Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 618

Search results for: stored

618 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon


Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: smoke liquid, edible film, coating, sausages

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617 Responses to Germination and Seedling Emergence Capacity of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Long Term Storage

Authors: S. Ahmet Bagci, Hayati Akman


This study was conducted at the research laboratory and greenhouse conditions to determine the effect on germination and emergency values of long-term stored seed (7 years) and non-stored seed (control) of nine durum wheat varieties. Three replicates of 20 seeds were germinated between double layered rolled germination papers in the Petri plates. Seeds were allowed to germinate at 20±1°C in the dark for 8 days. The seeds were counted on the 8th day as per ISTA rules and calculated in percent to determine germination capacity. Seedling emergency values were determined by testing 20 seeds placed into the sands with three replications of pots. Plants were counted on the 7th day and 12th day to determined seedling emergency rate and capacity, respectively. According to results, there are significant differences among the varieties in terms of germination capacity, seedling emergency rate and capacity of long-term stored and non-stored seeds. Germination capacity values declined from 100% to 93,3% of non-stored seeds whereas they were from 96,7% to 71,7% of long-term stored seeds. Percentage of seedling emergency capacity varied from 65,0% to 93,3% for non-stored seeds, however, the percentage of it was between 11,7 and 86,7% for long-term stored seeds. Results indicate that germination and emergence values responses to long-term stored condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars. Research results showed that the long-term-storage resulted in significant decrease with 13.5 % for germination, 36.4 % for emergence on the seventh day and 32.4 % for emergence on the twelfth day. Germination values ranged from 93.3 to 100.0 % for control and 71.7 to 96.7 % for storage. Emergence values in seventh day varied between 51.7 % and 90.0 % for control and 75.0 % and 10.0 % for storage, however values in twelfth day were between 93.3 % and 65.0 % for control and 86.7 % and 11.7 % for storage. According to research results, germination and emergence responses to long-term storage condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars.

Keywords: germination, emergence, long-term-storage, durum wheat

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616 Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples

Authors: Rahil Malekipoor, Zora Singh, Alan Payne


Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.

Keywords: apple, cold storage, organic oil, ozone

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
615 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade


Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contaminations of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. Thus, this study aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants. Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south, and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform, and streptococcus count. The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples as the total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water

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614 Effects of Asphalt Modification with Nanomaterials on Fresh and Stored Bitumen

Authors: Ahmed W. Oda, Ahmed El-Desouky, Hassan Mahdy, Osama M. Moussa


Nanomaterials have many applications in the field of asphalt paving. Two locally produced nanomaterials were used in the asphalt binder modification. The nanomaterials used are Nanosilica (NS), and Nanoclay (NC). The virgin asphalt binder was characterized by the conventional tests. The bitumen was modified by 3%, 5% and 7% of NS and NC. The penetration index(PI), and the retaining penetration (RP) was calculated based on the results of the penetration and the softening point tests. The results show that the RP becomes 95.35% at 5%NS modified bitumen and reaches 97.56% when bitumen is modified with 3% NC. The results show significant improvement in the bitumen stiffness when modified by the two types of nanomaterials, either fresh or aged (stored).

Keywords: bitumen, modified bitumen, aged, stored, nanomaterials

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613 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi


Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse

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612 Insect Infestation of Two Varieties of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna Unguiculata L.Walp) Stored at Sokoto Central Market Grainaries

Authors: A. Jatau, H. M. Bandiya, Q. Majeed, M. A. Yahaya


An investigation on the insect infestation of stored seeds of cowpea seeds varieties (Sokoto Loacal and Kanannado) was carried out in Sokoto central market, Sokoto. Two insects' species, Callosobrunchus maculatus and Callosobrunchus chinensis were found on the stored seeds with C. maculutus found to be the most prevalent. The rate of infestation of the cowpea seeds by the two insect species were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in Sokoto local than in Kanannado variety. The result shows that kanannado variety is more resistance to cowpea seeds weevils, hence should be used for long storage in Sokoto.

Keywords: insect, infestation, cowpea seeds, grainaries

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611 Effect of Storage Time on the Properties of Seeds, Oil and Biodiesel from Reutealis trisperma

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Syaripudin, Laksmitha Dyanie, Robert Manurung


The time profile of moisture content for different fractions (PT-3, PT-7, PT-14, NPT-21) of trisperma seeds (Reutealis trisperma) was determined at a relative humidity of 67% and 27°C for a four months period. The diffusion coefficient of water in the trisperma seeds was determined using an analytical solution of instationary diffusion equation and used to model the moisture content in the seeds. The total oil content of the seeds and the acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds were periodically measured for four months. The acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds increased for all conditions (1.1 to 2.8 mg KOH/g for PT-3, 1.9 to 9.9 mg KOH/g for PT-7, 3.4 to 11.6 mg KOH/g for PT-14 and 4.7 to 25.4 mg KOH/g for NPT-21). The acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel that has been stored for four months (27°C, closed container) was also determined. Upon storage, the acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel only slightly increased from 1.1 to 1.3 mg KOH/g and 0.4 to 0.43 mg KOH/g, respectively.

Keywords: acid value, biodiesel, moisture content, Reutealis trisperma, storage

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610 Effect of Different Temperatures and Cold Storage on Pupaes Apanteles gelechiidivoris Marsh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Jessica Morales Perdomo, Daniel Rodriguez Caicedo, Fernando Cantor Rincon


Tuta absoluta known as the tomato leaf miner, is one of the main pests in tomato crops in South America and the main pest in many European countries. Apanteles gelechiidivoris is a parasitoid of third instar Tuta absoluta larvae. Our studies have demonstrated that this parasitoid can cause up to 80% mortality of T. absoluta larvae in the field. We investigated cold storage of A. gelechiidivoris pupae as a method of mass production of this parasitoid. This storage method does not interfere with biological characteristics of the parasitoid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (4, 8 and 12°C) and different time duration (7, 14, 21 or 28 days) of cold storage on biological parameters of A. gelechiidivoris pupae and adults. The biological parameters of the parasitoid evaluated were: adult emergence time, lifespan, parasitism percentage and sex ratio. We found that the adult emergence time was delayed when the parasitoid pupae were stored at 4°C and 8°C. The shortest adult emergence was recorded when pupae were stored for seven days. The lowest adult emergence was found for pupae stored at 4°C and decreased significantly as the days of storage increased. We found high percentages of adult emergence when pupae were stored at 8°C and 12°C for seven days. Adult lifespan decreased with increasing days of cold storage. Adults emerging from pupae stored at 8°C during seven and 14 days showed the longest lifespan (nine days). The lowest parasitism rate was recorded at 4°C at every time point. The highest percentage of parasitism (80%) was found at 8°C during seven days of storage. The treatments had no effect on adults the sex ratio. The results suggest that A. gelechiidivoris pupae can be stored for up to 14 days at 8°C without affecting the efficacy of the parasitoid in the field.

Keywords: biological control, cold storage, massive rearing, quality control

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609 Facial Biometric Privacy Using Visual Cryptography: A Fundamental Approach to Enhance the Security of Facial Biometric Data

Authors: Devika Tanna


'Biometrics' means 'life measurement' but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological characteristics to identify an individual. It is important to secure the privacy of digital face image that is stored in central database. To impart privacy to such biometric face images, first, the digital face image is split into two host face images such that, each of it gives no idea of existence of the original face image and, then each cover image is stored in two different databases geographically apart. When both the cover images are simultaneously available then only we can access that original image. This can be achieved by using the XM2VTS and IMM face database, an adaptive algorithm for spatial greyscale. The algorithm helps to select the appropriate host images which are most likely to be compatible with the secret image stored in the central database based on its geometry and appearance. The encryption is done using GEVCS which results in a reconstructed image identical to the original private image.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, database, host images, privacy, visual cryptography

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608 Gravitational Energy Storage by Using Concrete Stacks

Authors: Anusit Punsirichaiyakul, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


The paper aims to study the energy storage system in the form of gravity energy by the weight of concrete stacks. This technology has the potential to replace expensive battery storage. This paper is a trial plan in abandoned mines in Thailand. This is to start with construct concrete boxes to be stacked vertically or obliquely to form appropriate shapes and, therefore, to store the potential energy. The stored energy can be released or discharged back to the system by deploying the concrete stacks to the ground. This is to convert the potential energy stored in the concrete stacks to the kinetic energy of the concrete box movement. This design is incorporating mechanical transmission to reduce the height of the concrete stacks. This study also makes a comparison between the energy used to construct concrete stacks in various shapes and the energy to deploy all the concrete boxes to ground. This paper consists of 2 test systems. The first test is to stack the concrete in vertical shape. The concrete stack has a maximum height of 50 m with a gear ratio of 1:200. The concrete box weight is 115 tons/piece with a total stored energy of 1800 kWh. The oblique system has a height of 50 m with a similar gear ratio of 1:200. The weight of the concrete box is 90 tons/piece and has a total stored energy of 1440 kWh. Also, it has an overall efficiency of 65% and a lifetime of 50 years. This storage has higher storage densities compared to other systems.

Keywords: gravity, concrete stacks, vertical, oblique

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607 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin


A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: salt, iodine, stability, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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606 Effects of Storage Methods on Proximate Compositions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Temitope A. Oyedele, Clement G. Afolabi


One of the limitations of African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) is poor storage ability due to the adverse effect of seed-borne fungi. This study was conducted to examine the effects of storage methods on the nutritive composition of AYB seeds stored in three types of storage materials viz; Jute bags, Polypropylene bags, and Plastic Bowls. Freshly harvested seeds of AYB seeds were stored in all the storage materials for 6 months using 2 × 3 factorial (2 AYB cultivars and 3 storage methods) in 3 replicates. The proximate analysis of the stored AYB seeds was carried out at 3 and 6 months after storage using standard methods. The temperature and relative humidity of the storeroom was recorded monthly with Kestrel pocket weather tracker 4000. Seeds stored in jute bags gave the best values for crude protein (24.87%), ash (5.69%) and fat content (6.64%) but recorded least values for crude fibre (2.55%), carbohydrate (50.86%) and moisture content (12.68%) at the 6th month of storage. The temperature of the storeroom decreased from 32.9ºC - 28.3ºC, while the relative humidity increased from 78% - 86%. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Geotricum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor meihei was accompanied by the increase in storage fungi viz: Apergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium espansum and Penicillium atrovenetum with prolonged storage. The study showed that of the three storage materials jute bag was more effective at preserving AYB seeds.

Keywords: storage methods, proximate composition, African Yam Bean, fungi

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605 The Integration of Patient Health Record Generated from Wearable and Internet of Things Devices into Health Information Exchanges

Authors: Dalvin D. Hill, Hector M. Castro Garcia


A growing number of individuals utilize wearable devices on a daily basis. The usage and functionality of these wearable devices vary from user to user. One popular usage of said devices is to track health-related activities that are typically stored on a device’s memory or uploaded to an account in the cloud; based on the current trend, the data accumulated from the wearable device are stored in a standalone location. In many of these cases, this health related datum is not a factor when considering the holistic view of a user’s health lifestyle or record. This health-related data generated from wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices can serve as empirical information to a medical provider, as the standalone data can add value to the holistic health record of a patient. This paper proposes a solution to incorporate the data gathered from these wearable and IoT devices, with that a patient’s Personal Health Record (PHR) stored within the confines of a Health Information Exchange (HIE).

Keywords: electronic health record, health information exchanges, internet of things, personal health records, wearable devices, wearables

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604 Switched Ultracapacitors for Maximizing Energy Supply

Authors: Nassouh K. Jaber


Supercapacitors (S.C.) are presently attracting attention for driving general purpose (12VDC to 220VAC) inverters in renewable energy systems. Unfortunately, when the voltage of the S.C supplying the inverter reaches the minimal threshold of 7-8VDC the inverter shuts down leaving the remaining 40% of the valuable energy stored inside the ultracapacitor un-usable. In this work a power electronic circuit is proposed which switches 2 banks of supercapacitors from parallel connection when both are fully charged at 14VDC to serial connection when their voltages drop down to 7 volts, thus keeping the inverter working within its operating limits for a longer time and advantageously tapping almost 92% of the stored energy in the supercapacitors.

Keywords: ultra capacitor, switched ultracapacitors, inverter, supercapacitor, parallel connection, serial connection, battery limitation

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603 Harnessing Earth's Electric Field and Transmission of Electricity

Authors: Vaishakh Medikeri


Energy in this Universe is the most basic characteristic of every particle. Since the birth of life on this planet, there has been a quest undertaken by the living beings to analyze, understand and harness the precious natural facts of the nature. In this quest, one of the greatest undertaken is the process of harnessing the naturally available energy. Scientists around the globe have discovered many ways to harness the freely available energy. But even today we speak of “Power Crisis”. Nikola Tesla once said “Nature has stored up in this universe infinite energy”. Energy is everywhere around us in unlimited quantities; all of it waiting to be harnessed by us. Here in this paper a method has been proposed to harness earth's electric field and transmit the stored electric energy using strong magnetic fields and electric fields. In this paper a new technique has been proposed to harness earth's electric field which is everywhere around the world in infinite quantities. Near the surface of the earth there is an electric field of about 120V/m. This electric field is used to charge a capacitor with high capacitance. Later the energy stored is allowed to pass through a device which converts the DC stored into AC. The AC so produced is then passed through a step down transformer to magnify the incoming current. Later the current passes through the RLC circuit. Later the current can be transmitted wirelessly using the principle of resonant inductive coupling. The proposed apparatus can be placed in most of the required places and any circuit tuned to the frequency of the transmitted current can receive the energy. The new source of renewable energy is of great importance if implemented since the apparatus is not costly and can be situated in most of the required places. And also the receiver which receives the transmitted energy is just an RLC circuit tuned to the resonant frequency of the transmitted energy. By using the proposed apparatus the energy losses can be reduced to a very large extent.

Keywords: capacitor, inductive resonant coupling, RLC circuit, transmission of electricity

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602 The Effects of Various Storage Scenarios on the Viability of Rooibos Tea Characteristically Used for Research

Authors: Daniella L. Pereira, Emeliana G. Imperial, Ingrid Webster, Ian Wiid, Hans Strijdom, Nireshni Chellan, Sanet H. Kotzé


Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a shrub-like bush native to the Western Cape of South Africa and commonly consumed as a herbal tea. Interest on the anti-oxidant capabilities of the tea have risen based on anecdotal evidence. Rooibos contains polyphenols that contribute to the overall antioxidant capacity of the tea. These polyphenols have been reported to attenuate the effects of oxidative stress in biological systems. The bioavailability of these compounds is compromised when exposed to light, pH fluctuations, and oxidation. It is crucial to evaluate whether the polyphenols in a typical rooibos solution remain constant over time when administered to rats in a research environment. This study aimed to determine the effects of various storage scenarios on the phenolic composition of rooibos tea commonly administered to rodents in experimental studies. A standardised aqueous solution of rooibos tea was filtered and divided into three samples namely fresh, refrigerated, and frozen. Samples were stored in air tight, light excluding bottles. Refrigerated samples were stored at 4°C for seven days. Frozen samples were stored for fourteen days at -20°C. Each sample consisted of two subgroups labeled day 1 and day 7. Teas marked day 7 of each group were kept in air tight, light protected bottles at room temperature for an additional week. All samples (n=6) were freeze-dried and underwent polyphenol characterization using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenolic composition remained constant throughout all groups. This indicates that rooibos tea can be safely stored at the above conditions without compromising the phenolic viability of the tea typically used for research purposes.

Keywords: Aspalathus linearis, experimental studies, polyphenols, storage

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601 Methods for Business Process Simulation Based on Petri Nets

Authors: K. Shoylekova, K. Grigorova


The Petri nets are the first standard for business process modeling. Most probably, it is one of the core reasons why all new standards created afterwards have to be so reformed as to reach the stage of mapping the new standard onto Petri nets. The paper presents a Business process repository based on a universal database. The repository provides the possibility the data about a given process to be stored in three different ways. Business process repository is developed with regard to the reformation of a given model to a Petri net in order to be easily simulated two different techniques for business process simulation based on Petri nets - Yasper and Woflan are discussed. Their advantages and drawbacks are outlined. The way of simulating business process models, stored in the Business process repository is shown.

Keywords: business process repository, petri nets, simulation, Woflan, Yasper

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600 Exploring the Physicochemical and Quality Attributes of Potato Cultivars during Subsequent Storage

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad, Muhammad Nadeem


Potato (Solanum tuberosum) popularly known as ‘the king of vegetables’, has emerged as fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Potato contains carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants of potatoes especially vitamin C helps in reducing cancer, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure by binding free radicals. Physical characteristics and some major chemical properties of potato tubers at fresh and stored stages were investigated. Two varieties of potatoes, Sante (V1) having white colour and Lal moti (V2) with red colour were stored for 3 months and analysis were performed after each month interval. Physical and chemical attributes including weight loss, sprouting, specific gravity, pH, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugars) and vitamin C were analyzed before and after storage. Value of weight loss at zero day was null but it increased to 6.45% after 90 days on average in both cultivars and sprouting increased gradually at the end of 90 days. Moreover total sugars were 3.10% at zero day but increased to 9.30% after 90 days. Ascorbic acid was decreased during storage from 17.49(mg/100g) to 3.79. Both varieties of potato were stored at 60C and 120C temperatures with 85% relative humidity in order to prolong their acceptability in the market. The storage conditions influence the potatoes quality and consequently their acceptability to consumer. The data was analyzed statistically and clarifies that total sugars, weight loss, sprouting and specific gravity increase during the storage period while ascorbic acid (Vit-C) and pH decreased. Among both varieties that were stored at 60C and 120C, Sante (V1) was better than Lal moti (V2) due to less physicochemical and quality changes at 60C as compared to store at 120C.

Keywords: physicochemical, potato, quality attributes, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
599 Effects of Packaging Method, Storage Temperature and Storage Time on the Quality Properties of Cold-Dried Beef Slices

Authors: Elif Aykın Dinçer, Mustafa Erbaş


The effects of packaging method (modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and aerobic packaging (AP)), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of cold-dried beef slices were investigated. Beef slices were dried at 10°C and 3 m/s after pasteurization with hot steam and then packaged in order to determine the effect of different storage conditions. As the storage temperature and time increased, it was determined that the amount of CO2 decreased in the MAP packed samples and that the amount of O2 decreased while the amount of CO2 increased in the AP packed samples. The water activity value of stored beef slices decreased from 0.91 to 0.88 during 90 days of storage. The pH, TBARS and NPN-M values of stored beef slices were higher in the AP packed samples and pH value increased from 5.68 to 5.93, TBARS increased from 25.25 to 60.11 μmol MDA/kg and NPN-M value increased from 4.37 to 6.66 g/100g during the 90 days of storage. It was determined that the microbiological quality of MAP packed samples was higher and the mean counts of TAMB, TPB, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, LAB and yeast-mold were 4.10, 3.28, 3.46, 2.99 and 3.14 log cfu/g, respectively. As a result of sensory evaluation, it was found that the quality of samples packed MAP and stored at low temperature was higher and the shelf life of samples was 90 days at 4°C and 75 days at 25°C for MAP treatment, and 60 days at 4°C and 45 days at 25°C for AP treatment.

Keywords: cold drying, dried meat, packaging, storage

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598 Storage Durations Affect the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Physalis Minima L.

Authors: Norhanizan U., S. H. Ahmad, N. A. P. Abdullah, G. B. Saleh


Physalis minima from the family of Solanaceae is one of the promising fruits which contains the high amount of vitamin C and other antioxidants as well. However, it is a perishable fruit where the deterioration process will commence if the fruits are not stored in proper conditions. There is not much work has been carried out to study the effects of storage durations on Physalis fruit. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of 0, 3, 6, and 9 days of storage on postharvest quality of Physalis minima fruits. Total of 120g of uniform sizes of fruits (2.3 to 2.5g) were used for each replication and the experiment was repeated thrice. The fruits were divided equally into four groups with each group labeled according to the days of storage. The fruits were then stored in the cool room for nine days with temperature maintain at 12 ° C. The fruits were analyzed for weight loss, firmness, color (L*, C* and hue angle), titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids concentrations (SSC), pH and ascorbic acids. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and means was separated using least significant difference (LSD). The storage durations affect the quality characteristics of the fruits. On the day 9, the average of fruit weight loss and fruit firmness decreased about 21 and 24% respectively. The level of ascorbic acids and titrable acidity were also decreased while the soluble solids concentration increased during storage. Thus, in order to retain the quality of the fruits, it is recommended that the Physalis fruit can be stored only up to 6 days at 12 ° C.

Keywords: fruit quality, Physalis minima, Solanaceae, storage durations

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597 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
596 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo


The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
595 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney


Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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594 Dual-Network Memory Model for Temporal Sequences

Authors: Motonobu Hattori


In neural networks, when new patters are learned by a network, they radically interfere with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting. We have already proposed a biologically inspired dual-network memory model which can much reduce this forgetting for static patterns. In this model, information is first stored in the hippocampal network, and thereafter, it is transferred to the neocortical network using pseudo patterns. Because, temporal sequence learning is more important than static pattern learning in the real world, in this study, we improve our conventional dual-network memory model so that it can deal with temporal sequences without catastrophic forgetting. The computer simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed dual-network memory model.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, dual-network, temporal sequences, hippocampal

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
593 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney


Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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592 Comparative Evaluation of Different Extenders and Sperm Protectors to Keep the Spermatozoa Viable for More than 24 Hours

Authors: A. M. Raseona, D. M. Barry, T. L. Nedambale


Preservation of semen is an important process to ensure that semen quality is sufficient for assisted reproductive technology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different extenders to preserve Nguni bull semen stored at controlled room temperature 24 °C for three days, as an alternative to frozen-thawed semen straws used for artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected from two Nguni bulls using an electro-ejaculator and transported to the laboratory for evaluation. Pooled semen was aliquot into three extenders Triladyl, Ham’s F10 and M199 at a dilution ratio of 1:4 then stored at controlled room temperature 24 °C. Sperm motility was analysed after 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphology and viability were analysed after 72 hours. The study was replicated four times and data was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Triladyl showed higher viability percentage and consistent total motility for three days. Ham’s F10 showed higher progressive motility compared to the other extenders. There was no significant difference in viability between Ham’s F10 and M199. No significant difference was also observed in total abnormality between the two Nguni bulls. In conclusion, Nguni semen can be preserved in Triladyl or Ham’s F10 and M199 culture media stored at 24 °C and stay alive for three days. Triladyl proved to be the best extender showing high viability and consistency in total motility as compared to Ham’s F10 and M199.

Keywords: bull semen, artificial insemination, Triladyl, Ham’s F10, M199, viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
591 Kinetic Modeling of Colour and Textural Properties of Stored Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish

Authors: Pramod K. Prabhakar, Prem P. Srivastav


Rohu (Labeo rohita) is an Indian major carp and highly relished freshwater food for its unique flavor, texture, and culinary properties. It is highly perishable and, spoilage occurs as a result of series of complicated biochemical changes brought about by enzymes which are the function of time and storage temperature also. The influence of storage temperature (5, 0, and -5 °C) on colour and texture of fish were studied during 14 days storage period in order to analyze kinetics of colour and textural changes. The rate of total colour change was most noticeable at the highest storage temperature (5°C), and these changes were well described by the first order reaction. Texture is an important variable of quality of the fish and is increasing concern to aquaculture industries. Textural parameters such as hardness, toughness and stiffness were evaluated on a texture analyzer for the different day of stored fish. The significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in hardness was observed after 2nd, 4th and 8th day for the fish stored at 5, 0, and -5 °C respectively. The textural changes of fish during storage followed a first order kinetic model and fitted well with this model (R2 > 0.95). However, the textural data with respect to time was also fitted to modified Maxwell model and found to be good fit with R2 value ranges from 0.96 to 0.98. Temperature dependence of colour and texture change was adequately modelled with the Arrhenius type equation. This fitted model may be used for the determination of shelf life of Rohu Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish.

Keywords: first order kinetics, biochemical changes, Maxwell model, colour, texture, Arrhenius type equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
590 Effects of Eggs Storage Period and Layer Hen Age on Eggs Hatchability and Weight of Broilers of Breed Ross

Authors: Alipanah Masoud, Sheihkei Iman


One day old chicken quality has great deal of contributions in increasing daily weight gain as well as economical productivity of broilers production. On the other hand, eggs are kept in different times in layer hens flocks and subsequently are transported to incubation units. In order to evaluate effects of two factors layer hen age and storage period of eggs on one day old broilers weight gain during feeding, eggs for layer hen gathered on 32 weeks old (young hen) and 74 weeks old (older ones) were used. Storage period for samples was set as 1 and 9 days. Data were analysed in completely randomized design in four replicates by software SAS. Results indicated that one day old broiler chickens from young had less weight gain, although they exhibited higher weight gain during next weeks. At the same time, there was no difference between chickens from eggs stored for nine days and those from stored for one day.

Keywords: egg, chicken, hatchability, layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
589 An Efficient Traceability Mechanism in the Audited Cloud Data Storage

Authors: Ramya P, Lino Abraham Varghese, S. Bose


By cloud storage services, the data can be stored in the cloud, and can be shared across multiple users. Due to the unexpected hardware/software failures and human errors, which make the data stored in the cloud be lost or corrupted easily it affected the integrity of data in cloud. Some mechanisms have been designed to allow both data owners and public verifiers to efficiently audit cloud data integrity without retrieving the entire data from the cloud server. But public auditing on the integrity of shared data with the existing mechanisms will unavoidably reveal confidential information such as identity of the person, to public verifiers. Here a privacy-preserving mechanism is proposed to support public auditing on shared data stored in the cloud. It uses group signatures to compute verification metadata needed to audit the correctness of shared data. The identity of the signer on each block in shared data is kept confidential from public verifiers, who are easily verifying shared data integrity without retrieving the entire file. But on demand, the signer of the each block is reveal to the owner alone. Group private key is generated once by the owner in the static group, where as in the dynamic group, the group private key is change when the users revoke from the group. When the users leave from the group the already signed blocks are resigned by cloud service provider instead of owner is efficiently handled by efficient proxy re-signature scheme.

Keywords: data integrity, dynamic group, group signature, public auditing

Procedia PDF Downloads 322