Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Oswald Devisch

11 Knowledge Integration from Concept to Practice: An Exploratory Study of Designing a Flood Resilient Urban Park in Viet Nam

Authors: To Quyen Le, Oswald Devisch, Tu Anh Trinh, Els Hannes


Urban centres worldwide are affected differently by flooding. In Vietnam this impact is increasingly negative caused by a process of rapid urbanisation. Traditional spatial planning and flood mitigation planning are not able to deal with this growing threat. This article therefore proposes to focus on increasing the participation of local communities in flood control and management. It explores, on the basis of a design studio exercise, how lay knowledge on flooding can be integrated within planning processes. The article presents a theoretical basis for the structured criterion for site selection for a flood resilient urban park from the perspective of science, then discloses the tacit and explicit knowledge of the flood-prone area and finally integrates this knowledge into the design strategies for flood resilient urban park design.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, AHP, design resilience, flood resilient urban park, knowledge integration

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10 Making the Neighbourhood: Analyzing Mapping Procedures to Deal with Plurality and Conflict

Authors: Barbara Roosen, Oswald Devisch


Spatial projects are often contested. Despite participatory trajectories in official spatial development processes, citizens engage often by their power to say no. Participatory mapping helps to produce more legible and democratic ways of decision-making. It has proven its value in producing a multitude of knowledges and views, for individuals and community groups and local stakeholders to imagine desired and undesired futures and to give them the rhetorical power to present their views throughout the development process. From this perspective, mapping works as a social process in which individuals and groups share their knowledge, learn from each other and negotiate their relationship with each other as well as with space and power. In this way, these processes eventually aim to activate communities to intervene in cooperation in real problems. However, these are fragile and bumpy processes, sometimes leading to (local) conflict and intractable situations. Heterogeneous subjectivities and knowledge that become visible during the mapping process and which are contested by members of the community, is often the first trigger. This paper discusses a participatory mapping project conducted in a residential subdivision in Flanders to provide a deeper understanding of how or under which conditions the mapping process could moderate discordant situations amongst inhabitants, local organisations and local authorities, towards a more constructive outcome. In our opinion, this implies a thorough documentation and presentation of the different steps of the mapping process to design and moderate an open and transparent dialogue. The mapping project ‘Make the Neighbourhood’, is set up in the aftermath of a socio-spatial design intervention in the neighbourhood that led to polarization within the community. To start negotiation between the diverse claims that came to the fore, we co-create a desired future map of the neighbourhood together with local organisations and inhabitants as a way to engage them in the development of a new spatial development plan for the area. This mapping initiative set up a new ‘common’ goal or concern, as a first step to bridge the gap that we experienced between different sociocultural groups, bottom-up and top-down initiatives and between professionals and non-professionals. An atlas of elements (materials), an atlas of actors with different roles and an atlas of ways of cooperation and organisation form the work and building material of the future neighbourhood map, assembled in two co-creation sessions. Firstly, we will consider how the mapping procedures articulate the plurality of claims and agendas. Secondly, we will elaborate upon how social relations and spatialities are negotiated and reproduced during the different steps of the map making. Thirdly, we will reflect on the role of the rules, format, and structure of the mapping process in moderating negotiations between much divided claims. To conclude, we will discuss the challenges of visualizing the different steps of mapping process as a strategy to moderate tense negotiations in a more constructive direction in the context of spatial development processes.

Keywords: conflict, documentation, participatory mapping, residential subdivision

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9 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye


This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

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8 Magnetic Investigation and 2½D Gravity Profile Modelling across the Beattie Magnetic Anomaly in the Southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Oswald Gwavava


The location/source of the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA) and interconnectivity of geologic structures at depth have been a topic of investigation for over 30 years. Up to now, no relationship between geological structures (interconnectivity of dolerite intrusions) at depth has been established. Therefore, the environmental impact of fracking the Karoo for shale gas could not be assessed despite the fact that dolerite dykes are groundwater localizers in the Karoo. In this paper, we shed more light to the unanswered questions concerning the possible location of the source of the BMA, the connectivity of geologic structures like dolerite dykes and sills at depth and this relationship needs to be established before the tectonic evolution of the Karoo basin can be fully understood and related to fracking of the Karoo for shale gas. The result of the magnetic investigation and modelling of four gravity profiles that crosses the BMA in the study area reveals that the anomaly, which is part of the Beattie magnetic anomaly tends to divide into two anomalies and continue to trend in an NE-SW direction, the dominant gravity signatures is of long wavelength that is due to a deep source/interface inland and shallows towards the coast, the average depth to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources was estimated to be approximately 0.6 km and 15 km, respectively. The BMA become stronger with depth which could be an indication that the source(s) is deep possibly a buried body in the basement. The bean-shaped anomaly also behaves in a similar manner like the BMA thus it could possibly share the same source(s) with the BMA.

Keywords: Beattie magnetic anomaly, magnetic sources, modelling, Karoo Basin

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7 A Voice Retrieved from the Holocaust in New Journalism in Kazuo Ishiguro's the Remains of the Day

Authors: Masami Usui


Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day (1989) underlines another holocaust, an imprisonment of human life, dignity, and self in the globalizing sphere of the twentieth century. The Remains of the Day delineates the invisible and cruel space of “lost and found” in the postcolonial and post-imperial discourse of this century, that is, the Holocaust. The context of the concentration camp or wartime imprisonment such as Auschwitz is transplanted into the public sphere of modern England, Darlington Hall. The voice is retrieved and expressed by the young journalist and heir of Darlington Hall, Mr. David Cardinal. The new media of journalism is an intruder at Darlington Hall and plays a role in revealing the wrongly-input ideology. “Lost and Found” consists of the private and public retrieved voices. Stevens’ journey in 1956 is a return to the past, especially the period between 1935 and 1936. Lost time is retrieved on his journey; yet lost life cannot be revived entirely in his remains of life. The supreme days of Darlington Hall are the terrifying days caused by the Nazis. Fascism, terrorism, and militarism destroyed the wholesomeness of the globe. Into blind Stevens, both Miss Kenton and Mr. Cardinal bring out the common issue, that is, the political conflicts caused by Nazis. Miss Kenton expresses her own ideas against anti-Semitism regarding the Jewish maids in the crucial time when Sir Oswald Mosley’s Blackshirts organization attacked the Anglo Jews between 1935 and 1936. Miss Kenton’s half-muted statement is reinforced and assured by Cardinal in his mention of the 1934 Olympic Rally threatened by Mosley’s Blackshirts. Cardinal’s invasion of Darlington Hall embodies the increasing tension of international politics related to World War II. Darlington Hall accommodates the crucial political issue that definitely influences the fate of the house, its residents, and the nation itself and that is retrieved in the newly progressive and established media.

Keywords: modern English literature, culture studies, communication, history

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6 Organic Geochemical Evaluation of the Ecca Group Shale: Implications for Hydrocarbon Potential

Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava, Christopher Baiyegunhi


Shale gas has recently been the exploration focus for future energy resource in South Africa. Specifically, the black shales of the lower Ecca Group in the study area are considered to be one of the most prospective targets for shale gas exploration. Evaluation of this potential resource has been restricted due to the lack of exploration and scarcity of existing drill core data. Thus, only limited previous geochemical data exist for these formations. In this study, outcrop and core samples of the Ecca Group were analysed to assess their total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter type, thermal maturity and hydrocarbon generation potential (SP). The results show that these rocks have TOC ranging from 0.11 to 7.35 wt.%. The SP values vary from 0.09 to 0.53 mg HC/g, suggesting poor hydrocarbon generative potential. The plot of S1 versus TOC shows that the source rocks were characterized by autochthonous hydrocarbons. S2/S3 values range between 0.40 and 7.5, indicating Type- II/III, III, and IV kerogen. With the exception of one sample from the collingham formation which has HI value of 53 mg HC/g TOC, all other samples have HI values of less than 50 mg HC/g TOC, thus suggesting Type-IV kerogen, which is mostly derived from reworked organic matter (mainly dead carbon) with little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. Tmax values range from 318 to 601℃, indicating immature to over-maturity of hydrocarbon. The vitrinite reflectance values range from 2.22 to 3.93%, indicating over-maturity of the kerogen. Binary plots of HI against OI and HI versus Tmax show that the shales are of Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogen, which are capable of generating both natural gas and minor oil at suitable burial depth. Based on the geochemical data, it can be inferred that the source rocks are immature to over-matured variable from localities and have potential of producing wet to dry gas at present-stage. Generally, the Whitehill formation of the Ecca Group is comparable to the Marcellus and Barnett Shales. This further supports the assumption that the Whitehill Formation has a high probability of being a profitable shale gas play, but only when explored in dolerite-free area and away from the Cape Fold Belt.

Keywords: source rock, organic matter type, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation potential, Ecca Group

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5 Modal Composition and Tectonic Provenance of the Sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Petrography of the sandstones of Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated on composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals revealed that the sandstones are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The sandstones have an average framework composition of 24.3% quartz, 19.3% feldspar, 26.1% rock fragments, and 81.33% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. These sandstones are generally very fine to fine grained, moderate to well sorted, and subangular to subrounded in shape. In addition, they are compositionally immature and can be classified as feldspathic wacke and lithic wacke. The absence of major petrographically distinctive compositional variations in the sandstones perhaps indicate homogeneity of their source. As a result of this, it is inferred that the transportation distance from the source area was quite short and the main mechanism of transportation was by river systems to the basin. The QFL ternary diagrams revealed dissected and transitional arc provenance pointing to an active margin and uplifted basement preserving the signature of a recycled provenance. This is an indication that the sandstones were derived from a magmatic arc provenance. Since magmatic provenance includes transitional arc and dissected arc, it also shows that the source area of the Ecca sediments had a secondary sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks from a marginal belt that developed as a result of rifting. The weathering diagrams and semi-quantitative weathering index indicate that the Ecca sandstones are mostly from a plutonic source area, with climatic conditions ranging from arid to humid. The compositional immaturity of the sandstones is suggested to be due to weathering or recycling and low relief or short transport from the source area. The detrital modal compositions of these sandstones are related to back arc to island and continental margin arc. The origin and deposition of the Ecca sandstones are due to low-moderate weathering, recycling of pre-existing rocks, erosion and transportation of debris from the orogeny of the Cape Fold Belt.

Keywords: petrography, tectonic setting, provenance, Ecca Group, Karoo Basin

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4 Grain Size Statistics and Depositional Pattern of the Ecca Group Sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicates the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function (LDF) analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are fluvial (deltaic) deposits. The graphic mean value shows the dominance of fine sand-size particles, which point to relatively low energy conditions of deposition. In addition, the LDF results point to low energy conditions during the deposition of the Prince Albert, Collingham and part of the Ripon Formation (Pluto Vale and Wonderfontein Shale Members), whereas the Trumpeters Member of the Ripon Formation and the overlying Fort Brown Formation accumulated under high energy conditions. The CM pattern shows a clustered distribution of sediments in the PQ and QR segments, indicating that the sediments were deposited mostly by suspension and rolling/saltation, and graded suspension. Furthermore, the plots also show that the sediments are mainly deposited by turbidity currents. Visher diagrams show the variability of hydraulic depositional conditions for the Permian Ecca Group sandstones. Saltation is the major process of transportation, although suspension and traction also played some role during deposition of the sediments. The sediments were mainly in saltation and suspension before being deposited.

Keywords: grain size analysis, hydrodynamic condition, depositional environment, Ecca Group, South Africa

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3 Diagenesis of the Permian Ecca Sandstones and Mudstones, in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for the Shale Gas Potential of the Karoo Basin

Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Diagenesis is the most important factor that affects or impact the reservoir property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known of the diagenesis of the potentially feasible shales and sandstones of the Ecca Group. The study aims to provide a general account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstone of the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures are identified and grouped into three regimes or stages that include eogenesis, mesogenesis and telogenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the Ecca sandstones and mudstones. Smectite, kaolinite and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling cement. Most of the clay minerals and detrital grains were seriously attacked and replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in pore spaces and partly or completely replaced feldspar and quartz grains, mostly at their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals as well as little lithification occurred during the eogenesis. This regime was followed by mesogenesis which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces and thinning of beds due to weight of overlying sediments and selective dissolution of framework grains. Compaction, mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral authigenesis, deformation and pressure solution structures occurred during mesogenesis. During rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in additional grain fracturing, decementation and oxidation of iron-rich volcanic fragments and ferromagnesian minerals. The rocks of Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during its progressive burial. Intergranular pores, matrix micro pores, secondary intragranular, dissolution and fractured pores are the observed pores. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pores makes them unfavourable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in their exploration.

Keywords: diagenesis, reservoir quality, Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup

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2 Augusto De Campos Translator: The Role of Translation in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Project

Authors: Juliana C. Salvadori, Jose Carlos Felix


This paper aims at discussing the role literary translation has played in Brazilian Concrete Poetry Movement – an aesthetic, critical and pedagogical project which conceived translation as poiesis, i.e., as both creative and critic work in which the potency (dynamic) of literary work is unfolded in the interpretive and critic act (energeia) the translating practice demands. We argue that translation, for concrete poets, is conceived within the framework provided by the reinterpretation –or deglutition– of Oswald de Andrade’s anthropophagy – a carefully selected feast from which the poets pick and model their Paideuma. As a case study, we propose to approach and analyze two of Augusto de Campos’s long-term translation projects: the translation of Emily Dickinson’s and E. E. Cummings’s works to Brazilian readers. Augusto de Campos is a renowned poet, translator, critic and one of the founding members of Brazilian Concrete Poetry movement. Since the 1950s he has produced a consistent body of translated poetry from English-speaking poets in which the translator has explored creative translation processes – transcreation, as concrete poets have named it. Campos’s translation project regarding E. E. Cummings’s poetry comprehends a span of forty years: it begins in 1956 with 10 poems and unfolds in 4 works – 20 poem(a)s, 40 poem(a)s, Poem(a)s, re-edited in 2011. His translations of Dickinson’s poetry are published in two works: O Anticrítico (1986), in which he translated 10 poems, and Emily Dickinson Não sou Ninguém (2008), in which the poet-translator added 35 more translated poems. Both projects feature bilingual editions: contrary to common sense, Campos translations aim at being read as such: the target readers, to fully enjoy the experience, must be proficient readers of English and, also, acquainted with the poets in translation – Campos expects us to perform translation criticism, as Antoine Berman has proposed, by assessing the choices he, as both translator and poet, has presented in order to privilege aesthetic information (verse lines, word games, etc.). To readers not proficient in English, his translations play a pedagogycal role of educating and preparing them to read both the target poet works as well as concrete poetry works – the detailed essays and prefaces in which the translator emphasizes the selection of works translated and strategies adopted enlighten his project as translator: for Cummings, it has led to the oblieraton of the more traditional and lyrical/romantic examples of his poetry while highlighting the more experimental aspects and poems; for Dickinson, his project has highligthed the more hermetic traits of her poems. To the domestic canons of both poets in Brazilian literary system, we analyze Campos’ contribution in this work.

Keywords: translation criticism, Augusto de Campos, E. E. Cummings, Emily Dickinson

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1 Transport of Reactive Carbo-Iron Composite Particles for in situ Groundwater Remediation Investigated at Laboratory and Field Scale

Authors: Sascha E. Oswald, Jan Busch


The in-situ dechlorination of contamination by chlorinated solvents in groundwater via zero-valent iron (nZVI) is potentially an efficient and prompt remediation method. A key requirement is that nZVI has to be introduced in the subsurface in a way that substantial quantities of the contaminants are actually brought into direct contact with the nZVI in the aquifer. Thus it could be a more flexible and precise alternative to permeable reactive barrier techniques using granular iron. However, nZVI are often limited by fast agglomeration and sedimentation in colloidal suspensions, even more so in the aquifer sediments, which is a handicap for the application to treat source zones or contaminant plumes. Colloid-supported nZVI show promising characteristics to overcome these limitations and Carbo-Iron Colloids is a newly developed composite material aiming for that. The nZVI is built onto finely ground activated carbon of about a micrometer diameter acting as a carrier for it. The Carbo-Iron Colloids are often suspended with a polyanionic stabilizer, and carboxymethyl cellulose is one with good properties for that. We have investigated the transport behavior of Carbo-Iron Colloids (CIC) on different scales and for different conditions to assess its mobility in aquifer sediments as a key property for making its application feasible. The transport properties were tested in one-dimensional laboratory columns, a two-dimensional model aquifer and also an injection experiment in the field. Those experiments were accompanied by non-invasive tomographic investigations of the transport and filtration processes of CIC suspensions. The laboratory experiments showed that a larger part of the CIC can travel at least scales of meters for favorable but realistic conditions. Partly this is even similar to a dissolved tracer. For less favorable conditions this can be much smaller and in all cases a particular fraction of the CIC injected is retained mainly shortly after entering the porous medium. As field experiment a horizontal flow field was established, between two wells with a distance of 5 meters, in a confined, shallow aquifer at a contaminated site in North German lowlands. First a tracer test was performed and a basic model was set up to define the design of the CIC injection experiment. Then CIC suspension was introduced into the aquifer at the injection well while the second well was pumped and samples taken there to observe the breakthrough of CIC. This was based on direct visual inspection and total particle and iron concentrations of water samples analyzed in the laboratory later. It could be concluded that at least 12% of the CIC amount injected reached the extraction well in due course, some of it traveling distances larger than 10 meters in the non-uniform dipole flow field. This demonstrated that these CIC particles have a substantial mobility for reaching larger volumes of a contaminated aquifer and for interacting there by their reactivity with dissolved contaminants in the pore space. Therefore they seem suited well for groundwater remediation by in-situ formation of reactive barriers for chlorinated solvent plumes or even source removal.

Keywords: carbo-iron colloids, chlorinated solvents, in-situ remediation, particle transport, plume treatment

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