Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3899

Search results for: genetic disease

3899 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

Abstract:

A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3898 Application of ATP7B Gene Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Diagnosis of Wilson’s Disease

Authors: Huong M. T. Nguyen, Hoa A. P. Nguyen, Chi V. Phan, Mai P. T. Nguyen, Ngoc D. Ngo, Van T. Ta, Hai T. Le

Abstract:

Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, which is caused by mutation in copper- transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). The mechanism of this disease is a failure of hepatic excretion of copper to the bile, and it leads to copper deposits in the liver and other organs. Most clinical symptoms of Wilson’s disease can present as liver disease and/or neurologic disease. Objective: The goal of the study is prenatal diagnosis for pregnant women at high risk of Wilson’s disease in Northern Vietnam. Material and method: Three probands with clinically diagnosed liver disease were detected in the mutations of 21 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene by direct Sanger-sequencing. Prenatal diagnoses were performed by amniotic fluid sampling from pregnant women in the 16th-18th weeks of pregnancy after the genotypes of parents with the probands were identified. Result: A total of three different mutations of the probands, including of S105*, P1052L, P1273G, were detected. Among three fetuses which underwent prenatal genetic testing, one fetus was homozygote; two fetuses were carriers. Conclusion: Genetic testing provided a useful method for prenatal diagnosis, and is a basis for genetic counseling.

Keywords: ATP7B gene, genetic testing, prenatal diagnosis, pedigree, Wilson disease

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3897 Juvenile Paget’s Disease(JPD) of Bone

Authors: Aftab Ahmed, Ghulam Mehboob

Abstract:

The object of presentation is to highlight the importance of condition which is a very rare genetic disorder although Paget’s disease is common but its juvenile type is very rare and a late presentation due to very slow onset and lack of earlier standard management. We present a case of 25 years old male with a chronic history of bone pain and a slow onset of mild swelling, later on diagnosed as juvenile Paget disease of bone. Rarity of this condition with inaccessibility for standard health treatment can lead to a significant delay in presentation and its management. There have been 50 reported cases worldwide according to Genetic Home Reference. There is increased osteoclastic activity along with osteoblastic activity related to gene alteration and osteoprotegrin deficiency. Morbidity of disease is very significant which lead children to become immobilize.

Keywords: juvenile, Paget’s disease, bone, Northern Area of Pakistan

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3896 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Andi Darmawan, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: AE model, Bayesian method, diabetes mellitus type 2, genetic, life style

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3895 Study of the Influence of Non Genetic Factors Affecting over Nutrition Students in Ayutthaya Province, Thailand

Authors: Thananyada Buapian

Abstract:

Overnutrition is emerging as a morbid disease in developing and Westernized countries. Because of its comorbidity diseases, it is cost-effective to prevent and manage this disease earlier. In Thailand, this alarming disease has long been studied, but the prevalence is still higher than that in the past. Physicians should recognize it well and have a definite direction to face and combat this dangerous disease. Rapid changes in the tremendous figure of overnutrition students indicate that genetic factors are not the primary determinants since human genes have remained unchanged for a century. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overnutrition students and to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting over nutrition students. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted. A two-stage sampling was adopted. Respondents included 1,850 students in grades 4 to 6 in Ayutthaya Province. An anthropometric measurement and questionnaire were developed. Childhood over nutrition was defined as a weight-for-height Z-score above +2SD of NCHS/WHO references. About thirty three percent of the children were over nutrition in Ayutthaya province. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 8 statistically significant non genetic factors explain the variation of childhood over nutrition by 18 percent. Sex is the prime factor to explain the variation of childhood over nutrition, followed by duration of light physical activities, duration of moderate physical activities, having been breastfed, the presence of a healthy role model of the caregiver, number of siblings, birth order, and occupation of the caregiver, respectively. Non genetic factors, especially the subjects’ demographic and physical activities, as well as the caregivers’ background and family environment, should be considered in viable approach to remedy this health imbalance in children.

Keywords: non genetic factors, non-genetic, over nutrition, over nutrition students

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3894 The Use of Medical Biotechnology to Treat Genetic Disease

Authors: Rachel Matar, Maxime Merheb

Abstract:

Chemical drugs have been used for many centuries as the only way to cure diseases until the novel gene therapy has been created in 1960. Gene therapy is based on the insertion, correction, or inactivation of genes to treat people with genetic illness (1). Gene therapy has made wonders in Parkison’s, Alzheimer and multiple sclerosis. In addition to great promises in the healing of deadly diseases like many types of cancer and autoimmune diseases (2). This method implies the use of recombinant DNA technology with the help of different viral and non-viral vectors (3). It is nowadays used in somatic cells as well as embryos and gametes. Beside all the benefits of gene therapy, this technique is deemed by some opponents as an ethically unacceptable treatment as it implies playing with the genes of living organisms.

Keywords: gene therapy, genetic disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis

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3893 Institutional Capacity of Health Care Institutes for Diagnosis and Management of Common Genetic Diseases-a Study from a North Coastal District of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Koteswara Rao Pagolu, Raghava Rao Tamanam

Abstract:

In India, genetic disease is a disregarded service element in the community health- protection system. This study aims to gauge the accessibility of services for treating genetic disorders and also to evaluate the practices on deterrence and management services in the district health system. A cross-sectional survey of selected health amenities in the government health sector was conducted from 15 primary health centers (PHC’s), 4 community health centers (CHC’s), 1 district government hospital (DGH) and 3 referral hospitals (RH’s). From these, the existing manpower like 130 medical officers (MO’s), 254 supporting staff, 409 nursing staff (NS) and 45 lab technicians (LT’s) was examined. From the side of private health institutions, 25 corporate hospitals (CH’s), 3 medical colleges (MC’s) and 25 diagnostic laboratories (DL’s) were selected for the survey and from these, 316 MO’s, 995 NS and 254 LT’s were also reviewed. The findings show that adequate staff was in place at more than 70% of health centers, but none of the staff have obtained any operative training on genetic disease management. The largest part of the DH’s had rudimentary infrastructural and diagnostic facilities. However, the greater part of the CHC’s and PHC’s had inadequate diagnostic facilities related to genetic disease management. Biochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic services were not available at PHC’s and CHC’s. DH’s, RH’s, and all selected medical colleges were found to have offered the basic Biochemical genetics units during the survey. The district health care infrastructure in India has a shortage of basic services to be provided for the genetic disorder. With some policy resolutions and facility strengthening, it is possible to provide advanced services for a genetic disorder in the district health system.

Keywords: district health system, genetic disorder, infrastructural amenities, management practices

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3892 CMT4G: Rare Form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Slovak Roma Patient

Authors: Dana Gabriková, Martin Mistrík, Jarmila Bernasovská, Iveta Tóthová, Jana Kisková

Abstract:

The Roma (Gypsies) is a transnational minority with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. Similar to other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbor a number of unique or rare genetic disorders. This paper discusses about a rare form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease – type 4G (CMT4G), also called Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy type Russe, an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation private to Roma characterized by abnormally increased density of non-myelinated axons. CMT4G was originally found in Bulgarian Roma and in 2009 two putative causative mutations in the HK1 gene were identified. Since then, several cases were reported in Roma families mainly from Bulgaria and Spain. Here we present a Slovak Roma family in which CMT4G was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and genetic testing. This case is a further proof of the role of the HK1 gene in pathogenesis of the disease. It confirms that mutation in the HK1 gene is a common cause of autosomal recessive CMT disease in Roma and should be considered as a common part of a diagnostic procedure.

Keywords: gypsies, HK1, HSMN-Russe, rare disease

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3891 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

Abstract:

This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: context-free grammar, genetic algorithms, genetic programming, grammatical evolution

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3890 A Versatile Algorithm to Propose Optimized Solutions to the Dengue Disease Problem

Authors: Fernando L. P. Santos, Luiz G. Lyra, Helenice O. Florentino, Daniela R. Cantane

Abstract:

Dengue is a febrile infectious disease caused by a virus of the family Flaviridae. It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, usually of the genus Aedes aegypti. It occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This disease has been a major public health problem worldwide, especially in tropical countries such as Brazil, and its incidence has increased in recent years. Dengue is a subject of intense research. Efficient forms of mosquito control must be considered. In this work, the mono-objective optimal control problem was solved for analysing the dengue disease problem. Chemical and biological controls were considered in the mathematical aspect. This model describes the dynamics of mosquitoes in water and winged phases. We applied the genetic algorithms (GA) to obtain optimal strategies for the control of dengue. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the versatility and the applicability of this algorithm. On the basis of the present results we may recommend the GA to solve optimal control problem with a large region of feasibility.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dengue, Aedes aegypti, biological control, chemical control

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3889 Association Analysis of Putative Loci with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Asma Naseer Cheema, Attya Bhatti, Jabar Ali, John Peter

Abstract:

Background: High cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, inefficient coagulation cascade and hyper inflammatory response all are the basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies are carried out to see the genetic influence of these factors on disease outcome. Objective: The objective of our study was to see the association of 10 putative loci with coronary artery disease in our population. Materials & Methods: We screened our population for 10 putative loci of CAD showing significant association (p < 5x10-8) with candidate genes (regulating the cholesterol metabolism, endothelial function, coagulation cascade and inflammatory response of body). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium in cases and controls s were estimated separately. Approximately 5-10 ng of dried DNA in 384 well plate format was used to genotype each sample on the Sequenom iPLEX assay at University of Pittsburgh Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratories. It was built on single-base primer extension with the MALDI-TOF MS detection possessing high sensitivity and specificity. The SNPs were genotyped through Taqman assay. Hardy Weinberg test was applied. The 10 SNPs were selected as genetic markers for this study (rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650). Results: Mean age of the patient was 52 ± 11 years. Blood pressure and positive family history was found a significant risk factor for CAD. None of the selected SNPs showed significant association with coronary artery disease in our population (p>0.05). Conclusion: rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650 are not significant genetic markers for CAD in our population.

Keywords: CAD, genetic markers, loci, risk factors

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3888 Immunological and Genetic Studies of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Alaa Jawad Hassan, Saad Marza Al-Aaraji, Fadil Abbas Hamad

Abstract:

The current study was designed to assess some immunological parameters and pedigree analysis for atopic dermatitis patients, as the study included 64 patients (37 males and 27 females) and 24 healthy individuals (12 males and 12 females) with no history of the AD. The cases of this study were divided into two age groups; the first is infant and children (1-10 years), while the second is adolescent and adults (11- 60 years). The number of cases was 51 and 13 in each age group respectively. Sera samples from confirmed AD patients and healthy control were analysed by mean of ELISA for assessment the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 and IgE. The study showed that a significant increase (P < 0.05) in IL-1β, IL-4 and IgE levels in the patients compared with the control group in both age groups and gender, while there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the concentration of IL-2. The study of pedigree analysis shows the genetic tendency in the frequency of disease depending on the genetic history of family, where more patients returning to families in which both parents or one of them infected with AD, whereas the patients were no parents infected with AD they are suffering from asthma and the disease recurs in their uncles.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, cytokines, IgE, molecular biology

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3887 High-Risk Gene Variant Profiling Models Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Vulnerability

Authors: Jianhua Zhang, Weiping Chen, Guanjie Chen, Jason Flannick, Emma Fikse, Glenda Smerin, Yanqin Yang, Yulong Li, John A. Hanover, William F. Simonds

Abstract:

Ethnic disparities in many diseases are well recognized and reflect the consequences of genetic, behavior, and environmental factors. However, direct scientific evidence connecting the ethnic genetic variations and the disease disparities has been elusive, which may have led to the ethnic inequalities in large scale genetic studies. Through the genome-wide analysis of data representing 185,934 subjects, including 14,955 from our own studies of the African America Diabetes Mellitus, we discovered sets of genetic variants either unique to or conserved in all ethnicities. We further developed a quantitative gene function-based high-risk variant index (hrVI) of 20,428 genes to establish profiles that strongly correlate with the subjects' self-identified ethnicities. With respect to the ability to detect human essential and pathogenic genes, the hrVI analysis method is both comparable with and complementary to the well-known genetic analysis methods, pLI and VIRlof. Application of the ethnicity-specific hrVI analysis to the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) national repository, containing 20,791 cases and 24,440 controls, identified 114 candidate T2DM-associated genes, 8.8-fold greater than that of ethnicity-blind analysis. All the genes identified are defined as either pathogenic or likely-pathogenic in ClinVar database, with 33.3% diabetes-associated and 54.4% obesity-associated genes. These results demonstrate the utility of hrVI analysis and provide the first genetic evidence by clustering patterns of how genetic variations among ethnicities may impede the discovery of diabetes and foreseeably other disease-associated genes.

Keywords: diabetes-associated genes, ethnic health disparities, high-risk variant index, hrVI, T2DM

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3886 MICA-TM Peptide Selectively Binds to HLAs Associated with Behçet's Disease

Authors: Sirilak Kongkaew, Pathumwadee Yodmanee, Nopporn Kaiyawet, Arthitaya Meeprasert, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Toshikatsu Kaburaki, Hiroshi Noguchi, Fujio Takeuch, Nawee Kungwan, Supot Hannongbua

Abstract:

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a genetic autoimmune expressed by multisystemic inflammatory disorder mostly occurred at the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and genitalia, including ocular, oral, genital, and central nervous systems. Most BD patients in Japan and Korea were strongly indicated by the genetic factor namely HLA-B*51 (especially, HLA-B*51:01) marker in HMC class I, while HLA-A*26:01 allele has been detected from the BD patients in Greek, Japan, and Taiwan. To understand the selective binding of the MICA-TM peptide towards the HLAs associated with BD, the molecular dynamics simulations were applied on the four HLA alleles (B*51:01, B*35:01, A*26:01, and A*11:01) in complex with such peptide. As a result, the key residues in the binding groove of HLA protein which play an important role in the MICA-TM peptide binding and stabilization were revealed. The Van der Waals force was found to be the main protein-protein interaction. Based on the binding free energy prediction by MM/PBSA method, the MICA-TM peptide interacted stronger to the HLA alleles associated to BD in the identical class by 7-12 kcal/mol. The obtained results from the present study could help to differentiate the HLA alleles and explain a source of Behçet’s disease.

Keywords: Behçet’s disease, MD simulations, HMC class I, autoimmune

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3885 Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources

Authors: Asma Afshari, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar, Mehrnaz Rad

Abstract:

Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.

Keywords: C. perfringens, genetic diversity, RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR

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3884 Features Reduction Using Bat Algorithm for Identification and Recognition of Parkinson Disease

Authors: P. Shrivastava, A. Shukla, K. Verma, S. Rungta

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurological disorder that directly affects human gait. It leads to slowness of movement, causes muscle rigidity and tremors. Gait serve as a primary outcome measure for studies aiming at early recognition of disease. Using gait techniques, this paper implements efficient binary bat algorithm for an early detection of Parkinson's disease by selecting optimal features required for classification of affected patients from others. The data of 166 people, both fit and affected is collected and optimal feature selection is done using PSO and Bat algorithm. The reduced dataset is then classified using neural network. The experiments indicate that binary bat algorithm outperforms traditional PSO and genetic algorithm and gives a fairly good recognition rate even with the reduced dataset.

Keywords: parkinson, gait, feature selection, bat algorithm

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3883 Genetic Testing And Research In South Africa: The Sharing Of Data Across Borders

Authors: Amy Gooden, Meshandren Naidoo

Abstract:

Genetic research is not confined to a particular jurisdiction. Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) as an example, this research assesses the status of data sharing into and out of South Africa (SA). While SA laws cover the sending of genetic data out of SA, prohibiting such transfer unless a legal ground exists, the position where genetic data comes into the country depends on the laws of the country from where it is sent – making the legal position less clear.

Keywords: cross-border, data, genetic testing, law, regulation, research, sharing, South Africa

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3882 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

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3881 Genetics, Law and Society: Regulating New Genetic Technologies

Authors: Aisling De Paor

Abstract:

Scientific and technological developments are driving genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientists are making genetic discoveries as to the make up of the human body and the cause and effect of disease, diversity and disability amongst individuals. Technological innovation in the field of genetics is also advancing, with the development of genetic testing, and other emerging genetic technologies, including gene editing (which offers the potential for genetic modification). In addition to the benefits for medicine, health care and humanity, these genetic advances raise a range of ethical, legal and societal concerns. From an ethical perspective, such advances may, for example, change the concept of humans and what it means to be human. Science may take over in conceptualising human beings, which may push the boundaries of existing human rights. New genetic technologies, particularly gene editing techniques create the potential to stigmatise disability, by highlighting disability or genetic difference as something that should be eliminated or anticipated. From a disability perspective, use (and misuse) of genetic technologies raise concerns about discrimination and violations to the dignity and integrity of the individual. With an acknowledgement of the likely future orientation of genetic science, and in consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this paper highlights the main concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances (particularly with gene editing developments), and the consequences for disability and human rights. Through the use of traditional doctrinal legal methodologies, it investigates the use (and potential misuse) of gene editing as creating the potential for a unique form of discrimination and stigmatization to develop, as well as a potential gateway to a form of new, subtle eugenics. This article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the use, application and the consequences of genetic technologies. With a focus on the law and policy position in Europe, it examines the need to control and regulate these new technologies, particularly gene editing. In addition to considering the need for regulation, this paper highlights non-normative approaches to address this area, including awareness raising and education, public discussion and engagement with key stakeholders in the field and the development of a multifaceted genetics advisory network.

Keywords: disability, gene-editing, genetics, law, regulation

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3880 Joubert Syndrome: A Rare Genetic Disorder Reported in Kurdish Family

Authors: Aran Abd Al Rahman

Abstract:

Joubert syndrome regards as a congenital cerebellar ataxia caused by autosomal recessive carried on X chromosome. The disease diagnosed by brain imaging—the so-called molar tooth sign. Neurological signs were present from the neonatal period and include hypotonia progressing to ataxia, global developmental delay, ocular motor apraxia, and breathing dysregulation. These signs are variably associated with multiorgan involvement, mainly of the retina, kidneys, skeleton, and liver. 30 causative genes have been identified so far, all of which encode for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus, The purpose of our project was to detect the mutant gene (INPP5E gene) which cause Joubert syndrome. There were many methods used for diagnosis such as MRI and CT- scan and molecular diagnosis by doing ARMS PCR for detection of mutant gene that we were used in this research project. In this research for individual family which reported, the two children with parents, the two children were affected and were carrier.

Keywords: Joubert syndrome, genetic disease, Kurdistan region, Sulaimani

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3879 Medical Advances in Diagnosing Neurological and Genetic Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Retinoblastoma is a rare type of childhood genetic cancer that affects children worldwide. The diagnosis is often missed due to lack of education and difficulty in presentation of the tumor. Frequently, the tumor on the retina is noticed by photography when the red-eye flash, commonly seen in normal eyes, is not produced. Instead, a yellow or white colored patch is seen or the child has a noticeable strabismus. Early detection can be life-saving though often results in removal of the affected eye. Remaining functioning in the healthy eye when the child is young has resulted in super-vision and high or above-average intelligence. Technological advancement of cameras has helped in early detection. Brain imaging has also made possible early detection of neurological diseases and, together with the monitoring of cortisol levels and yawning frequency, promises to be the next new early diagnostic tool for the detection of neurological diseases where cortisol insufficiency is particularly salient, such as multiple sclerosis and Cushing’s disease.

Keywords: cortisol, neurological disease, retinoblastoma, Thompson cortisol hypothesis, yawning

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3878 Neural Network Based Decision Trees Using Machine Learning for Alzheimer's Diagnosis

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, S. Meenakshi Sundaram

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the prevalent kind of ailment, expected for impudent reconciliation or an effectual therapy is to be accredited hitherto. Probable detonation of patients in the upcoming years, and consequently an enormous deal of apprehension in early discovery of the disorder, this will conceivably chaperon to enhanced healing outcomes. Complex impetuosity of the brain is an observant symbolic of the disease and a unique recognition of genetic sign of the disease. Machine learning alongside deep learning and decision tree reinforces the aptitude to absorb characteristics from multi-dimensional data’s and thus simplifies automatic classification of Alzheimer’s disease. Susceptible testing was prophesied and realized in training the prospect of Alzheimer’s disease classification built on machine learning advances. It was shrewd that the decision trees trained with deep neural network fashioned the excellent results parallel to related pattern classification.

Keywords: Alzheimer's diagnosis, decision trees, deep neural network, machine learning, pattern classification

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3877 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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3876 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek

Abstract:

Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: MHC, polymorphism, disease, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
3875 The GRIT Study: Getting Global Rare Disease Insights Through Technology Study

Authors: Aneal Khan, Elleine Allapitan, Desmond Koo, Katherine-Ann Piedalue, Shaneel Pathak, Utkarsh Subnis

Abstract:

Background: Disease management of metabolic, genetic disorders is long-term and can be cumbersome to patients and caregivers. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) have been a useful tool in capturing patient perspectives to help enhance treatment compliance and engagement with health care providers, reduce utilization of emergency services, and increase satisfaction with their treatment choices. Currently, however, PROMs are collected during infrequent and decontextualized clinic visits, which makes translation of patient experiences challenging over time. The GRIT study aims to evaluate a digital health journal application called Zamplo that provides a personalized health diary to record self-reported health outcomes accurately and efficiently in patients with metabolic, genetic disorders. Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (1:1) that assesses the efficacy of Zamplo to increase patient activation (primary outcome), improve healthcare satisfaction and confidence to manage medications (secondary outcomes), and reduce costs to the healthcare system (exploratory). Using standardized online surveys, assessments will be collected at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Outcomes will be compared between patients who were given access to the application versus those with no access. Results: Seventy-seven patients were recruited as of November 30, 2021. Recruitment for the study commenced in November 2020 with a target of n=150 patients. The accrual rate was 50% from those eligible and invited for the study, with the majority of patients having Fabry disease (n=48) and the remaining having Pompe disease and mitochondrial disease. Real-time clinical responses, such as pain, are being measured and correlated to disease-modifying therapies, supportive treatments like pain medications, and lifestyle interventions. Engagement with the application, along with compliance metrics of surveys and journal entries, are being analyzed. An interim analysis of the engagement data along with preliminary findings from this pilot RCT, and qualitative patient feedback will be presented. Conclusions: The digital self-care journal provides a unique approach to disease management, allowing patients direct access to their progress and actively participating in their care. Findings from the study can help serve the virtual care needs of patients with metabolic, genetic disorders in North America and the world over.

Keywords: eHealth, mobile health, rare disease, patient outcomes, quality of life (QoL), pain, Fabry disease, Pompe disease

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3874 CanVis: Towards a Web Platform for Cancer Progression Tree Analysis

Authors: Michael Aupetit, Mahmoud Al-ismail, Khaled Mohamed

Abstract:

Cancer is a major public health problem all over the world. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate over all cancers for women in Qatar making its study a top priority of the country. Human cancer is a dynamic disease that develops over an extended period through the accumulation of a series of genetic alterations. A Darwinian process drives the tumor cells toward higher malignancy growing the branches of a progression tree in the space of genes expression. Although it is not possible to track these genetic alterations dynamically for one patient, it is possible to reconstruct the progression tree from the aggregation of thousands of tumor cells’ genetic profiles from thousands of different patients at different stages of the disease. Analyzing the progression tree is a way to detect pivotal molecular events that drive the malignant evolution and to provide a guide for the development of cancer diagnostics, prognostics and targeted therapeutics. In this work we present the development of a Visual Analytic web platform CanVis enabling users to upload gene-expression data and analyze their progression tree. The server computes the progression tree based on state-of-the-art techniques and allows an interactive visual exploration of this tree and the gene-expression data along its branching structure helping to discover potential driver genes.

Keywords: breast cancer, progression tree, visual analytics, web platform

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3873 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

Abstract:

Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

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3872 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Alleles with Antibody Response to Newcastle Vaccine in Chicken

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholam Reza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best-characterized genetic region associated with susceptibility and/or resistance to a wide range of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and immune responses to vaccines. It has been demonstrated that there is an association between the MHC and resistance to Marek disease, Newcastle disease, Rous sarcoma tumor, Avian leucosis, Fowl cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis in chicken. The present study evaluated the MHC polymorphism and its association with antibody response to Newcastle (ND) vaccine in Iranian native chickens. The MHC polymorphism was investigated using LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. Antibody titer against ND vaccine was measured by Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 21). Total of 13 LEI0258 microsatellite alleles were identified in 72 samples which indicated a high genetic diversity in the population. The association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on immune responses to Newcastle vaccine. 311 and 313 bp alleles were significantly associated with elevated immune responses to Newcastle vaccine (p<0.05). These results would be applicable in designing and improving the populations under selective breeding.

Keywords: chicken, LEI0258, MHC, Newcastle vaccine

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3871 Genomic Identification of Anisakis Simplex Larvae by PCR-RAPD

Authors: Fumiko Kojima, Shuji Fujimoto

Abstract:

Anisakiasis is a disease caused by infection with an anisakid larvae, mostly Anisakis simplex. The larvae commonly infect in marine fish and the disease is frequently reported in areas of the world where fish is consumed raw, lightly pickled or salted. In Japan, people have the habit of eating raw fish such as ‘sushi’ or ‘sashimi’, so they have more chance of infection with larvae of anisakid nematodes. There are three sibling species in A. simplex larvae, namely, A. simplex sensu stricto (Asss), A. pegreffii (Ap) and A. simplex C. It was revealed that Ap is dominant among the larvae from fish (Scomber japonics) in the Japan Sea side and Asss is dominant among those of the Pacific Ocean side conversely. Although anisakiasis has happened in Japan among both the Japan Sea side area and the Pacific Ocean side area. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variations between the siblings (Asss and Ap) and within the same sibling species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. In order to investigate the genetic difference among the each A. simplex larvae, we used RAPD technique to differentiate individuals of A. simplex obtained from Scomber japonics fish those were caught in the Japan sea (Goto Islands in Nagasaki Prefecture) and the cost of Pacific Ocean (Kanagawa Prefecture). The RAPD patterns of the control DNA (Genus Raphidascaris) were markedly different from those of the A. simplex. There were differences in amplification patterns between Asss and Ap. The RAPD patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same sea were somewhat different and variations were detected even among larvae from the same fish. These results suggest the considerable high genetic variability between Asss and Ap and the possible existence of genetic variation within the sibling species.

Keywords: Anisakiasis in Japan, Anisakis simplex, genomic identification, PCR-RAPD

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3870 Whole Exome Sequencing in Characterizing Mysterious Crippling Disorder in India

Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Ankit Mahajan, Parvinder Kumar, Manoj K Dhar, Sushil Razdan, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Carol Wise, Shiro Ikegawa M.D., K.K. Pandita M.D.

Abstract:

Rare disorders are poorly understood hence, remain uncharacterized or patients are misdiagnosed and get poor medical attention. A rare mysterious skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades and rendered many people physically challenged and disabled for life has been reported in an isolated remote village ‘Arai’ of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. This village is located deep in mountains and the population residing in the region is highly consanguineous. In our survey of the region, 70 affected people were reported, showing similar phenotype, in the village with a population of approximately 5000 individuals. We were able to collect samples from two multi generational extended families from the village. Through Whole Exome sequencing (WES), we identified a rare variation NM_003880.3:c.156C>A NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter, which results in introduction of premature stop codon in WISP3 gene. We found this variation perfectly segregating with the disease in one of the family. However, this variation was absent in other family. Interestingly, a novel splice site mutation at position c.643+1G>A of WISP3 gene, perfectly segregating with the disease was observed in the second family. Thus, exploiting WES and putting different evidences together (familial histories and genetic data, clinical features, radiological and biochemical tests and findings), the disease has finally been diagnosed as a very rare recessive hereditary skeletal disease “Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Arthropathy of Childhood” (PPAC) also known as “Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda with Progressive Arthropathy” (SEDT-PA). This genetic characterization and identification of the disease causing mutations will aid in genetic counseling, critically required to curb this rare disorder and to prevent its appearance in future generations in the population. Further, understanding of the role of WISP3 gene the biological pathways should help in developing treatment for the disorder.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, rare disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 315