcomes ranging from academic performance to entrepreneurial success to health service uptake. As a result of varying degrees of access to the Internet and ICTs across populations and individuals, a digital divide emerges. Education, a sector pivotal to directing individual life trajectories, has been radically transformed with regards to the learning process and access to information and thus faces the implications of the digital divide, as new waves of inequalities are introduced in the classroom. As the period of basic education is critical to transitioning into civic life or higher education, digital inequalities are capable of aggravating pre-existing social inequalities. Through survey-questionnaires, conducted on 152 high school students from a Philippine public school, the study reveals the correlation of academic performance and aspirations (for their highest academic qualification) to access to digital technologies and the Internet, according to Van Dijk’s four measurements of digital poverty, namely: motivational access, material access, skills access, and usage access. The findings reveal a positive correlation for academic performance whereas no correlation was found between aspirations and digital access. In the study, significant correlational differences were also found between genders, specifically, in terms of skills access and academic performance.

Keywords: digital divide, ICTs, inequality, education, life trajectories

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152 Formation Control for Linear Multi-Robot System with Switched Directed Topology and Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Yaxiao Zhang, Yangzhou Chen


This study investigate the formation problem for high-order continuous-time multi-robot with bounded symmetric time-varying delay protocol under switched directed communication topology. By using a linear transformation, the formation problem is transformed to stability analysis of a switched delay system. Under the assumption that each communication topology has a directed spanning tree, sufficient conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that the multi-robot system can achieve a desired formation by the trade-off among the pre-exist topologies with the help of the scheme of average dwell time. A numeral example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: multi-robot systems, formation, switched directed topology, symmetric time-varying delay, average dwell time, linear matrix inequalities (lmis)

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151 Wealth-Based Inequalities in Child Health: A Micro-Level Analysis of Maharashtra State in India

Authors: V. Rekha, Rama Pal


The study examines the degree and magnitude of wealth-based inequalities in child health and its determinants in India. Despite making strides in economic growth, India has failed to secure a better nutritional status for all the children. The country currently faces the double burden of malnutrition as well as the problems of overweight and obesity. Child malnutrition, obesity, unsafe water, sanitation among others are identified as the risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Eliminating malnutrition in all its forms will catalyse improved health and economic outcomes. The assessment of the distributive dimension of child health across various segments of the population is essential for effective policy intervention. The study utilises the fourth round of District Level Health Survey for 2012-13 to analyse the inequalities among children in the age group 0-14 years in Maharashtra, a state in the western region of India with a population of 11.24 crores which constitutes 9.3 percent of the total population of India. The study considers the extent of health inequality by state, districts, sector, age-groups, and gender. The z-scores of four child health outcome variables are computed to assess the nutritional status of pre-school and school children using WHO reference. The descriptive statistics, concentration curves, concentration indices, correlation matrix, logistic regression have been used to analyse the data. The results indicate that magnitude of inequality is higher in Maharashtra and child health inequalities manifest primarily among the weaker sections of society. The concentration curves show that there exists a pro-poor inequality in child malnutrition measured by stunting, wasting, underweight, anaemia and a pro-rich overweight inequality. The inequalities in anaemia are observably lower due to the widespread prevalence. Rural areas exhibit a higher incidence of malnutrition, but greater inequality is observed in the urban areas. Overall, the wealth-based inequalities do not vary significantly between age groups. It appears that there is no gender discrimination at the state level. Further, rural-urban differentials in gender show that boys from the rural area and girls living in the urban region experience higher disparities in health. The relative distribution of undernutrition across districts in Maharashtra reveals that malnutrition is rampant and considerable heterogeneity also exists. A negative correlation is established between malnutrition prevalence and human development indicators. The findings of logistic regression analysis reveal that lower economic status of the household is associated with a higher probability of being malnourished. The study recognises household wealth, education of the parent, child gender, and household size as factors significantly related to malnutrition. The results suggest that among the supply-side variables, child-oriented government programmes might be beneficial in tackling nutrition deficit. In order to bridge the health inequality gap, the government needs to target the schemes better and should expand the coverage of services.

Keywords: child health, inequality, malnutrition, obesity

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150 Exploring Health-Related Inequalities between Private, Public and Active Transport Users, Using Relative Importance Index: Case Study on Santiago de Chile

Authors: Beatriz Mella Lira, Karla Yohannessen, Robin Hickman


The aim of the paper is recognising inequalities through the self-assessment of health-related factors, in the context of daily mobilities in Santiago de Chile. Human capabilities will be used as the theoretical basis for the recognition and assessment of these factors regarding the functioning (what people are currently able to do) and capabilities (what people want to achieve and what is valuable for them), reflecting differences across social groups and among types of transport users. The self-assessment of health-related factors considers perceptions of stress, physical effort, proximity to other transport users, pollution, safety, and comfort. The types of transport users are classified as: private (cars, taxis, colectivos, motos), public (buses and metro) and active (bicycles and walking). The methodology follows a capability-based questionnaire, which was applied in different areas of Santiago de Chile, considering concepts extracted from the human capabilities list. The self-assessment of these health-related factors examines the context of peoples’ mobilities for performing their daily activities, considering socioeconomic differences as income, age, gender, disabilities, residence location and primary mode choice. The paper uses Relative Importance Index (RII) for weighting the relative influence or valuation of the factors. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each factor on a scale from 1 to 5, in an ascending order of importance. The results suggest that these health-related factors impact not just the perceptions of users, but their well-being and their propensity for achieving their capabilities and the things they value in life. The paper is focused on the development of an applicable approach, measuring factors that should be included in transport project appraisal, as a more comprehensive and complementary method.

Keywords: active transport, health, human capabilities, Santiago de Chile, transport inequalities, transportation planning, urban planning

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149 A Feminist Approach to the COVID-19 Lockdown Process in Turkey

Authors: Aykut Sigin


In feminist theory, home is usually regarded as an unsafe place for women to be in, as it continually produces inequalities between men and women, favoring the former, and maintains the patriarchal status quo. The second-wave feminists argued that women need to raise their concerns regarding domestic problems and this eventually led to the emergence of the motto 'the personal is political', pointing out to the fact that the domestic problems one woman experienced were essentially the problems of women in general as the patriarchal ideology manifested itself at home. Although this motto was from the late 1960s, it still holds significance today. In the golden era of the Internet, women could use social media to voice their concerns more easily than ever. Following this line of thought, the aim of this study is to analyze the domestic problems of the women in Turkey during the lockdown caused by COVID-19 through social media as they find themselves at home with their fathers, husbands and/or brothers for longer periods of time than ever before. For this purpose, an investigation of the posts shared under '#EvdeKal' ('StayAtHome') was carried out. The results of the study made it clear that women find the lockdown process to be problematic, that they express their domestic concerns rather freely through social media, and that the inequalities caused by the patriarchal ideology persist in the 21st century.

Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown, home, feminism

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148 Youth Voices on Experiences of (Dis)Advantage: A Case Study at a South African University

Authors: Oliver T. Gore


Social inequalities and inequity of outcomes in higher education (HE) persist in South Africa despite the government introducing policy that seeks to address social injustices brought about by previous apartheid policies. In addressing these social injustices, HE policy conceptualises inequalities under the concept of historical ‘disadvantage’ which is understood to be primarily race-based. The study adds on to the existing knowledge on inequalities through developing the dimensions of (dis)advantage, which have the potential to inform the South African HE policy on providing equal opportunities amongst diverse students to participate and succeed in their studies. Drawing from the capabilities approach, this study argues that (dis)advantage can be richly understood in terms of students’ capabilities, functionings and agency as opposed to a sole focus on race. The study argues that limited freedoms, lack of effective opportunities, and reduced agency for students to turn university resources into real achievements such as personal development, economic skills and social responsibility amounts to disadvantage, while the converse is also true. The study draws from qualitative interview data with honours students, university staff and Student Representative Council members from five different university departments at one South African university. This presentation uses results from 20 students and reveals what their university experiences tell us regarding students’ unfreedoms in relation to: the inability to make decisions, poor schooling backgrounds, inadequate finances, emotional stress, lack of social support, inability to understand the language of instruction, lack of safe transport and accommodation issues. Despite these unfreedoms, the data shows that the students aspired and persevered with their studies. Using theory and empirical data in conversation, the paper shows that there is a need to nuance the definition of (dis)advantage, particularly by focusing on how different forms of disadvantage intersect with each other.

Keywords: capabilities approach, (dis)advantage, higher education, social justice

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