Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1059

Search results for: Zhong Wang

1059 New Wine in an Old Bottle? Zhong-Yong Thinking and Creativity

Authors: Li-Fang CHou, Chun-Jung Tseng, Sung-Chun Tsai


Zhong-Yong represents unique values and cognitive beliefs of Chinese culture. Zhong-Yong thinking emphasizes (a) holistic thinking and perspective taking, (b) tolerance of contradictions, and (c) pursuance of a person’s interpersonal and inner harmony. With a unique way of naïve dialectical thinking based on Chinese culture, previous studies have found that people with higher Zhong-Yong thinking have more cognitive resources and resilience to make decision for dilemmas and cope stresses. Creativity is defined as the behavior to create novel and value products and viewed as the most important capital for individuals and enterprises. However, the relationship between Zhong-Yong thinking and creativity is still remaining to be unexplored. Three studies were conducted to explore the effects of Zhong-Yong thinking on creativity. In Study1, with 87 undergraduate students from a university in southern Taiwan as participants, we used questionnaire to measure Zhong-Yong thinking and processed creative task (unusual uses task) to get indicators of fluency and flexibility. After controlling background and openness to experience of Big five, the results showed that Zhong-Yong thinking had significant positive effects on fluency and flexibility. In Study 2, 97 undergraduate students were recruited to do Zhong-Yong thinking task and creative task. The result showed that, compared with control group, the participants had higher creative performance after being primed with Zhong-Yong thinking. In Study 3, we adopted questionnaire survey and took 397 employees from private enterprises in Taiwan as sample. Besides the main effects of Zhong-Yong thinking, the moderating effects on the relationship between leadership behavior and employee’s creative performance were also investigated. We found that (a) Zhong-Yong thinking was positively associated to creative performance; (b) Zhong-Yong thinking strengthened the positive effects of transformational and authoritative leadership on creative performance. Finally, the implications of theory/practice and limitations/future directions were also discussed.

Keywords: Zhong-Yong thinking, creativity and creative performance, unusual uses task, transformational leadership, authoritative leadership

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1058 An Integrated Tailoring Method for Thermal Cycling Tests of Spacecraft Electronics

Authors: Xin-Yan Ji, Jing Wang, Chang Liu, Yan-Qiang Bi, Zhong-Xu Xu, Xi-Yuan Li


Thermal tests of electronic units are critically important for the reliability validation and performance demonstration of the spacecraft hard-wares. The tailoring equation in MIL-STD-1540 is based on fatigue of solder date. In the present paper, a new test condition tailoring expression is proposed to fit different thermo-mechanical fatigue and different subsystems, by introducing an integrated evaluating method for the fatigue acceleration exponent. The validate test has been accomplished and the data has been analyzed and compared with that from the MIL-STD-1540 tailoring equations. The results are encouraging and reasonable.

Keywords: thermal cycling test, thermal fatigue, tailoring equation, test condition planning

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1057 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong


Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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1056 Trinary Affinity—Mathematic Verification and Application (1): Construction of Formulas for the Composite and Prime Numbers

Authors: Liang Ming Zhong, Yu Zhong, Wen Zhong, Fei Fei Yin


Trinary affinity is a description of existence: every object exists as it is known and spoken of, in a system of 2 differences (denoted dif1, dif₂) and 1 similarity (Sim), equivalently expressed as dif₁ / Sim / dif₂ and kn / 0 / tkn (kn = the known, tkn = the 'to be known', 0 = the zero point of knowing). They are mathematically verified and illustrated in this paper by the arrangement of all integers onto 3 columns, where each number exists as a difference in relation to another number as another difference, and the 2 difs as arbitrated by a third number as the Sim, resulting in a trinary affinity or trinity of 3 numbers, of which one is the known, the other the 'to be known', and the third the zero (0) from which both the kn and tkn are measured and specified. Consequently, any number is horizontally specified either as 3n, or as '3n – 1' or '3n + 1', and vertically as 'Cn + c', so that any number seems to occur at the intersection of its X and Y axes and represented by its X and Y coordinates, as any point on Earth’s surface by its latitude and longitude. Technically, i) primes are viewed and treated as progenitors, and composites as descending from them, forming families of composites, each capable of being measured and specified from its own zero called in this paper the realistic zero (denoted 0r, as contrasted to the mathematic zero, 0m), which corresponds to the constant c, and the nature of which separates the composite and prime numbers, and ii) any number is considered as having a magnitude as well as a position, so that a number is verified as a prime first by referring to its descriptive formula and then by making sure that no composite number can possibly occur on its position, by dividing it with factors provided by the composite number formulas. The paper consists of 3 parts: 1) a brief explanation of the trinary affinity of things, 2) the 8 formulas that represent ALL the primes, and 3) families of composite numbers, each represented by a formula. A composite number family is described as 3n + f₁‧f₂. Since there are an infinitely large number of composite number families, to verify the primality of a great probable prime, we have to have it divided with several or many a f₁ from a range of composite number formulas, a procedure that is as laborious as it is the surest way to verifying a great number’s primality. (So, it is possible to substitute planned division for trial division.)

Keywords: trinary affinity, difference, similarity, realistic zero

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1055 A Short History of Recorder Education in Taiwan: A Qualitative Research about the Process of the Recorder Move into the Compulsory Schooling System

Authors: Jen-Fu Lee


From the 1980s, the ministry of education in Taiwan moves the instrument ‘Recorder’ into the 9-year compulsory schooling system. The recorder is widely popularized successfully in Taiwan. The research aims to document the history of how the recorder came into Taiwan, what the process of the recorder moving into the schooling system is; what the meaning for the recorder moving into the schooling system is by searching the papers about the recorder in Taiwan and interviewing the people who had participated the process. The research discovers that the recorder in Taiwan was popularized nongovernmental by Shang-Ren, Wang. Shang-Ren, Wang imported 200 recorders from Japan in 1982 and then founded a publishing house which publishes the books and sheets about the recorder in 1983. The reason of Shang-Ren, Wang committed to popularizing the recorder is to spread the Orff Approach in Taiwan. Except for the technique of playing the recorder, the knowledge of the history of the recorder and the role that it plays in Early Music is not available in school. The recorder only plays a ‘Cheap and Easy’ instrument which is suitable for the schooling system in Taiwan, cannot develop to a professional instrument.

Keywords: recorder, Taiwan, Shang-Ren, Wang, compulsory schooling system

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1054 Satellite Imagery Classification Based on Deep Convolution Network

Authors: Zhong Ma, Zhuping Wang, Congxin Liu, Xiangzeng Liu


Satellite imagery classification is a challenging problem with many practical applications. In this paper, we designed a deep convolution neural network (DCNN) to classify the satellite imagery. The contributions of this paper are twofold — First, to cope with the large-scale variance in the satellite image, we introduced the inception module, which has multiple filters with different size at the same level, as the building block to build our DCNN model. Second, we proposed a genetic algorithm based method to efficiently search the best hyper-parameters of the DCNN in a large search space. The proposed method is evaluated on the benchmark database. The results of the proposed hyper-parameters search method show it will guide the search towards better regions of the parameter space. Based on the found hyper-parameters, we built our DCNN models, and evaluated its performance on satellite imagery classification, the results show the classification accuracy of proposed models outperform the state of the art method.

Keywords: satellite imagery classification, deep convolution network, genetic algorithm, hyper-parameter optimization

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1053 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov


This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: density of states, Monte Carlo, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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1052 Numerical Simulation on Two Components Particles Flow in Fluidized Bed

Authors: Wang Heng, Zhong Zhaoping, Guo Feihong, Wang Jia, Wang Xiaoyi


Flow of gas and particles in fluidized beds is complex and chaotic, which is difficult to measure and analyze by experiments. Some bed materials with bad fluidized performance always fluidize with fluidized medium. The material and the fluidized medium are different in many properties such as density, size and shape. These factors make the dynamic process more complex and the experiment research more limited. Numerical simulation is an efficient way to describe the process of gas-solid flow in fluidized bed. One of the most popular numerical simulation methods is CFD-DEM, i.e., computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method. The shapes of particles are always simplified as sphere in most researches. Although sphere-shaped particles make the calculation of particle uncomplicated, the effects of different shapes are disregarded. However, in practical applications, the two-component systems in fluidized bed also contain sphere particles and non-sphere particles. Therefore, it is needed to study the two component flow of sphere particles and non-sphere particles. In this paper, the flows of mixing were simulated as the flow of molding biomass particles and quartz in fluidized bad. The integrated model was built on an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach which was improved to suit the non-sphere particles. The constructed methods of cylinder-shaped particles were different when it came to different numerical methods. Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed as an agglomerate of fictitious small particles in CFD part, which means the small fictitious particles gathered but not combined with each other. The diameter of a fictitious particle d_fic and its solid volume fraction inside a cylinder-shaped particle α_fic, which is called the fictitious volume fraction, are introduced to modify the drag coefficient β by introducing the volume fraction of the cylinder-shaped particles α_cld and sphere-shaped particles α_sph. In a computational cell, the void ε, can be expressed as ε=1-〖α_cld α〗_fic-α_sph. The Ergun equation and the Wen and Yu equation were used to calculate β. While in DEM method, cylinder-shaped particles were built by multi-sphere method, in which small sphere element merged with each other. Soft sphere model was using to get the connect force between particles. The total connect force of cylinder-shaped particle was calculated as the sum of the small sphere particles’ forces. The model (size=1×0.15×0.032 mm3) contained 420000 sphere-shaped particles (diameter=0.8 mm, density=1350 kg/m3) and 60 cylinder-shaped particles (diameter=10 mm, length=10 mm, density=2650 kg/m3). Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed by 2072 small sphere-shaped particles (d=0.8 mm) in CFD mesh and 768 sphere-shaped particles (d=3 mm) in DEM mesh. The length of CFD and DEM cells are 1 mm and 2 mm. Superficial gas velocity was changed in different models as 1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2.0m/s. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental results. The movements of particles were regularly as fountain. The effect of superficial gas velocity on cylinder-shaped particles was stronger than that of sphere-shaped particles. The result proved this present work provided a effective approach to simulation the flow of two component particles.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, fluidized bed, multiphase flow

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1050 Investigation on the Functional Expectation and Professional Support Needs of Special Education Resource Center

Authors: Hongxia Wang, Yanjie Wang, Xiuqin Wang, Linlin Mo, Shuangshuang Niu


Special Education Resource Center (SERC) is the localized product in the development of inclusive education in People’s Republic of China, which provides professional support and service for the students with special education needs(SEN) and their parents, teachers as well as inclusive schools. The study investigated 155 administrators, resource teachers and inclusive education teachers from primary and secondary schools in Beijing. The results indicate that: (1) The surveyed teachers put highest expectation of SERC on specialized guidance and teacher training , instead of research and administration function; (2) Each dimension of professional support needs gets higher scores, in which individual guidance gets highest score, followed by instruction guidance, psychological counseling, proposing suggestions, informational support and teacher training; (3) locality and training experience of surveyed teachers significantly influence their expectations and support needs of SERC.

Keywords: special education resource center (SERC) , functional expectation, professional support needs, support system

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1049 Real-Time Demonstration of Visible Light Communication Based on Frequency-Shift Keying Employing a Smartphone as the Receiver

Authors: Fumin Wang, Jiaqi Yin, Lajun Wang, Nan Chi


In this article, we demonstrate a visible light communication (VLC) system over 8 meters free space transmission based on a commercial LED and a receiver in connection with an audio interface of a smart phone. The signal is in FSK modulation format. The successful experimental demonstration validates the feasibility of the proposed system in future wireless communication network.

Keywords: visible light communication, smartphone communication, frequency shift keying, wireless communication

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1048 The Metabolite Profiling of Fulvestrant-3 Boronic Acid under Biological Oxidation

Authors: Changde Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Shilong Zheng, Jiawang Liu, Shanchun Guo, Qiu Zhong, Guangdi Wang


Fulvestrant was approved by FDA to treat breast cancer as a selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with intramuscular injection administration. ZB716, a fulvestarnt-3 boronic acid, is an SERD with comparable anticancer effect to fulvestrant, but could produce good pharmacokinetic properties under oral administration with mice or rat models. To understand why ZB716 produced much better oral bioavailability, it was proposed that the boronic acid blocked the phase II direct biotransformation with the hydroxyl group on the 3 position of the aromatic ring on fulvestrant. In this study, ZB716 or fulvestrant was incubated with human liver microsome and oxidation cofactor NADPH in vitro. Their metabolites after oxidation were profiled with the Q-Exactive, a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The result showed that ZB716 blocked the forming of hydroxyl groups on its benzene ring except for the oxidation of C-B bond forming fulvestrant in its metabolites, and the concentration of fulvestrant with one more hydroxyl group found in the metabolites from incubation with fulvestrant was about 34 fold high as that formed from incubation with ZB716. Compared to fulvestrant, ZB716 is expected to be much difficult to be further bio-transformed into more hydrophilic compounds, to be difficult excreted out of blood system, and to have longer residence time in blood, which can lead to higher oral bioavailability. This study provided evidence to explain the high bioavailability of ZB716 after oral administration from the perspective of its difficulty of oxidation, a phase I biotransformation, on positions on its aromatic ring.

Keywords: biotransformation, fulvestrant, metabolite profiling, ZB716

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1047 Interaction between Space Syntax and Agent-Based Approaches for Vehicle Volume Modelling

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Panagiotis Psimoulis, Zhong Wang


Modelling and understanding vehicle volume distribution over the urban network are essential for urban design and transport planning. The space syntax approach was widely applied as the main conceptual and methodological framework for contemporary vehicle volume models with the help of the statistical method of multiple regression analysis (MRA). However, the MRA model with space syntax variables shows a limitation in vehicle volume predicting in accounting for the crossed effect of the urban configurational characters and socio-economic factors. The aim of this paper is to construct models by interacting with the combined impact of the street network structure and socio-economic factors. In this paper, we present a multilevel linear (ML) and an agent-based (AB) vehicle volume model at an urban scale interacting with space syntax theoretical framework. The ML model allowed random effects of urban configurational characteristics in different urban contexts. And the AB model was developed with the incorporation of transformed space syntax components of the MRA models into the agents’ spatial behaviour. Three models were implemented in the same urban environment. The ML model exhibit superiority over the original MRA model in identifying the relative impacts of the configurational characters and macro-scale socio-economic factors that shape vehicle movement distribution over the city. Compared with the ML model, the suggested AB model represented the ability to estimate vehicle volume in the urban network considering the combined effects of configurational characters and land-use patterns at the street segment level.

Keywords: space syntax, vehicle volume modeling, multilevel model, agent-based model

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1046 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Tensile Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Fibers Filled with Activated Nanocarbon Particles with Varying Specific Surface Areas

Authors: Wang-Xi Fan, Yi Ding, Zhong-Dan Tu, Kuo-Shien Huang, Chao-Ming Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh


Original and/or functionalized activated nanocarbon particles with a quoted specific surface area of 100, 500, 1000 and 1400 m2/g, respectively, were used to investigate the influence of specific surface areas of activated nanocarbon on ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), UHMWPE/activated nanocarbon and UHMWPE/ functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers. The specific surface areas of well dispersed functionalized activated nanocarbon in UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers can positively affect their ultra drawing, orientation, ultimate tensile properties and “micro-fibril” characteristics. Excellent orientation and ultimate tensile properties of UHMWPE/nanofiller fibers can be prepared by ultra drawing the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon as-prepared fibers with optimal contents and compositions of functionalized activated nanocarbon. The ultimate tensile strength value of the best prepared UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon drawn fiber reached 8.0 GPa, which was about 2.86 times of that of the best-prepared UHMWPE drawn fiber prepared in this study. Specific surface area, morphological and Fourier transform infrared analyses of original and functionalized activated nanocarbon and/or investigations of thermal, orientation factor and ultimate tensile properties of as-prepared and/or drawn UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers were performed to understand the above-improved ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers.

Keywords: activated nanocarbon, specific surface areas, ultradrawing, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

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1045 Bifurcation and Chaos of the Memristor Circuit

Authors: Wang Zhulin, Min Fuhong, Peng Guangya, Wang Yaoda, Cao Yi


In this paper, a magnetron memristor model based on hyperbolic sine function is presented and the correctness proved by studying the trajectory of its voltage and current phase, and then a memristor chaotic system with the memristor model is presented. The phase trajectories and the bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponent spectrum of the magnetron memristor system are plotted by numerical simulation, and the chaotic evolution with changing the parameters of the system is also given. The paper includes numerical simulations and mathematical model, which confirming that the system, has a wealth of dynamic behavior.

Keywords: memristor, chaotic circuit, dynamical behavior, chaotic system

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1044 Location Choice: The Effects of Network Configuration upon the Distribution of Economic Activities in the Chinese City of Nanning

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Zhong Wang, Panagiotis Psimoulis


Contemporary studies investigating the association between the spatial configuration of the urban network and economic activities at the street level were mostly conducted within space syntax conceptual framework. These findings supported the theory of 'movement economy' and demonstrated the impact of street configuration on the distribution of pedestrian movement and land-use shaping, especially retail activities. However, the effects varied between different urban contexts. In this paper, the relationship between economic activity distribution and the urban configurational characters was examined at the segment level. In the study area, three kinds of neighbourhood types, urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhood, were included. And among all neighbourhoods, three kinds of urban network form, 'tree-like', grid, and organic pattern, were recognised. To investigate the nested effects of urban configuration measured by space syntax approach and urban context, multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were constructed. Additionally, considering the spatial autocorrelation, spatial lag was also concluded in the model as an independent variable. The random effect ZINB model shows superiority over the ZINB model or multilevel linear (ML) model in the explanation of economic activities pattern shaping over the urban environment. And after adjusting for the neighbourhood type and network form effects, connectivity and syntax centrality significantly affect economic activities clustering. The comparison between accumulative and new established economic activities illustrated the different preferences for economic activity location choice.

Keywords: space syntax, economic activities, multilevel model, Chinese city

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1043 Synthesis and Properties of Sulfonate Gemini Surfactants with Amide Groups

Authors: Rui Wang, Shanfa Tang, Yuanwu Dong, Siyao Wang, Zhaowen Jiang, Di Han


A sulfonate Gemini surfactant sodium N,N`-bis(tetradecanoyl) propanediamine dipropyl sulfonate (GNS-14) was synthesized from 1,3-propanediamine, tetradecanoyl chloride, and1,3-propanesulfonic lactone. GNS-14 was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR. The surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsification properties of GNS-14 solution were systematically studied. The critical micelle concentration (CCMC) of GNS-14 surfactant was 0.056 mmol/L, and the surface tension (γCMC) was 18.2 mN/m; at 50℃, 0.5% GNS-14 solution can reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to 6.5×10−2 mN/m. GNS-14 has excellent surface activity, interfacial activity, and emulsifying properties.

Keywords: gemini surfactants, surface tension, low interfacial tension, emulsifying properties

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1042 Deep Learning Based 6D Pose Estimation for Bin-Picking Using 3D Point Clouds

Authors: Hesheng Wang, Haoyu Wang, Chungang Zhuang


Estimating the 6D pose of objects is a core step for robot bin-picking tasks. The problem is that various objects are usually randomly stacked with heavy occlusion in real applications. In this work, we propose a method to regress 6D poses by predicting three points for each object in the 3D point cloud through deep learning. To solve the ambiguity of symmetric pose, we propose a labeling method to help the network converge better. Based on the predicted pose, an iterative method is employed for pose optimization. In real-world experiments, our method outperforms the classical approach in both precision and recall.

Keywords: pose estimation, deep learning, point cloud, bin-picking, 3D computer vision

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1041 Large Herbivores Benefit Plant Growth via Diverse and Indirect Pathways in a Temperate Grassland

Authors: Xiaofei Li, Zhiwei Zhong, Deli Wang


Large herbivores affect plant growth not only through their direct, consumptive effects, but also through indirect effects that alter species interactions. Indirect effects can be either positive or negative, therefore having the potential to mitigate or enhance the direct impacts of herbivores. However, until recently, we know considerably less about the indirect effects than the direct effects of large herbivores on plants, and few studies have explored multiple indirect pathways simultaneously. Here, we investigated how large domestic herbivores, cattle (Bos taurus), can shape population growth of an intermediately preferred forb species, Artemsisa scoparia, through diverse pathways in a temperate grassland of northeast China. We found that, although exposure to direct consumption of cattle, A. scoparia growth was not inhibited, but rather showed a significant increase in the grazed than ungrazed areas. This unexpected result was due to grazing-induced multiple indirect, positive effects overwhelmed the direct, negative consumption effects of cattle on plant growth. The much more intensive consumption on the dominant Leymus chinensis grass, ground litter removal, and increases in ant nest abundance induced by cattle, exerted significant indirect, positive effects on A. scoparia growth. These pathways benefited A.scoparia growth by lessening interspecific competition, mitigating negative effects of litter accumulation, and increasing soil nutrient availability, respectively. Our results highlight the need to integrate indirect effects into the traditional food web theory, which is based primary on direct, trophic linkages, to fully understand community organization and dynamics. Large herbivores are important conservation and management targets, our results suggest that these mammals should be managed with the understanding that they can affect primary producers through diverse paths.

Keywords: grasslands, large herbivores, plant growth, indirect effects

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1040 An Experiment Research on the Effect of Brain-Break in the Classroom on Elementary School Students’ Selective Attention

Authors: Hui Liu, Xiaozan Wang, Jiarong Zhong, Ziming Shao


Introduction: Related research shows that students don’t concentrate on teacher’s speaking in the classroom. The d2 attention test is a time-limited test about selective attention. The d2 attention test can be used to evaluate individual selective attention. Purpose: To use the d2 attention test tool to measure the difference between the attention level of the experimental class and the control class before and after Brain-Break and to explore the effect of Brain-Break in the classroom on students' selective attention. Methods: According to the principle of no difference in pre-test data, two classes in the fourth- grade of Shenzhen Longhua Central Primary School were selected. After 20 minutes of class in the third class in the morning and the third class in the afternoon, about 3-minute Brain-Break intervention was performed in the experimental class for 10 weeks. The normal class in the control class did not intervene. Before and after the experiment, the d2 attention test tool was used to test the attention level of the two-class students. The paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test in SPSS 23.0 was used to test the change in the attention level of the two-class classes around 10 weeks. This article only presents results with significant differences. Results: The independent sample t-test results showed that after ten-week of Brain-Break, the missed errors (E1 t = -2.165 p = 0.042), concentration performance (CP t = 1.866 p = 0.05), and the degree of omissions (Epercent t = -2.375 p = 0.029) in experimental class showed significant differences compared with control class. The students’ error level decreased and the concentration increased. Conclusions: Adding Brain-Break interventions in the classroom can effectively improve the attention level of fourth-grade primary school students to a certain extent, especially can improve the concentration of attention and decrease the error rate in the tasks. The new sport's learning model is worth promoting

Keywords: cultural class, micromotor, attention, D2 test

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1039 Horizontal Directivity of Pipa Radiation

Authors: Xin Wang, Yuanzhong Wang


Pipa is one of the most important Chinese traditional plucked instruments, but its directivity has never been measured systematically. In western, directivity of loudness for western instruments is deeply researched through analysis of sound pressure level, whereas the directivity of timbre is seldom studied. In this paper, a new method for directivity of timbre was proposed, and horizontal directivity patterns of loudness and timbre of Pipa were measured. Directivity of Pipa radiation was measured in an anechoic room. The sound of Pipa played by a musician was recorded simultaneously by 32 microphones with Pipa in the center. The measuring results were examined through listening test. According to the measurement of Pipa directivity radiation, we put forward the best localization of Pipa in the Chinese traditional orchestra and the optimal recording region.

Keywords: directivity, Pipa, roughness, listening test

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1038 The Association between Affective States and Sexual/Health-Related Status among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: An Exploration Study Using Social Media Data

Authors: Zhi-Wei Zheng, Zhong-Qi Liu, Jia-Ling Qiu, Shan-Qing Guo, Zhong-Wei Jia, Chun Hao


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand and examine the association between diurnal mood variation and sexual/health-related status among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from MSM Chinese Twitter messages. The study consists of 843,745 postings of 377,610 MSM users located in Guangdong that were culled from the MSM Chinese Twitter App. Positive affect, negative affect, sexual related behaviors, and health-related status were measured using the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Emotions, including joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust were measured using the Weibo Basic Mood Lexicon. A positive sentiment score and a positive emotions score were also calculated. Linear regression models based on a permutation test were used to assess associations between affective states and sexual/health-related status. In the results, 5,871 active MSM users and their 477,374 postings were finally selected. MSM expressed positive affect and joy at 8 a.m. and expressed negative affect and negative emotions between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. In addition, 25.1% of negative postings were directly related to health and 13.4% reported seeking social support during that sensitive period. MSM who were senior, educated, overweight or obese, self-identified as performing a versatile sex role, and with less followers, more followers, and less chat groups mainly expressed more negative affect and negative emotions. MSM who talked more about sexual-related behaviors had a higher positive sentiment score (β=0.29, p < 0.001) and a higher positive emotions score (β = 0.16, p < 0.001). MSM who reported more on their health status had a lower positive sentiment score (β = -0.83, p < 0.001) and a lower positive emotions score (β = -0.37, p < 0.001). The study concluded that psychological intervention based on an app for MSM should be conducted, as it may improve mental health.

Keywords: affect, men who have sex with men, sexual related behavior, health-related status, social media

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1037 Ecosystem Engineering Strengthens Bottom-Up and Weakens Top-Down Effects via Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions

Authors: Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Deli Wang


Ecosystem engineering is a powerful force shaping community structure and ecosystem function. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms by which engineers affect vital ecosystem processes like trophic interactions. Here, we examine the potential for a herbivore ecosystem engineer, domestic sheep, to affect trophic interactions between the web-building spider Argiope bruennichi, its grasshopper prey Euchorthippus spp., and the grasshoppers’ host plant Leymus chinensis. By integrating small- and large-scale field experiments, we demonstrate that: 1) moderate sheep grazing changed the structure of plant communities by suppressing strongly interacting forbs within a grassland matrix; 2) this change in plant community structure drove interaction modifications between the grasshoppers and their grass host plants and between grasshoppers and their spider predators, and 3) these interaction modifications were entirely mediated by plasticity in grasshopper behavior. Overall, ecosystem engineering by sheep grazing strengthened bottom-up effects and weakened top-down effects via trait-mediated interactions, resulting in a nearly two-fold increase in grasshopper densities. Interestingly, the grasshopper behavioral shifts which reduced spider per capita predation rates in the microcosms did not translate to reduced spider predation rates at the larger system scale because increased grasshopper densities offset behavioral effects at larger scales. Our findings demonstrate that 1) ecosystem engineering can strongly alter trophic interactions, 2) such effects can be driven by cryptic trait-mediated interactions, and 3) the relative importance of trait- versus density effects as measured by microcosm experiments may not reflect the importance of these processes at realistic ecological scales due to scale-dependent interactions.

Keywords: bottom-up effects, ecosystem engineering, trait-mediated indirect effects, top-down effects

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1036 Urinary Exosome miR-30c-5p as a Biomarker for Early-Stage Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Shangqing Song, Bin Xu, Yajun Cheng, Zhong Wang


miRNAs derived from exosomes exist in a body fluid such as urine were regarded as potential biomarkers for various human cancers diagnosis and prognosis, as mature miRNAs can be steadily preserved by exosomes. However, its potential value in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosis and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, differentially expressed miRNAs from urinal exosomes were identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between ccRCC patients and healthy donors. To explore the specific diagnosis biomarker of ccRCC, we validated these urinary exosomes from 70 early-stage renal cancer patients, 30 healthy people and other urinary system cancers, including 30 early-stage prostate cancer patients and 30 early-stage bladder cancer patients by qRT-PCR. The results showed that urinary exosome miR-30c-5p could be stably amplified and meanwhile the expression of miR-30c-5p has no significant difference between other urinary system cancers and healthy control, however, expression level of miR-30c-5p in urinary exosomal of ccRCC patients was lower than healthy people and receiver operation characterization (ROC) curve showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values was 0.8192 (95% confidence interval was 0.7388-0.8996, P= 0.0000). In addition, up-regulating miR-30c-5p expression could inhibit renal cell carcinoma cells growth. Lastly, HSP5A was found as a direct target gene of miR-30c-5p. HSP5A depletion reversed the promoting effect of ccRCC growth casued by miR-30c-5p inhibitor, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that urinary exosomal miR-30c-5p is readily accessible as diagnosis biomarker of early-stage ccRCC, and miR-30c-5p might modulate the expression of HSPA5, which correlated with the progression of ccRCC.

Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma, exosome, HSP5A, miR-30c-5p

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1035 Grid Tied Photovoltaic Power on School Roof

Authors: Yeong-cheng Wang, Jin-Yinn Wang, Ming-Shan Lin, Jian-Li Dong


To universalize the adoption of sustainable energy, the R.O.C. government encourages public buildings to introduce the PV power station on the building roof, whereas most old buildings did not include the considerations of photovoltaic (PV) power facilities in the design phase. Several factors affect the PV electricity output, the temperature is the key one, different PV technologies have different temperature coefficients. Other factors like PV panel azimuth, panel inclination from the horizontal plane, and row to row distance of PV arrays, mix up at the beginning of system design. The goal of this work is to maximize the annual energy output of a roof mount PV system. Tables to simplify the design work are developed; the results can be used for engineering project quote directly.

Keywords: optimal inclination, array azimuth, annual output

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1034 Strategy Research for the Development of Thematic Commercial Streets - Based On the Survey of Eight Typical Thematic Commercial Streets in Harbin

Authors: Wang Zhenzhen, Wang Xu, Hong Liangping


The construction of thematic commercial streets has been on the hotspot with the rapid development of cities. In order to improve the image and competitiveness of cities, many cities are building or rebuilding thematic commercial streets. However, many contradictions and problems have emerged during this process. Therefore, it is significant, for both the practice and the research, to analyse the development of thematic commercial streets and provide some useful suggestions. Through the deep research and comparative study of the eight typical thematic commercial streets in Harbin, this paper summarize the current situations, laws and influencing factors of the development of these streets, and then put forward some suggestions about the plan, constructions and developments of the thematic commercial streets.

Keywords: thematic commercial streets, laws of the development, influence factors, the constructions and developments, degrees of aggregation

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1033 Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

Authors: Yongkui Cui, Fengping Wang, Hailei Zhao, Muhammad Zubair Iqbal, Ziya Wang, Yan Li, Pengpeng LV


The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions.The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: electrochemical property, hydrothermal synthesis, lithium ion battery, stannous oxide

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1032 The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transportation Planning and Evaluation: Limits and Potentials

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Yueh-Lung Lin, Zhong Wang


Transportation planning is an academic integration discipline combining research and practice with the aim of mobility and accessibility improvements at both strategic-level policy-making and operational dimensions of practical planning. Transportation planning could build the linkage between traffic and social development goals, for instance, economic benefits and environmental sustainability. The transportation planning analysis and evaluation tend to apply empirical quantitative approaches with the guidance of the fundamental principles, such as efficiency, equity, safety, and sustainability. Space syntax theory has been applied in the spatial distribution of pedestrian movement or vehicle flow analysis, however rare has been written about its application in transportation planning. The correlated relationship between the variables of space syntax analysis and authentic observations have declared that the urban configurations have a significant effect on urban dynamics, for instance, land value, building density, traffic, crime. This research aims to explore the potentials of applying Space Syntax methodology to evaluate urban transportation planning through studying the effects of urban configuration on cities transportation performance. By literature review, this paper aims to discuss the effects that urban configuration with different degrees of integration and accessibility have on three elementary components of transportation planning - transportation efficiency, transportation safety, and economic agglomeration development - via intensifying and stabilising the nature movements generated by the street network. And then the potential and limits of Space Syntax theory to study the performance of urban transportation and transportation planning would be discussed in the paper. In practical terms, this research will help future research explore the effects of urban design on transportation performance, and identify which patterns of urban street networks would allow for most efficient and safe transportation performance with higher economic benefits.

Keywords: transportation planning, space syntax, economic agglomeration, transportation efficiency, transportation safety

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1031 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li


The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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1030 Hybrid Multipath Congestion Control

Authors: Akshit Singhal, Xuan Wang, Zhijun Wang, Hao Che, Hong Jiang


Multiple Path Transmission Control Protocols (MPTCPs) allow flows to explore path diversity to improve the throughput, reliability and network resource utilization. However, the existing solutions may discourage users to adopt the solutions in the face of multipath scenario where different paths are charged based on different pricing structures, e.g., WiFi vs cellular connections, widely available for mobile phones. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid MPTCP (H-MPTCP) with a built-in mechanism to incentivize users to use multiple paths with different pricing structures. In the meantime, H-MPTCP preserves the nice properties enjoyed by the state-of-the-art MPTCP solutions. Extensive real Linux implementation results verify that H-MPTCP can indeed achieve the design objectives.

Keywords: network, TCP, WiFi, cellular, congestion control

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