Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: consortium

90 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Supanun Kangrang, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Kittiphong Rattanaporn, Malinee Sriariyanun


Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment method that modifies such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: lignocellulolytic biomass, microbial consortium, cellulase, biogas, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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89 Trichoderma spp Consortium and Its Efficacy as Biological Control Agent of Ganoderma Disease of Oil Palm (Elaies guineensis Jacquin)

Authors: Habu Musa, Nusaibah Binti Syd Ali


Oil palm industries particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia are being devastated by Ganoderma disease caused by Ganoderma spp. To date, this disease has been causing serious oil palm yield losses and collapse of oil palm trees, thus affecting its contribution to the producer’s economy. Research on sustainable and eco-friendly remedy to counter Ganoderma disease is on the upsurge to avoid the current control measures via synthetic fungicides. Trichoderma species have been the most studied and valued microbes as biological control agents in an effort to combat a wide range of plant diseases sustainably. Therefore, in this current study, the potential of Trichoderma spp. (Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) as a consortium approach was evaluated as biological control agents against Ganoderma disease on oil palm. The consortium of Trichoderma spp. applied found to be the most effective treatment in suppressing Ganoderma disease with 83.03% and 89.16% from the foliar and bole symptoms respectively. Besides, it exhibited tremendous enhancement in the oil palm seedling vegetative growth parameters. Also, it had highly induced significant activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and total phenolic content was recorded in the consortium treatment compared to the control treatment. Disease development was slower in the seedlings treated with consortium of Trichoderma spp. compared to the positive control, which exhibited with the highest percentage of disease severity.

Keywords: biological control, ganoderma disease, trichoderma, disease severity

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88 Mycorrhizal Autochthonous Consortium Induced Defense-Related Mechanisms of Olive Trees against Verticillium dahliae

Authors: Hanane Boutaj, Abdelilah Meddich, Said Wahbi, Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi, Allal Douira, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Cherkaoui El Modafar


The present work aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in improving the olive tree resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Inoculated plants with a mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium 'Rhizolive consortium' and pure strain 'Glomus irregulare' were infected after three months with V. dahliae. The improving of olive tree resistance was determined through disease severity, incidence, and defoliation. On the other hand, the defense mechanisms of olive plants were evaluated through lignin content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and polyphenol content. The results revealed that both AMF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced disease development and the rate of defoliation in infected olive plants. Moreover, the contents of lignin were boosted after mycorrhizal inoculation in both the roots and the stems of olive plants, which remained significantly (p < 0.001) higher after the 90th days of V. dahliae inoculation. PAL activity was increased after V. dahliae inoculation in the stems of 'Rhizolive consortium' treatment that were 17 times higher than those in the roots of olive plants. The polyphenol content in the stems was about twice higher than those in the roots. The reduction of disease severity was accompanied by increased levels of lignin content, PAL activity, and polyphenol content, particularly in the stems of olive plants, indicating the strengthening of the olive plant immune system against V. dahliae.

Keywords: olive tree, Mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium, Glomus irregulare, Verticillium dahliae, defense mechanisms

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87 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of 1,2-Dichlorobenzene Degrading Bacteria from Consortium

Authors: Ge Cui, Mei Fang Chien, Chihiro Inoue


In this research, enrichment culture using an inorganic liquid medium collected soil contaminated with 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) in Sendai, Japan, was added 1,2-DCB as the sole carbon source to create a stable consortium. The purpose of this research is to analysis dominant microorganisms in the stable consortium and enzyme system which play a role in the degradation of DCBs. The consortium is now at 30 generation and is still being cultured. By the result of PCR-DGGE and clone library, two bacteria are dominant. The bacteria named sk1 was isolated. 40mg/l of 1,2-DCB and 40mg/l of 1,4-DCB were completely degraded after 32 hours and 50 hours, respectively, but no degradation occurred in the case of 1,3-DCB. By PCR, tecA1 (α-subunit of DCB dioxygenase) gene which plays a role degrading DCB to DCB dihydrodiol, and tecB (dehydrogenase) gene which plays a role degrading DCB dihydrodiol to dichlorocatechol were amplified from strain sk1. Bacteria named sk100 was also isolated. 40mg/l of 1,2-DCB was completely degraded after 32 hours, but no degradation occurred in case of 1,3-DCB and 1,4-DCB. By the result of the catalytic core region of dioxygenase amplified by PCR, gene played a role degrading DCB was analyzed. The results of this study concluded that the isolated strains which have not been reported are able to degrade 1,2-DCB stably, and the characterization of degradation and the genomic analysis which is now in progress is helpful to have an overall view of this microbial degradation.

Keywords: DCB, 1, 2-DCB degrading strains, DCB dioxygenase, enrichment culture

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86 Development of a Solar Energy Based Prototype, CyanoClean, for Arsenic Removal from Water with the Use of a Cyanobacterial Consortium in Field Conditions of India

Authors: Anurakti Shukla, Sudhakar Srivastava


Cyanobacteria are known for rapid growth rates, high biomass, and the ability to accumulate potentially toxic elements and contaminants. The present work was planned to develop a low-cost, feasible prototype, CyanoClean, for the growth of a cyanobacterial consortium for the removal of arsenic (As) from water. The cyanobacterial consortium consisting of Oscillatoria, Phormidiumand Gloeotrichiawas used, and the conditions for optimal growth of the consortium were standardized. A pH of 7.6, initial cyanobacterial biomass of 10 g/L, and arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] concentration of 400 μΜand 600 μM, respectively, were found to be suitable. The CyanoClean prototype was designed with acrylic sheet and had arrangements for optimal cyanobacterial growth in natural sunlight and also in artificial light. The As removal experiments in concentration- and duration-dependent manner demonstrated removal of up to 39-69% and 9-33% As respectively from As(III) and As(V)-contaminated water. In field testing of CyanoClean, natural As-contaminated groundwater was used, and As reduction was monitored when a flow rate of 3 L/h was maintained. In a field experiment, As concentration in groundwater was found to reduce from 102.43 μg L⁻¹ to <10 μg L⁻¹ after 6 h in natural sunlight. However, in shaded conditions under artificial light, the same result was achieved after 9 h. The CyanoClean prototype is of simple design and can be easily up-scaled for application at a small- to medium-size land and shall be affordable even for a low- to middle-income group farmer.

Keywords: cyanoclean, gloeotrichia, oscillatoria, phormidium, phycoremediation

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85 Phytobeds with Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for Treatment of Real Textile Effluent: An in situ Treatment, Anatomical Studies and Toxicity Evaluation

Authors: Suhas Kadam, Vishal Chandanshive, Niraj Rane, Sanjay Govindwar


Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and their co-plantation consortium FA were found to degrade methyl orange, simulated dye mixture, and real textile effluent. Wild plants of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera with equal biomass showed 91 and 89% decolorization of methyl orange within 60 h at a concentration of 50 ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48 h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79, 72, 77, 66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolve solid and total suspended solid of textile effluent, respectively. High performance thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Visible spectroscopy and enzymatic assays confirmed the phytotransformation of parent dye in the new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of methyl orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage in the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed normal banding pattern in treated methyl orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.

Keywords: constructed wetland, phyto-bed, textile effluent, phytoremediation

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84 Consortium Blockchain-based Model for Data Management Applications in the Healthcare Sector

Authors: Teo Hao Jing, Shane Ho Ken Wae, Lee Jin Yu, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Current distributed healthcare systems face the challenge of interoperability of health data. Storing electronic health records (EHR) in local databases causes them to be fragmented. This problem is aggravated as patients visit multiple healthcare providers in their lifetime. Existing solutions are unable to solve this issue and have caused burdens to healthcare specialists and patients alike. Blockchain technology was found to be able to increase the interoperability of health data by implementing digital access rules, enabling uniformed patient identity, and providing data aggregation. Consortium blockchain was found to have high read throughputs, is more trustworthy, more secure against external disruptions and accommodates transactions without fees. Therefore, this paper proposes a blockchain-based model for data management applications. In this model, a consortium blockchain is implemented by using a delegated proof of stake (DPoS) as its consensus mechanism. This blockchain allows collaboration between users from different organizations such as hospitals and medical bureaus. Patients serve as the owner of their information, where users from other parties require authorization from the patient to view their information. Hospitals upload the hash value of patients’ generated data to the blockchain, whereas the encrypted information is stored in a distributed cloud storage.

Keywords: blockchain technology, data management applications, healthcare, interoperability, delegated proof of stake

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83 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali


Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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82 Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes

Authors: Anubha Kaushik, Raman Preet


Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, hydrogen, microbial consortium, organic pollution, sludge

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81 Application of Aquatic Plants for the Remediation of Organochlorine Pesticides from Keenjhar Lake

Authors: Soomal Hamza, Uzma Imran


Organochlorine pesticides bio-accumulate into the fat of fish, birds, and animals through which it enters the human food cycle. Due to their persistence and stability in the environment, many health impacts are associated with them, most of which are carcinogenic in nature. In this study, the level of organochlorine pesticides has been detected in Keenjhar Lake and remediated using Rhizoremediation technique. 14 OC pesticides namely, Aldrin, Deldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Endrin, Endosulfun I and II, DDT, DDE, DDD, Alpha, Beta, Gamma BHC and two plants namely, Water Hyacinth and Slvinia Molesta were used in the system using pot experiment which processed for 11 days. A consortium was inoculated in both plants to increase its efficiency. Water samples were processed using liquide-liquid extraction. Sediments and roots samples were processed using Soxhlet method followed by clean-up and Gas Chromatography. Delta-BHC was the predominantly found in all samples with mean concentration (ppb) and standard deviation of 0.02 ± 0.14, 0.52 ± 0.68, 0.61 ± 0.06, in Water, Sediments and Roots samples respectively. The highest levels were of Endosulfan II in the samples of water, sediments and roots. Water Hyacinth proved to be better bioaccumulaor as compared to Silvinia Molesta. The pattern of compounds reduction rate by the end of experiment was Delta-BHC>DDD > Alpha-BHC > DDT> Heptachlor> H.Epoxide> Deldrin> Aldrin> Endrin> DDE> Endosulfun I > Endosulfun II. Not much significant difference was observed between the pots with the consortium and pots without the consortium addition. Phytoremediation is a promising technique, but more studies are required to assess the bioremediation potential of different aquatic plants and plant-endophyte relationship.

Keywords: aquatic plant, bio remediation, gas chromatography, liquid liquid extraction

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80 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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79 Biodegradation of Direct Red 23 by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Dye Contaminated Soil Using Sequential Air-lift Bioreactor

Authors: Lata Kumari Dhanesh Tiwary, Pradeep Kumar Mishra


The effluent coming from various industries such as textile, carpet, food, pharmaceutical and many other industries is big challenge due to its recalcitrant and xenobiotiocs in nature. Recently, biodegradation of dye wastewater through biological means was widely used due to eco-friendly and cost effective with the higher percentage of removal of dye from wastewater. The present study deals with the biodegradation and decolourization of Direct Red 23 dye using indigenously isolated bacterial consortium. The bacterial consortium was isolated from soil sample from dye contaminated site near a cluster of Carpet industries of Bhadohi, Uttar Pradesh, India. The bacterial strain formed consortia were identified and characterized by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterial strain mainly Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3 (KJ439576), Microbacterium sp. BHUMSp X4 (KJ740222) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X5 (KJ439576) were used as consortia for further studies of dye decolorization. Experimental investigations were made in a Sequencing Air- lift bioreactor using the synthetic solution of Direct Red 23 dye by optimizing various parameters for efficient degradation of dye. The effect of several operating parameters such as flow rate, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and inoculums size on removal of dye was investigated. The efficiency of isolated bacterial consortia from dye contaminated area in Sequencing Air- lift Bioreactor with different concentration of dye between 100-1200 mg/l at different hydraulic rate (HRTs) 26h and 10h. The maximum percentage of dye decolourization 98% was achieved when operated at HRT of 26h. The percentage of decolourization of dye was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and HPLC.

Keywords: carpet industry, bacterial consortia, sequencing air-lift bioreactor

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78 Biological Treatment of a Mixture of Iodine-Containing Aromatic Compounds from Industrial Wastewaster

Authors: A. Elain, M. Le Fellic, A. Le Pemp, N. Hachet


Iodinated Compounds (IC) are widely detected contaminants in most aquatic environments including sewage treatment plant, surface water, ground water and even drinking water, up to the µg.L-1 range. As IC contribute in the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) level, their removal or dehalogenation is expected. We report here on the biodegradability of a mixture of IC from an industrial effluent using a microbial consortium adapted to grow on IC as well as the native microorganisms. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatments were studied during batch experiments in 500-mL flasks. The degree of mineralization and recovery of iodide were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron acceptor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive deiodination of IC while sodium chloride even at high concentration (22 g.l-1) had no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S RNA gene sequence (MicroSeq®) was applied to provide a better understanding of the degradative microbial community.

Keywords: iodinated compounds, biodegradability, deiodination, electron-accepting conditions, microbial consortium

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77 In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Geeta Negi, Pankaj, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma


In the present study, the presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were three bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of non-toxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbendazim, consortium, endosulfan

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76 Effect of a Mixture of Phenol, O-Cresol, P-Cresol, and M-Cresol on the Nitrifying Process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Adriana Sosa, Susana Rincon, Chérif Ben, Diana Cabañas, Juan E. Ruiz, Alejandro Zepeda


The complex chemical composition (mixtures of ammonium and recalcitrant compounds) of the effluents from the chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries represents a challenge in their biological treatment. This treatment involves nitrification process that can suffer an inhibition due to the presence of aromatic compounds giving as a result the decrease of the process efficiency. The inhibitory effects on nitrification in the presence of aromatic compounds have already been studied; however a few studies have considered the presence of phenolic compounds in the form of mixtures, which is the form that they are present in real context. For this reason, we realized a kinetic study on the nitrifying process in the presence of different concentrations of a mixture of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol and p-cresol (0 - 320 mg C/L) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Firstly, the nitrifying process was evaluated in absence of the phenolic mixture (control 1) in a SBR with 2 L working volume and 176 mg/L of nitrogen of microbial protein. Total oxidation of initial ammonium (efficiency; ENH4+ of 100 %) to nitrate (nitrifying yield; YNO3- of 0.95) were obtained with specific rates of ammonium consumption (qN-NH4+) and nitrate production (qN-NO3-) (of 1.11 ± 0.04 h-1 and 0.67 h-1 ± 0.11 respectively. During the phase of acclimation with 40 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, an inhibitory effect on the nitrifying process was observed, provoking a decrease in ENH4+ and YNO3- (11 and 54 % respectively) as well as in the specific rates (89 y 46 % respectively), being the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (BAO) the most affected. However, in the next cycles without the phenolic mixture (control 2), the nitrifying consortium was able to recover its nitrifying capacity (ENH4+ = 100% and YNO3-=0.98). Afterwards the SBR was fed with 10 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, obtaining and ENH4+ of 100%, YNO3- and qN-NH4+ 0.62 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.004 respectively, while the qN-NO3- was 0.49 ± 0.007. Moreover, with the increase of the phenolic concentrations (10-160 mg C/L) and the number of cycles the nitrifying consortium was able to oxidize the ammonia with ENH4+ of 100 % and YNO3- close to 1. However a decrease in the values of the nitrification specific rates and increase in the oxidation in phenolic compounds (70 to 94%) were observed. Finally, in the presence of 320 mg C/L, the nitrifying consortium was able to simultaneously oxidize the ammonia (ENH4+= 100%) and the phenolic mixture (p-cresol>phenol>m-cresol>o-cresol) being the o-cresol the most recalcitrant compound. In all the experiments the use of a SBR allowed a respiratory adaptation of the consortium to oxidize the phenolic mixture achieving greater adaptation of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) than in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB).

Keywords: cresol, inhibition, nitrification, phenol, sequencing batch reactor

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75 Degradation of EE2 by Different Consortium of Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge

Authors: Pantip Kayee


17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a recalcitrant micropollutant which is found in small amounts in municipal wastewater. But these small amounts still adversely affect for the reproductive function of aquatic organisms. Evidence in the past suggested that full-scale WWTPs equipped with nitrification process enhanced the removal of EE2 in the municipal wastewater. EE2 has been proven to be able to be transformed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via co-metabolism. This research aims to clarify the EE2 degradation pattern by different consortium of ammonia oxidizing microorganism (AOM) including AOA (ammonia oxidizing archaea) and investigate contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM. The result showed that AOA or AOB of N. oligotropha cluster in enriched nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) from 2mM and 5mM, commonly found in municipal WWTPs, could degrade EE2 in wastewater via co-metabolism. Moreover, the investigation of the contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM demonstrated that the new synthesized AMO enzyme may perform ammonia oxidation rather than the existing AMO enzyme or the existing AMO enzyme may has a small amount to oxidize ammonia.

Keywords: 17α-ethinylestradiol, nitrification, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, ammonia oxidizing archaea

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74 Identification of the Microalgae Species in a Wild Mix Culture Acclimated to Landfill Leachate and Ammonia Removal Performances in a Microbubble Assisted Photobioreactor

Authors: Neslihan Ozman Say, Jim Gilmour, Pratik Desai, William Zimmerman


Landfill leachate treatment has been attracting researchers recently for various environmental and economical reasons. Leachate discharge to receiving waterbodies without treatment causes serious detrimental effects including partial oxygen depletion due to high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations besides toxicity of heavy metals it contains and high ammonia concentrations. In this study, it is aimed to show microalgal ammonia removal performances of a wild microalgae consortia as an alternative treatment method and determine the dominant leachate tolerant species for this consortia. For the microalgae species identification experiments a microalgal consortium which has been isolated from a local pond in Sheffield inoculated in %5 diluted raw landfill leachate and acclimated to the leachate by batch feeding for a month. In order to determine the most tolerant microalgal consortium, four different untreated landfill leachate samples have been used as diluted in four different ratios as 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. Microalgae cell samples have been collected from all experiment sets and have been examined by using 18S rDNA sequencing and specialised gel electrophoresis which are adapted molecular biodiversity methods. The best leachate tolerant algal consortium is being used in order to determine ammonia removal performances of the culture in a microbubble assisted photobioreactor (PBR). A porous microbubble diffuser which is supported by a fluidic oscillator is being used for dosing CO₂ and air mixture in the PBR. It is known that high mass transfer performance of microbubble technology provides a better removal efficiency and a better mixing in the photobioreactor. Ammonia concentrations and microalgal growth are being monitored for PBR currently. It is aimed to present all the results of the study in final paper submission.

Keywords: ammonia removal from leachate, landfill leachate treatment, microalgae species identification, microbubble assisted photobioreactors

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
73 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello


Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: spent engine oil, pollution, bacteria, enzyme, bioremediation, mechanic workshop

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72 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Arredondo Valdés Roberto, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Castro Del Angel Epifanio


The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

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71 Dehalogenation of Aromatic Compounds in Wastewater by Bacterial Cultures

Authors: Anne Elain, Magali Le Fellic


Halogenated Aromatic Compounds (HAC) are major organic pollutants that are detected in several environmental compartments as a result of their widespread use as solvents, pesticides and other industrial chemicals. The degradation of HAC simultaneously at low temperature and under saline conditions would be useful for remediation of polluted sites. Hence, microbial processes based on the metabolic activities of anaerobic bacteria are especially attractive from an economic and environmental point of view. Metabolites are generally less toxic, less likely to bioaccumulate and more susceptible for further degradation. Studies on biological reductive dehalogenation have largely been restricted to chlorinated compounds while relatively few have focussed on other HAC i.e., fluorinated, brominated or iodinated compounds. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the biodegradation of a mixture of triiodoaromatic molecules in industrial wastewater by an enriched bacterial consortium. Biodegradation of the mixture was studied during batch experiments in an anaerobic reactor. The degree of mineralization and recovery of halogen were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron donor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of HAC with a deiodination rate up to 12.4 mg.L-1 per day. Sodium chloride even at high concentration (10 mM) was found to have no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. An analysis of the 16S rDNA (MicroSeq®) revealed that at least 6 bacteria were predominant in the enrichment, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Kocuria rhizophila, Ochrobacterium anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Rhizobium rhizogenes.

Keywords: halogenated aromatics, anaerobic biodegradation, deiodination, bacterial consortium

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70 Culturable Microbial Diversity of Agave Artisanal Fermentations from Central Mexico

Authors: Thalía Moreno-García Malo, Santiago Torres-Ríos, María G. González-Cruz, María M. Hernández-Arroyo, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada


Agave atrovirens is the main source of agave sap, the raw material for the production of pulque, an artisanal fermented beverage, traditional since prehispanic times in the highlands of central Mexico. Agave sap is rich in glucose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides, and strongly differs from agave syrup from A. tequilana, which is mostly a high molecular weight fructan. Agave sap is converted into pulque by a highly diverse microbial community which includes bacteria, yeast and even filamentous fungi. The bacterial diversity has been recently studied. But the composition of consortia derived from directed enrichments differs sharply from the whole fermentative consortium. Using classical microbiology methods, and selective liquid and solid media formulations, either bacterial or fungal consortia were developed and analyzed. Bacterial consortia able to catabolize specific prebiotic saccharides were selected and preserved for future developments. Different media formulations, selective for bacterial genera such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were also used. For yeast, specific media, osmotic pressure and unique carbon sources were used as selective agents. Results show that most groups are represented in the enrichment cultures; although very few are recoverable from the whole consortium in artisanal pulque. Diversity and abundance vary among consortia. Potential bacterial probiotics obtained from agave sap and agave juices show tolerance to hydrochloric acid, as well as strong antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Agave, pulque, microbial consortia, prebiotic activity

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69 Obtaining Norms for Arabic Translated Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Neuropsychological Battery in Normal Elderly Omanis Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

Authors: Ammar Alobaidy, Lamees Alsawafi, Malak Almawali, Balqees Alabri, Hajer Alhamrashdi


Background: There is scarce data in the literature concerning the use of Arabic version neuron psychological cognitive tests in the geriatric age group of the Omani population. Objectives: Our aim is to obtain norms for normal elderly Omanis assessed by The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) neuro psychological battery and to compare these norms with other studies in the literature. Methods: 84 attendants and visitors of in-patients at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, elder than 55 years, were interviewed. All participants were assessed by Dementia Rating Scale & Geriatric Depression Scale to ensure the integrity of their activities of daily living and the absence of depression, respectively. The performance of all participants in the CERAD battery was rated by a single rater to optimize the inter-rater reliability. Results: The cut-point for average performance in CERAD battery is dependent on the age, sex, and level of education and cannot be set as a single cut-point for all elderly Omanis. Conclusion: This study has shown the effect of age, sex, and level of education on the cognitive performance of normal elderly Omanis. The normative data obtained from this study can be utilized to differentiate between the cognitive decline of normal aging and the cognitive impairment due to various neuro cognitive disorders in the elderly Omanis, and probably culturally similar Arabic speaking communities.

Keywords: CERAD, neuropsychological battery, normal aging, elderly Omanis

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68 The Ability of Consortium Wastewater Protozoan and Bacterial Species to Remove Chemical Oxygen Demand in the Presence of Nanomaterials under Varying pH Conditions

Authors: Anza-Vhudziki Mboyi, Ilunga Kamika, Maggy Momba


The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival limit and capability of commonly found wastewater protozoan (Aspidisca sp, Trachelophyllum sp, and Peranema sp) and bacterial (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, and Pseudomonas putida) species to remove COD while exposed to commercial nanomaterials under varying pH conditions. The experimental study was carried out in modified mixed liquor media adjusted to various pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10), and a comparative study was performed to determine the difference between the cytotoxicity effects of commercial zinc oxide (nZnO) and silver (nAg) nanomaterials (NMs) on the target wastewater microbial communities using standard methods. The selected microbial communities were exposed to lethal concentrations ranging from 0.015 g/L to 40 g/L for nZnO and from 0.015 g/L to 2 g/L for nAg for a period of 5 days of incubation at 30°C (100 r/min). Compared with the absence of NMs in wastewater mixed liquor, the relevant environmental concentration ranging between 10 µg/L and 100 µg/L, for both nZnO and nAg caused no adverse effects, but the presence of 20 g of nZnO/L and 0.65 g of nAg/L significantly inhibited microbial growth. Statistical evidence showed that nAg was significantly more toxic compared to nZnO, but there was an insignificant difference in toxicity between microbial communities and pH variations. A significant decrease in the removal of COD by microbial populations was observed in the presence of NMs with a moderate correlation of r = 0.3 to r = 0.7 at all pH levels. It was evident that there was a physical interaction between commercial NMs and target wastewater microbial communities; although not quantitatively assessed, cell morphology and cell death were observed. Such phenomena suggest the high resilience of the microbial community, but it is the accumulation of NMs that will have adverse effects on the performance in terms of COD removal.

Keywords: bacteria, biological treatment, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nanomaterials, consortium, pH, protozoan

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67 A Web-Based Real Property Updating System for Efficient and Sustainable Urban Development: A Case Study in Ethiopia

Authors: Eyosiyas Aga


The development of information communication technology has transformed the paper-based mapping and land registration processes to a computerized and networked system. The computerization and networking of real property information system play a vital role in good governance and sustainable development of emerging countries through cost effective, easy and accessible service delivery for the customer. The efficient, transparent and sustainable real property system is becoming the basic infrastructure for the urban development thus improve the data management system and service delivery in the organizations. In Ethiopia, the real property administration is paper based as a result, it confronted problems of data management, illegal transactions, corruptions, and poor service delivery. In order to solve this problem and to facilitate real property market, the implementation of web-based real property updating system is crucial. A web-based real property updating is one of the automation (computerizations) methods to facilitate data sharing, reduce time and cost of the service delivery in real property administration system. In additions, it is useful for the integration of data onto different information systems and organizations. This system is designed by combining open source software which supported by open Geo-spatial consortium. The web-based system is mainly designed by using open source software with the help of open Geo-spatial Consortium. The Open Geo-spatial Consortium standards such as the Web Feature Service and Web Map Services are the most widely used standards to support and improves web-based real property updating. These features allow the integration of data from different sources, and it can be used to maintain consistency of data throughout transactions. The PostgreSQL and Geoserver are used to manage and connect a real property data to the flex viewer and user interface. The system is designed for both internal updating system (municipality); which is mainly updating of spatial and textual information, and the external system (customer) which focus on providing and interacting with the customer. This research assessed the potential of open source web applications and adopted this technology for real property updating system in Ethiopia through simple, cost effective and secured way. The system is designed by combining and customizing open source software to enhance the efficiency of the system in cost effective way. The existing workflow for real property updating is analyzed to identify the bottlenecks, and the new workflow is designed for the system. The requirement is identified through questionnaire and literature review, and the system is prototype for the study area. The research mainly aimed to integrate human resource with technology in designing of the system to reduce data inconsistency and security problems. In additions, the research reflects on the current situation of real property administration and contributions of effective data management system for efficient, transparent and sustainable urban development in Ethiopia.

Keywords: cadaster, real property, sustainable, transparency, web feature service, web map service

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66 Online Consortium of Independent Colleges and Universities (OCICU): Using Cluster Analysis to Grasp Student and Institutional Value of Consolidated Online Offerings in Higher Education

Authors: Alex Rodriguez, Adam Guerrero


Purpose: This study is designed to examine the institutions that comprise the Online Consortium of Independent Colleges and Universities (OCICU) to understand better the types of higher education institutions that comprise their membership. The literature on this topic is extensive in analyzing the current economic environment around higher education, which is largely considered to be negative for independent, tuition-driven institutions, and is forcing colleges and universities to reexamine how the college-attending population defines value and how institutions can best utilize their existing resources (and those of other institutions) to meet that value expectation. The results from this analysis are intended to give OCICU the ability to target their current customer base better, based on their most notable differences, and other institutions to see how to best approach consolidation within higher education. Design/Methodology: This study utilized k-means cluster analysis in order to explore the possibility that different segments exist within the seventy-one colleges and universities that have comprised OCICU. It analyzed fifty different variables, whose selection was based on the previous literature, collected by the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), whose data is self-reported by individual institutions. Findings: OCICU member institutions are partitioned into two clusters: "access institutions" and "conventional institutions” based largely on the student profile they target. Value: The methodology of the study is relatively unique as there are not many studies within the field of higher education marketing that have employed cluster analysis, and this type of analysis has never been conducted on OCICU members, specifically, or that of any higher education consolidated offering. OCICU can use the findings of this study to obtain a better grasp as to the specific needs of the two market segments OCICU currently serves and develop measurable marketing programs around how those segments are defined that communicate the value sought by current and potential OCICU members or those of similar institutions. Other consolidation efforts within higher education can also employ the same methodology to determine their own market segments.

Keywords: Consolidation, Colleges, Enrollment, Higher Education, Marketing, Strategy, Universities

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65 Potential Hydrocarbon Degraders Present in Oil from WWII Wrecks in the Pacific

Authors: Awei Bainivalu, Joachim Larsen, Logesh Panneerselvan, Toby Mills, Brett Neilan, Megharaj Mallavarapu


World War II (WWII) shipwrecks harbour up to 20 million tonnes of oil. More than 3000 wrecks are in the Pacific Ocean; 300 are oil tankers. Compared to other oil removal methods, bioremediation is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Oil's microbial community and hydrocarbon properties from the Pacific WWII wrecks were identified. Dominant phyla are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Native marine bacteria oil-degraders were isolated for bioremediation. Petroleum degradation data from the bacterial consortium will be analyzed over the next three months.

Keywords: oil bioremediation, marine bacteria, WWII shipwrecks, pacific

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64 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Pleura Based On Curvature Analysis

Authors: Sasidhar B., Bhaskar Rao N., Ramesh Babu D. R., Ravi Shankar M.


Segmentation of lung pleura is a preprocessing step in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) which helps in reducing false positives in detection of lung cancer. The existing methods fail in extraction of lung regions with the nodules at the pleura of the lungs. In this paper, a new method is proposed which segments lung regions with nodules at the pleura of the lungs based on curvature analysis and morphological operators. The proposed algorithm is tested on 06 patient’s dataset which consists of 60 images of Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and the results are found to be satisfactory with 98.3% average overlap measure (AΩ).

Keywords: curvature analysis, image segmentation, morphological operators, thresholding

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63 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen


The study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions and the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented from the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high-quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: higher education, network, research and development, strategic management

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62 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen


This study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions. The study analyses the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented of the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: balanced scorecard, higher education, social networking, strategic planning

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61 3D Building Model Utilizing Airborne LiDAR Dataset and Terrestrial Photographic Images

Authors: J. Jasmee, I. Roslina, A. Mohammed Yaziz & A.H Juazer Rizal


The need of an effective building information collection method is vital to support a diversity of land development activities. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an established technology for building information collection, location, and elevation of the reflecting laser points towards the construction of 3D building models. In this study, LiDAR datasets and terrestrial photographic images of buildings towards the construction of 3D building models is explored. It is found that, the quantitative accuracy of the constructed 3D building model, namely in the horizontal and vertical components were ± 0.31m (RMSEx,y) and ± 0.145m (RMSEz) respectively. The accuracies were computed based on sixty nine (69) horizontal and twenty (20) vertical surveyed points. As for the qualitative assessment, it is shown that the appearance of the 3D building model is adequate to support the requirements of LOD3 presentation based on the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard CityGML.

Keywords: LiDAR datasets, DSM, DTM, 3D building models

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