Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 514

Search results for: rice straw

514 Small Scale Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straw

Authors: V. H. Nguyen, A. Castalone, C. Jamieson, M. Gummert


Rice straw is an abundant biomass resource in Asian countries that can be used for bioenergy. In continuously flooded rice fields, it can be removed without reducing the levels of soil organic matter. One suitable bioenergy technology is anaerobic digestion (AD), but it needs to be further verified using rice straw as a feedstock. For this study, a batch AD system was developed using rice straw and cow dung. It is low cost, farm scale, with the batch capacity ranging from 5 kg to 200 kg of straw mixed with 10% of cow dung. The net energy balance obtained was from 3000 to 4000 MJ per ton of straw input at 15-18% moisture content. Net output energy obtained from biogas and digestate ranged from 4000 to 5000 MJ per ton of straw. This indicates AD as a potential solution for converting rice straw from a waste to a clean fuel, reducing the environmental footprint caused by current disposal practices.

Keywords: rice straw, anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy

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513 Feasibility Study of Potential and Economic of Rice Straw VSPP Power Plant in Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Chirapan Nuengchaknin


The potential feasibility of a 9.5 MWe capacity rice straw power plant project in Thailand was studied by evaluating the rice straw resource. The result showed that Thailand had a high rice straw biomass potential at the provincial level, especially, the provinces in the central, northeastern and western Thailand, which could feasibly develop plants. The economic feasibility of project was also investigated. The financial feasibility is also evaluated based on two important factors in the project, i.e., NPV ≥ 0 and IRR ≥ 11%. It was found that the rice straw power plant project at 9.5 MWe was financially feasible with the cost of fuel in the range of 30.6-47.7 USD/t.

Keywords: power plant, project feasibility, rice straw, Thailand

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512 The Changes of Chemical Composition of Rice Straw Treated by a Biodecomposer Developed from Rumen Bacterial of Buffalo

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa


In tropical countries such as in Indonesia, rice straw plays an important role in fulfilling the needs of feed for ruminant, especially during the dry season in which the availability of forage is very limited. However, the main problem of using rice straw as a feedstuff is low digestibility due to the existence of the links between lignin and cellulose or hemicellulose, and imbalance of its minerals content. One alternative to solve this problem is by application of biodecomposer (BS) derived from rumen bacterial of the ruminant. This study was designed to assess the effects of BS application on the changes of the chemical composition of rice straw. Four adults local buffalo raised under typical feeding conditions were used as a source of inoculum for BS development. The animal was fed for a month with a diet consisted of rice straw and elephant grass before taking rumen fluid samples. Samples of rumen fluid were inoculated in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) media under anaerobic condition for 48 hours at 37°C. The mixture of CMC media and microbes are ready to be used as a biodecomposer following incubation of the mixture under anaerobic condition for 7 days at 45°C. The effectiveness of BS then assessed by applying the BS on the straw according to completely randomized design consisted of four treatments and three replication. One hundred g of ground coarse rice straw was used as the substrate. The BS was applied to the rice straw substrate with the following composition: Rice straw without BS (P0), rice straw + 5% BS (P1), rice straw +10% BS (P2), and rice straw + 15% BS. The mixture of rice straw and BS then fermented under anaerobic for four weeks. Following the fermentation, the chemical composition of rice straw was evaluated. The results indicated that the crude protein content of rice straw significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. On the other hand, the concentration of crude fiber of the rice straw was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. Other nutrients such as minerals did not change (P > 0.05) due to the treatments. In conclusion, application of BS developed from rumen bacterial of buffalo has a promising prospect to be used as a biological agent to improve the quality of rice straw as feeding for ruminant.

Keywords: biodecomposer, local buffalo, rumen microbial, chemical composition

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511 Financial Analysis of Feasibility for a Heat Utilization System Using Rice Straw Pellets: Heating Energy Demand and the Collection and Storage Method in Nanporo, Japan

Authors: K.Ishii, T. Furuichi, A. Fujiyama, S. Hariya


Rice straw pellets are a promising fuel as a renewable energy source. Financial analysis is needed to make a utilization system using rise straw pellets financially feasible, considering all regional conditions including stakeholders related to the collection and storage, production, transportation and heat utilization. We conducted the financial analysis of feasibility for a heat utilization system using rice straw pellets which has been developed for the first time in Nanporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Especially, we attempted to clarify the effect of factors required for the system to be financial feasibility, such as the heating energy demand and collection and storage method of rice straw. The financial feasibility was found to improve when increasing the heating energy demand and collecting wheat straw in August separately from collection of rice straw in November because the costs of storing rice straw and producing pellets were reduced. However, the system remained financially unfeasible. This study proposed a contractor program funded by a subsidy from Nanporo local government where a contracted company, instead of farmers, collects and transports rice straw in order to ensure the financial feasibility of the system, contributing to job creation in the region.

Keywords: rice straw, pellets, heating energy demand, collection, storage

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510 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad


Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

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509 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa


Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.

Keywords: charcoal, rice husk, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio, soil amendment

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508 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh


Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
507 The Effect of Amendment of Soil with Rice Husk Charcoal Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Leaching

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W. A. J. M. De Costa


Agriculture plays an important and strategic role in the performance of Sri Lankan national economy. Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. In Sri Lanka, out of the total rice production, a considerable amount of rice straw and rice husk goes wasted. Hence, there is a great potential of production of quality compost and rice husk charcoal. The concept of making rice straw compost and rice husk charcoal is practicable in Sri Lanka, where more than 40% of the farmers are engaged in rice cultivation. The application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer has become a burden to the country. Rice husk charcoal as a coating material to retain N fertilizer is a suitable solution to gradually release nitrogenous compounds. Objective of this study was to produce rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer with rice straw compost and to compare the leaching losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using leaching columns. Leaching column studies were prepared using 1.2 m tall PVC pipes with a diameter of 15 cm and a sampling port was attached to the bottom end of the column-cap. Leachates (100 ml/leaching column) were obtained from two sets of (each set has four leaching columns) leaching columns. The sampling was done once a week for 3 month period. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer which reduces leaching losses of urea. It also helps reduce the phosphate and potassium leaching. The cyclic effect of phosphate release is an important finding which could be the central issue in defining microbial behavior in soils. The fluctuations of phosphate may have cyclic effects of 28 days. In addition, rice straw compost and rice husk charcoal coating is less costly and contribute to mitigate pollution of water bodies by inorganic fertilizers.

Keywords: leaching, mitigate, rice husk charcoal, slow releasing fertilizer

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506 Feeding Value Improvement of Rice Straw Fermented by Spent Mushroom Substrate on Growth and Lactating Performance of Dairy Goat

Authors: G. J. Fan, T. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, T. F. Shiao, B. Yu, C. F. Lee


Rice straw with poor feed quality and spent mushroom substrate are both the most abundant agricultural residues in Taiwan. Edible mushrooms from white rot fungi possess lignocellulase activity. It was expected to improve the feeding value of rice straw for ruminant by solid-state fermentation pretreatment using spent mushroom substrate. Six varieties or subspecies of spent edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus (blue or white color), P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus, P. eryngii and Ganoderma lucidium) substrate were evaluated in solid-state fermentation process with rice straw for 8 wks. Quality improvement of fermented rice straw was determined by its in vitro digestibility, lignocellulose degradability, and cell wall breakdown checked by scanning electron microscope. Results turned out that Pleurotus ostreatus (white color) and P. sajor-caju had the better lignocellulose degradation effect than the others and was chosen for advance in vivo study. Rice straw fermented with spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate 8 wks was prepared for growing and lactating feeding trials of dairy goat, respectively. Pangolagrass hay at 15% diet dry matter was the control diet. Fermented or original rice straw was added to substitute pangolagrass hay in both feeding trials. A total of 30 head of Alpine castrated ram were assigned into three groups for 11 weeks, 5 pens (2 head/pen) each group. A total of 21 head of Saanen and Alpine goats were assigned into three treatments and individually fed in two repeat lactating trials with 28-d each. In castrated ram study, results showed that fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom substrate attributed the higher daily dry matter intakes (DMI, 1.53 vs. 1.20 kg) and body weight gain (138 vs. 101 g) than goats fed original rice straw. DMI (2.25 vs. 1.81 kg) and milk yield (3.31 vs. 3.02 kg) of lactating goats fed control pangolagrass diet and fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate were also higher than those fed original rice straw diet (P < 0.05). Milk compositions, milk fat, protein, total solid and lactose, were similar among treatments. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation by spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate could effectively improve the feeding value of rice straw. Fermented rice straw is a good alternative fiber feed resource for growing and lactating dairy goats and 15% in diet dry matter is recommended.

Keywords: feeding value, fermented rice straw, growing and lactating dairy goat, spent Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate

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505 Study of Current the Rice Straw Potential for a Small Power Plant Capacity in the Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Orrawan Rewthong, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Sarun Saensiriphan


The objective of this work was to study potential of rice straw for power plant in the central region of Thailand. Provincial power plant capacity was studied. The results showed that provinces central region had potential for small power plants with a capacity of over 10 MW in 13 provinces, 1-10 MW in 6 provinces and less than 1 MW in 3 provinces.

Keywords: rice straw, power plant, central region, Thailand

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504 The Development of Packaging to Create Additional Value for Organic Rice Products of Uttaradit Province, Thailand

Authors: Juntima Pokkrong


The objectives of the study were to develop packaging made from rice straws left after the harvest in order to create additional value for organic rice products of Uttaradit Province and to demonstrate the technology of producing straw packaging to the community. The population was promoters of organic rice distributors, governmental organizations, consumers, and three groups of organic rice producers which are the Agriculturist Group of Khorrum Sub-district, Pichai District, Uttaradit Province; the Agriculturist Group of Wangdin Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province; and the Agriculturist Group of Wangkapi Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province. The data were collected via group discussions, and two types of questionnaires. The data acquired were then analyzed using descriptive statistic for percentage, mean, standard deviation, and content analysis. It has been found that primary packaging for one kilogram of rice requires vacuumed plastic bags made from thermoplastic or resin because they are able to preserve the quality of rice for a long time, and they are also very cheap. For secondary packaging, the making of straw paper was studied and applied. Straw paper can be used for various purposes, and in this study, it was used to create the secondary packaging models in compliance with packaging preferences acquired from the questionnaires. The models were surveyed among the population for their opinion using satisfaction questionnaires, and the result was overall highly satisfactory.

Keywords: environmentally friendly, organic rice, packaging, straw paper

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503 Supplementation of Leucahena leucochepala on Rice Straw Ammoniated Complete Feed on Fiber Digestibility and in vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

Authors: Mardiati Zain, W. S. N. Rusmana, Erpomen, Malik Makmur, Ezi Masdia Putri


Background and Aim: The leaves of the Leucaenaleucocephala tree have potential as a nitrogen source for ruminants. Leucaena leaf meal as protein supplement has been shown to improve the feed quality of ruminants. The effects of different levels of Leucaena leucocephala supplementation as substitute of concentrate on fiber digestibility and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics were investigated. This research was conducted in vitro. The study used a randomized block design consisting of 3 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were A. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 60% concentrate, B. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 50% concentrate + 10% Leucaena leuchephala, C. 40% rice straw ammoniated + 40% concentrate + 20% Leucaena leuchephala, Result: The results showed that the addition of Leucaena leucocephala increased the digestibility of Neutral detergent Fiber NDF and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) (p < 0.05). In this study, rumen NH3, propionate, amount of escape protein and total Volatyl Fatty Acid (VFA) were found increased significantly at treatment B. No significant difference was observed in acetate and butyrate production. The populations of total protozoa and methane production had significantly decreased (P < .05) in supplemented group. Conclusion: Supplementation of leuchaena leucochepala on completed feed based on ammoniated rice straw in vitro can increase fiber digestibility, VFA production and decreased protozoa pupulataion and methane production. Supplementation of 10% and 20% L. leucochepala were suitable to be used for further studies, therefore in vivo experiment is required to study the effects on animal production.

Keywords: digestibility, Leucaena leucocephala, complete feed, rice straw ammoniated

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502 Environmentally Friendly KOH and NH4OH-KOH Pulping of Rice Straw

Authors: Omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi, Sara Khorshidi, Hossein Kermanian Seyed, Majid Zabihzadeh


The main problem that hinders the intensive use of non-wood raw materials in papermaking industry is the environmental pollution caused by black liquor. As a matter of fact, black liquor of nonwood pulping is discharged to the environment due to the lack of recovery. Traditionally, NaOH pulping produces Na-based black liquor that may increase soil erosion and reduce soil permeability. With substitution of KOH/NH4OH with NaOH as the cooking liquor, K and N can act as a soil fertilizer while offering an environmentally acceptable disposal alternative. For this purpose, rice straw samples were pulped under the following conditions; Constant factors were: straw weight: 100 gram (based on oven dry), liquor to straw ratio 7:1 and maximum temperature, 170 and 180 ºC. Variable factors for KOH cooks were: KOH dosage of 14, 17 and %20 on oven dry of straw and times at maximum temperature of 60 and 90 minutes. For KOH-NH4OH cooks, KOH dosage of 5 and %10 and NH4OH dosage of 25 and %35, both based as oven dry of straw were applied. Besides, time at maximum temperature was 90 minutes. Yield ranges of KOH and KOH-NH4OH pulp samples were obtained from 37.28 to 48.62 and 45.63 to 48.08 percent, respectively. In addition, Kappa number ranged from 21.91 to 29.85 and 55.15 to 56.25, respectively. In comparison with soda, soda-AQ, cold soda, kraft, EDA (dissolving), De-Ethylene Glycol (dissolving), burst and tensile index for KOH pulp was more in similar cooking condition. With an exception of soda pulps, tear index of the mentioned pulp is more than all compared treatments. Therefore, it can be resulted that KOH pulping method is an appropriate choice for making paper of the rice straw. Also, compared to KOH-NH4OH, KOH pulping method is more appropriate choice because of better pulping results.

Keywords: environmentally friendly process, rice straw, NH4OH-KOH pulping, pulp properties

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501 Removal of Heavy Metal Using Continous Mode

Authors: M. Abd elfattah, M. Ossman, Nahla A. Taha


The present work explored the use of Egyptian rice straw, an agricultural waste that leads to global warming problem through brown cloud, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon by physical and chemical activation. The results of this study showed that it is feasible to prepare activated carbons with relatively high surface areas and pore volumes from the Egyptian rice straw by direct chemical and physical activation. The produced activated carbon from the two methods (AC1 and AC2) could be used as potential adsorbent for the removal of Fe(III) from aqueous solution contains heavy metals and polluted water. The adsorption of Fe(III) was depended on the pH of the solution. The optimal Fe(III) removal efficiency occurs at pH 5. Based on the results, the optimum contact time is 60 minutes and adsorbent dosage is 3 g/L. The adsorption breakthrough curves obtained at different bed depths indicated increase of breakthrough time with increase in bed depths. A rise in inlet Fe(III) concentration reduces the throughput volume before the packed bed gets saturated. AC1 showed higher affinity for Fe(III) as compared to Raw rice husk.

Keywords: rice straw, activated carbon, Fe(III), fixed bed column, pyrolysis

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500 Performance of Growing Rahaji Bulls Fed Diets Containing Similar Concentrates and Different Crop Residues in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Husaini Sama


The study was conducted, in a 120 - day’s trial, to monitor the performance of growing Rahaji bulls fed different crop residues. There were four experimental treatments, each containing three (3) bull-calves. The first three (experimental) diets were prepared with rice straw, millet stalks and a combination of the two in equal proportions. These 3 diets were supplemented with concentrates. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 consisted of rice straw, millet stalk and combination of rice straw and millet stalk in equal ratio, respectively as basal feeds, while, Treatment 4 (containing standard diet of cow pea haulms, rice straw and wheat offal) served as control to compare with the other treatments. Data on feed intake and livability was collected on daily basis and that of live weight gain and feed conversion ratio were collected fortnightly, but data on apparent nutrient retention trial was collected towards the end of the experiment. Water was offered ad libitum. Records obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (1988) software package in accordance with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results obtained indicated that feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) for calves on treatments 3 and 4 compared to those on treatments 1and 2. The study observed that it was cheaper to formulate diets 2 and 3 than the other 2 diets. The control diet (T4) was observed to be relatively more expensive than the other 3 formulated diets. It was concluded from the findings that, concentrate containing combination of rice straw and cereal stalks was economical and satisfactory for feeding growing Rahaji bulls in this ecological zone (Semi-arid environment).

Keywords: rahaji bulls, crop residues, concentrates, semi-arid environment

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499 Enhancing the Engineering Properties of Clay by Using Mechanically Treated Rice Straw Fibers

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Meer H. Khan, Muhibullah Kakar


The studies on the mechanical behavior of randomly distributed short fiber soil composite are relatively new technique in geotechnical engineering. In this paper, mechanically treated rice straw (MTRS) fiber is used to improve the engineering properties of clay. Clay was mixed with 0 %, 0.5 %, 1 % and 2 % of MTRS fiber to analyze the effect of MTRS fiber on properties of soil. It was found that the plasticity index of soil decreases with increase in the MTRS fiber. Cohesion and angle of internal friction of soil were also found to increase with limiting increase in the amount of MTRS fiber and then decreases. The maximum dry density slightly decreases and the optimum moisture content slightly increases with increasing amount of MTRS fibers.

Keywords: cohesion, friction angle, optimum moisture content, rice straw fiber, short fiber

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498 Effect of Steam Explosion of Crop Residues on Chemical Compositions and Efficient Energy Values

Authors: Xin Wu, Yongfeng Zhao, Qingxiang Meng


In China, quite low proportion of crop residues were used as feedstuff because of its poor palatability and low digestibility. Steam explosion is a physical and chemical feed processing technology which has great potential to improve sapidity and digestibility of crop residues. To investigate the effect of the steam explosion on chemical compositions and efficient energy values, crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and maize stover) were processed by steam explosion (steam temperature 120-230°C, steam pressure 2-26kg/cm², 40min). Steam-exploded crop residues were regarded as treatment groups and untreated ones as control groups, nutritive compositions were analyzed and effective energy values were calculated by prediction model in INRA (1988, 2010) for both groups. Results indicated that the interaction between treatment and variety has a significant effect on chemical compositions of crop residues. Steam explosion treatment of crop residues decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) significantly (P < 0.01), and compared with untreated material, NDF content of rice straw, wheat straw, and maize stover lowered 21.46%, 32.11%, 28.34% respectively. Acid detergent lignin (ADL) of crop residues increased significantly after the steam explosion (P < 0.05). The content of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and Ash increased significantly after steam explosion (P < 0.05). Moreover, predicted effective energy values of each steam-exploded residue were higher than that of untreated ones. The digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for maintenance (NEm) and net energy for gain (NEg)of steam-exploded rice straw were 3.06, 2.48, 1.48and 0.29 MJ/kg respectively and increased 46.21%, 46.25%, 49.56% and 110.92% compared with untreated ones(P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the energy values of steam-exploded wheat straw were 2.18, 1.76, 1.03 and 0.15 MJ/kg, which were 261.78%, 261.29%, 274.59% and 1014.69% greater than that of wheat straw (P < 0.05). The above predicted energy values of steam exploded maize stover were 5.28, 4.30, 2.67 and 0.82 MJ/kg and raised 109.58%, 107.71%, 122.57% and 332.64% compared with the raw material(P < 0.05). In conclusion, steam explosion treatment could significantly decrease NDF content, increase ADL, CP, EE, Ash content and effective energy values of crop residues. The effect of steam explosion was much more obvious for wheat straw than the other two kinds of residues under the same condition.

Keywords: chemical compositions, crop residues, efficient energy values, steam explosion

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497 Analysis of a Lignocellulose Degrading Microbial Consortium to Enhance the Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straws

Authors: Supanun Kangrang, Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Kittiphong Rattanaporn, Malinee Sriariyanun


Rice straw is lignocellulosic biomass which can be utilized as substrate for the biogas production. However, due to the property and composition of rice straw, it is difficult to be degraded by hydrolysis enzymes. One of the pretreatment method that modifies such properties of lignocellulosic biomass is the application of lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microbial consortia to enhance biogas production. To select the high efficient consortium, cellulase enzymes were extracted and their activities were analyzed. The results suggested that microbial consortium culture obtained from cattle manure is the best candidate compared to decomposed wood and horse manure. A microbial consortium isolated from cattle manure was then mixed with anaerobic sludge and used as inoculum for biogas production. The optimal conditions for biogas production were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The tested parameters were the ratio of amount of microbial consortium isolated and amount of anaerobic sludge (MI:AS), substrate to inoculum ratio (S:I) and temperature. Here, the value of the regression coefficient R2 = 0.7661 could be explained by the model which is high to advocate the significance of the model. The highest cumulative biogas yield was 104.6 ml/g-rice straw at optimum ratio of MI:AS, ratio of S:I, and temperature of 2.5:1, 15:1 and 44°C respectively.

Keywords: lignocellulolytic biomass, microbial consortium, cellulase, biogas, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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496 Composite Panels from Under-Utilized Wood and Agricultural Fiber Resources

Authors: Salim Hiziroglu


Rice straw, jute, coconut fiber, oil palm, bagasse and bamboo are some of agricultural resources that can be used to produce different types of value-added composite panels including particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Invasive species such as Eastern red cedar in South Western states in the USA would also be considered as viable raw material to manufacture above products. The main objective of this study was to investigate both physical and mechanical properties of both structural and non-structural panels manufactured from underutilized and agricultural species. Eastern red cedar, bamboo and rice straw were used to manufacture experimental panels. Properties of such samples including bending, internal bond strength, thickness swelling, density profiles and surface roughness were evaluated. Panels made 100% bamboo had the best properties among the other samples. Having rice straw in particleboard and medium density fiberboard panels reduced overall properties of the samples. Manufacturing interior sandwich type of panels having fibers on the face layers while particle of the same type of materials in the core improved their surface quality. Based on the findings of this work such species could have potential to be used as raw material to manufacture value-added panels with accepted properties.

Keywords: composite panels, wood and non-wood fibers, mechanical properties, bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
495 Ratio Energy and Protein of Dietary Based on Rice Straw Ammoniated on Productivity of Male Simenthal Cattle

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Yetti Marlida, Elihasridas Elihasridas, Erpomen Erpomen, Andri Andri


Background: Livestock productivity is greatly influenced by the energy and protein balance in diet. This study aimed to determine the energy and protein balance of male Simenthal cattle diet with protein and energy levels. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) 2x3x3 factorial design. There are two factors namely A level of energy diet that is 65% and 70% TDN. Factor B is a protein level of diet used were 10, 12 and 14% and each treatment is repeated three times. The weight of Simenthal cattle used ranged between 240 - 300 kg. Diet consisted of ammoniated rice straw and concentrated with ratio 40:60. Concentrate consisted of palm kernel cake, rice brain, cassava, mineral, and urea. The variables measured were digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and fiber, dry matter intake, daily gain, feed efficiency and blood characteristic. Results: There was no interaction between protein and energy level of diet on the nutrients intake (DM intake, OM intake, CP intake), weight gain and efficiency (P < 0.01). There was an interaction between protein and energy level of diet on digestibility (DM, OM, CP and allantoin urine (P > 0.01) Nutrients intake decreases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet, while nutrient digestibility, Avarage daily gain and feed efficiency increases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet. Conclusions: The result can be concluded that the best treatment was A2B1 which is energy level 70% TDN and protein 10%, where are dry matter intake 7.66 kg/d, daily gain 1.25 kg/d, feed efficiency 16.12%, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility 64.08 and 69.42% respectively.

Keywords: energy and protein ratio, simenthal cattle, rice straw ammoniated, digestibility

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494 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Soil Properties of Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A Basnayake, W. A. J. M. de Costa


Rice is one of the world’s most important cereals. Increasing food production both to meet in-country requirements and to help overcome food crises is one of the major issues facing Sri Lanka today. However, productive land is limited and has mostly been utilized either for food crop production or other uses. Agriculture plays an important and strategic role in the performance of Sri Lankan national economy. A variety of modern agricultural inputs have been introduced, namely ploughs and harvesters, pesticides, fertilizers and lime. Besides, there are several agricultural institutions developing and updating the management of agricultural sector. Modern agricultural inputs cooperate as a catalyst in raising the productivity. However, in the eagerness of gaining profits from the efficient and productive techniques, this modern agricultural input has affected the environment and living things especially those which have been blended from various chemical substance. The increased pressure to maintain a high level of rice output for consumption has resulted in increased use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizer on rice fields in Sri Lanka. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burdened to the country in many ways. The excessive reuse of the ground water resources with a considerable application of organic and chemical fertilizers will lead to a deterioration of the quality and quantity of water. Biochar is a form of charcoal produced through the heating of natural organic materials. It has received significant attention recently for its potential as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer and as a means of storing carbon in a sustainable manner. It is the best solution for managing the agricultural wastes while providing a useful product for increasing agricultural productivity and protecting the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N, P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production.

Keywords: biochar, paddy husk, soil conditioner, rice straw compost

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493 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy


In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

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492 Orange Leaves and Rice Straw on Methane Emission and Milk Production in Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goat Diet

Authors: Tamara Romero, Manuel Romero-Huelva, Jose V. Segarra, Jose Castro, Carlos Fernandez


Many foods resulting from processing and manufacturing end up as waste, most of which is burned, dumped into landfills or used as compost, which leads to wasted resources, and environmental problems due to unsuitable disposal. Using residues of the crop and food processing industries to feed livestock has the advantage to obviating the need for costly waste management programs. The main residue generated in citrus cultivations and rice crop are pruning waste and rice straw, respectively. Within Spain, the Valencian Community is one of the world's oldest citrus and rice production areas. The objective of this experiment found out the effects of including orange leaves and rice straw as ingredients in the concentrate diets of goats, on milk production and methane (CH₄) emissions. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (45 kg of body weight, on average) in mid-lactation were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. Both groups were fed with 1.7 kg pelleted mixed ration; one group (n= 5) was a control (C) and the other group (n= 5) used orange leaves and rice straw (OR). The forage was alfalfa hay, and it was the same for the two groups (1 kg of alfalfa was offered by goat and day). The diets employed to achieve the requirements during lactation period for caprine livestock. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 days of adaptation, feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5 days period. Physico-chemical parameters and somatic cell count in milk samples were determined. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by an open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. The data were analyzed by mixed model with diet and digestibility as fixed effect and goat as random effect. No differences were found for dry matter intake (2.23 kg/d, on average). Higher milk yield was found for C diet than OR (2.3 vs. 2.1 kg/goat and day, respectively) and, greater milk fat content was observed for OR than C (6.5 vs. 5.5%, respectively). The cheese extract was also greater in OR than C (10.7 vs. 9.6%). Goats fed OR diet produced significantly fewer CH₄ emissions than C diet (27 vs. 30 g/d, respectively). These preliminary results (LIFE Project LOWCARBON FEED LIFE/CCM/ES/000088) suggested that the use of these waste by-products was effective in reducing CH₄ emission without detrimental effect on milk yield.

Keywords: agricultural waste, goat, milk production, methane emission

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491 Optimal Wheat Straw to Bioethanol Supply Chain Models

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul Razik, Ali Elkamel, Leonardo Simon


Wheat straw is one of the alternative feedstocks that may be utilized for bioethanol production especially when sustainability criteria are the major concerns. To increase market competitiveness, optimal supply chain plays an important role since wheat straw is a seasonal agricultural residue. In designing the supply chain optimization model, economic profitability of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes options were considered. It was found that torrefied pelletization with gasification route to be the most profitable option to produce bioethanol from the lignocellulosic source of wheat straw.

Keywords: bio-ethanol, optimization, supply chain, wheat straw

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490 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa


This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: capacitor copper plates, electric field distribution, dielectric heating, grains

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489 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn


Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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488 Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Authors: W. Srinuttrakul, V. Permnamtip


Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, ICP-MS, lead, rice

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487 Cadmium Contamination in Rice Cultivation in the City of Savadkooh in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Banitahmasb, Nazanin Khakipour


Potential contamination of rice by heavy metals such as Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, Nickel, Lead and Magnesium in soil, water and pesticides affect the quality and nutritional properties of rice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of rice cultivated in the city of Savadkooh to Cadmium and its comparison with international standards. With the study on different areas of Savadkooh(a city in Mazanaran Province) 7 samples of rice with the soil in which they were grown was taken for sampling. According to the results of all rice grown in Savadkooh city there are some Cadmium but the amount measured is less than specified in the national standard, and is safe for consumers to use.

Keywords: cadmium, heavy metals, rice, Savadkooh

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486 Improvement of Monacolin K. and Decreasing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Emon Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote


A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepared red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625, and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: red yeast rice, Thai glutinous rice, monacolin K., citrinin

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485 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak


Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

Procedia PDF Downloads 238