Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3258

Search results for: mineral elements

3258 Genetic Analysis of Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc Concentration in Peanut

Authors: Ajay B. C., Meena H. N., Dagla M. C., Narendra Kumar, Makwana A. D., Bera S. K., Kalariya K. A., Singh A. L.

Abstract:

The high-energy value, protein content and minerals makes peanut a rich source of nutrition at comparatively low cost. Basic information on genetics and inheritance of these mineral elements is very scarce. Hence, in the present study inheritance (using additive-dominance model) and association of mineral elements was studied in two peanut crosses. Dominance variance (H) played an important role in the inheritance of P, K, Fe and Zn in peanut pods. Average degree of dominance for most of the traits was greater than unity indicating over dominance for these traits. Significant associations were also observed among mineral elements both in F2 and F3 generations but pod yield had no associations with mineral elements (with few exceptions). Di-allele/bi-parental mating could be followed to identify high yielding and mineral dense segregates.

Keywords: correlation, dominance variance, mineral elements, peanut

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3257 Determination of Mineral Elements in Some Coarse Grains Used as Staple Food in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: M. I. Mohammed, U. M. Ahmad

Abstract:

Analyses of mineral elements were carried out on some coarse grains used as staple food in Kano. The levels of Magnesium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper and Zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and that of Sodium and Potassium were obtained using flame photometer (FES). The result of the study shows that the mean results of the mineral elements ranged from 62.50±0.55 - 84.82±0.74mg/kg sodium, 73.33±0.35 - 317±0.10mg/kg magnesium, 89.22±0.26 - 193.33±0.19mg/kg potassium, 70.00±0.52 - 186.67±0.29mg/kg calcium, 1.00±0.11 - 20.50±1.30mg/kg manganese, 25.00±0.11 - 80.50±0.36mg/kg iron. 4.00±0.08 - 13.00±0.24mg/kg copper and 15.00±0.34 - 50.50±0.24 zinc. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in levels of sodium, potassium and calcium whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05) occurs in levels of magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. In comparison with Recommended Daily Allowances of essential and trace metals set by international standard organizations, the coarse grains analysed in this work contribute little to the provision of essential and trace elements requirements.

Keywords: mineral elements, coarse grains, staple food, Kano, Nigeria

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3256 Potential of Mineral Composition Reconstruction for Monitoring the Performance of an Iron Ore Concentration Plant

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi, Claude Bazin, Daniel Hodouin, Laura Perez Barnuevo

Abstract:

The performance of a separation process is usually evaluated using performance indices calculated from elemental assays readily available from the chemical analysis laboratory. However, the separation process performance is essentially related to the properties of the minerals that carry the elements and not those of the elements. Since elements or metals can be carried by valuable and gangue minerals in the ore and that each mineral responds differently to a mineral processing method, the use of only elemental assays could lead to erroneous or uncertain conclusions on the process performance. This paper discusses the advantages of using performance indices calculated from minerals content, such as minerals recovery, for process performance assessments. A method is presented that uses elemental assays to estimate the minerals content of the solids in various process streams. The method combines the stoichiometric composition of the minerals and constraints of mass conservation for the minerals through the concentration process to estimate the minerals content from elemental assays. The advantage of assessing a concentration process using mineral based performance indices is illustrated for an iron ore concentration circuit.

Keywords: data reconciliation, iron ore concentration, mineral composition, process performance assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
3255 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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3254 Use of Radiation Chemistry Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux * 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, INDIA, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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3253 Effect of Plant Nutrients on Anthocyanin Content and Yield Component of Black Glutinous Rice Plants

Authors: Chonlada Bennett, Phumon Sookwong, Sakul Moolkam, Sivapong Naruebal Sugunya Mahatheeranont

Abstract:

The cultivation of black glutinous rice rich in anthocyanins can provide great benefits to both farmers and consumers. Total anthocyanins content and yield component data of black glutinous rice cultivar (KHHK) grown with the addition of mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Fe and Se) under soilless conditions were studied. Ca application increased seed anthocyanins content by three-folds compared to controls. Cu application to rice plants obtained the highest number of grains panicle, panicle length and subsequently high panicle weight. Se application had the largest effect on leaf anthocyanins content, the number of tillers, number of panicles and 100-grain weight. These findings showed that the addition of mineral elements had a positive effect on increasing anthocyanins content in black rice plants and seeds as well as the heightened development of black glutinous rice plant growth.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, Black Glutinous Rice, Mineral Elements, Soilless Culture

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3252 Anatomical Adaptations and Mineral Elements Allocation Associated with the Zn Phytostabilization Capability of Acanthus ilicifolius L.

Authors: Shackira Am, Jos T. Puthur

Abstract:

The phytostabilization potential of a halophyte Acanthus ilicifolius L. has been evaluated with special attention to the nutritional as well as anatomical adaptations developed by the plant. Distribution of essential elements influenced by the excess Zn²⁺ ions in the root tissue was studied by FEG-SEM EDX microanalysis. Significant variations were observed in the uptake and allocation of mineral elements like Mg, P, K, S, Na, Si and Al in the root of A. ilicifolius. The increase in S is in correlation with the increased synthesis of glutathione which might be involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins. This in turn might be aiding the plant to tolerate the adverse environmental conditions by stabilizing the excess Zn in the root tissue itself. Moreover it is revealed that most of the Zn were accumulated towards the central region near the vascular tissue. Treatment with ZnSO₄ in A. ilicifolius caused significant increase in the number of glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface as compared to the leaves of control plants. In addition to this, A. ilicifolius when treated with ZnSO₄, exhibited a deeply stained layer of cells immediate to the endodermis, forming more or less a ring like structure around the xylem vessels. Phloem cells in these plants were crushed/reduced in numbers. There were no such deeply stained cells forming a ring around the xylem vessels in the control plants. These adaptive responses make the plant a suitable candidate for the phytostabilization of Zn. In addition the nutritional adjustment of the plant equips them for a better survival under increased concentration of Zn²⁺.

Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, mineral elements, phytostabilization, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
3251 Hormones and Mineral Elements Associated with Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women in Eastern Slovakia

Authors: M. Mydlárová Blaščáková, J. Poráčová, Z. Tomková, Ľ. Blaščáková, M. Nagy, M. Konečná, E. Petrejčíková, Z. Gogaľová, V. Sedlák, J. Mydlár, M. Zahatňanská, K. Hricová

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease that results in reduced quality of life, causes decreased bone strength, and changes in their microarchitecture. Mostly postmenopausal women are at risk. In our study, we measured anthropometric parameters of postmenopausal women (104 women of control group – CG and 105 women of osteoporotic group - OG) and determined TSH hormone levels and PTH as well as mineral elements - Ca, P, Mg and enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Through the correlation analysis in CG, we have found association based on age and BMI, P and Ca, as well as Mg and Ca; in OG we determined interdependence based on an association of age and BMI, age and Ca. Using the Student's t test, we found significantly important differences in biochemical parameters of Mg (p ˂ 0,001) and TSH (p ˂ 0,05) between CG and OG.

Keywords: factors, bone mass density, Central Europe, biomarkers

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3250 Effect of Mineral Admixture on Self-Healing Performance in Concrete

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Sung-Won Yoo, Bong Chun Lee, Byoungsun Park, Sang-Hwa Jung

Abstract:

Cracks in concrete commonly provide the passages of ingresses of aggressive and harmful ions into concrete inside and thus reduce the durability of concrete members. In order to solve this problem, self-healing concrete based on mineral admixture has become a major issue. Self-healing materials are those which have the ability of autonomously repairing some damages or small cracks in concrete structures. Concrete has an inherent healing potential, called natural healing, which can take place in ordinary concrete elements but its power is limited and is not predictable. The main mechanism of self-healing in cracked concrete is the continued hydration of unreacted binder and the crystallization of calcium carbonate. Some mineral admixtures have been found to promote the self-healing of cementitious materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mineral admixture on the self-healing performances of high strength concrete. The potential capability of self-healing of cementitious materials was evaluated using isothermal conduction calorimeter. The self-healing efficiencies were studied by means of water flow tests on cracked concrete specimens. The results show a different healing behaviour depending on presence of the crystalline admixture.

Keywords: mineral admixture, self-healing, water flow test, crystallization

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3249 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso

Abstract:

Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

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3248 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds

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3247 Investigation the Polluting Effect of Heavy Elements on Underground Water in Behbahan Plain, South West Zagros

Authors: Zohreh Marbooti, Rezvan Khavari

Abstract:

Groundwater as an essential part of natural resources seems to be an important issue in environmental engineering, so preservation and purification of it can have a critical value for any community. This paper investigates the concentration of elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se. For ground water in Behbahan (a city on south west of Iran), to this purpose a group of 30 wells were studied to examine the concentration of the elements of Pb, Cd, As, Se, and also to determine PH, EC, TDS, temperature and the ions of HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ for the wells. Results of the analyses show that the concentration of the elements of Pb, As and, Cd in 33,13,56 percent of the wells respectively and Se in all the samples were greater than normal range of WHO. Since there is a low correlation between Pb and major ions of (HCO32-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+) it can be revealed that Pb overconcentration caused by human contamination. Relative great correlation between Se and the ions showed that Se derived from Gypsum and Dolomit. The big correlation between As and major cations and onions, imply that As can originate from dissolution and liquidation of mineral evaporation in the zone. The high rate of Cadmium concentration in urban sewagewater is due to the small industries, workshops and, mills wastewater.

Keywords: heavy elements, underground water, pollution, waste water

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3246 Evaluation of Bone and Body Mineral Profile in Association with Protein Content, Fat, Fat-Free, Skeletal Muscle Tissues According to Obesity Classification among Adult Men

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Obesity is associated with increased fat mass as well as fat percentage. Minerals are the elements, which are of vital importance. In this study, the relationships between body as well as bone mineral profile and the percentage as well as mass values of fat, fat-free portion, protein, skeletal muscle were evaluated in adult men with normal body mass index (N-BMI), and those classified according to different stages of obesity. A total of 103 adult men classified into five groups participated in this study. Ages were within 19-79 years range. Groups were N-BMI (Group 1), overweight (OW) (Group 2), first level of obesity (FLO) (Group 3), second level of obesity (SLO) (Group 4) and third level of obesity (TLO) (Group 5). Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI values were calculated. Obesity degree, total body fat mass, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral adiposity, body mineral mass, body mineral percentage, bone mineral mass, bone mineral percentage, fat-free mass, fat-free percentage, protein mass, protein percentage, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle percentage were determined by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The values below 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. All the groups were matched based upon age (p > 0.05). BMI values were calculated as 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 27.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 32.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 37.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2, and 47.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Visceral adiposity and BMR values were also within an increasing trend. Percentage values of mineral, protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle masses were decreasing going from normal to TLO. Upon evaluation of the percentages of protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle, statistically significant differences were noted between NW and OW as well as OW and FLO (p < 0.05). However, such differences were not observed for body and bone mineral percentages. Correlation existed between visceral adiposity and BMI was stronger than that detected between visceral adiposity and obesity degree. Correlation between visceral adiposity and BMR was significant at the 0.05 level. Visceral adiposity was not correlated with body mineral mass but correlated with bone mineral mass whereas significant negative correlations were observed with percentages of these parameters (p < 0.001). BMR was not correlated with body mineral percentage whereas a negative correlation was found between BMR and bone mineral percentage (p < 0.01). It is interesting to note that mineral percentages of both body as well as bone are highly affected by the visceral adiposity. Bone mineral percentage was also associated with BMR. From these findings, it is plausible to state that minerals are highly associated with the critical stages of obesity as prominent parameters.

Keywords: bone, men, minerals, obesity

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3245 Proximate and Mineral Composition of Chicken Giblets from Vojvodina, Northern Serbia

Authors: M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, M. T. Jović, S. B. Škaljac, B. V. Šojić, P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić

Abstract:

Proximate (moisture, protein, total fat, total ash) and mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) composition of chicken giblets (heart, liver and gizzard) were investigated. Phosphorous content, as well as proximate composition, were determined according to recommended ISO methods. The content of all elements, except phosphorus, of the giblets tissues were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), after dry ashing mineralization. Regarding proximate composition heart was the highest in total fat content, and the lowest in protein content. Liver was the highest in protein and total ash content, while gizzard was the highest in moisture and the lowest in total fat content. Regarding mineral composition liver was the highest for K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn, while heart was the highest for Na content. The contents of almost all investigated minerals in analysed giblets tissues of chickens from Vojvodina were similar to values reported in the literature, i.e. in national food composition databases of other countries.

Keywords: chicken giblets, proximate composition, mineral composition, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

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3244 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso

Abstract:

Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples were tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content

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3243 Consumer Market for Mineral Water and Development Policy in Georgia

Authors: Gulnaz Erkomaishvili

Abstract:

The paper discusses mineral water consumer market and development policy in Georgia, the tools and measures, which will contribute to the production of mineral waters and increase its export. The paper studies and analyses current situation in mineral water production sector as well as the factors affecting increase and reduction of its export. It’s noted that in order to gain and maintain competitive advantage, it’s necessary to provide continuous supply of high-quality goods with modern design, open new distribution channels to enter new markets, carry out broad promotional activities, organize e-commerce. Economic policy plays an important role in protecting markets from counterfeit goods. The state also plays an important role in attracting foreign direct investments. Stable business environment and export-oriented strategy is the basis for the country’s economic growth. Based on the research, the paper suggests the strategy for improving the competitiveness of Georgian mineral waters, relevant conclusions and recommendations are provided.

Keywords: mineral waters, consumer market for mineral waters, export of mineral waters, mineral water development policy in Georgia

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3242 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers

Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru

Abstract:

In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity

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3241 Mineral Nitrogen Retention, Nitrogen Availability and Plant Growth in the Soil Influenced by Addition of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers: Lysimetric Experiment

Authors: Lukáš Plošek, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Ivana Charousová, Silvia Kovácsová

Abstract:

Compost can influence soil fertility and plant health. At the same time compost can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle and it can influence leaching of mineral nitrogen from soil to underground water. This paper deals with the influence of compost addition and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on leaching of mineral nitrogen, nitrogen availability in microbial biomass and plant biomass production in the lysimetric experiment. Twenty-one lysimeters were filed with topsoil and subsoil collected in the area of protection zone of underground source of drinking water - Březová nad Svitavou. The highest leaching of mineral nitrogen was detected in the variant fertilized only mineral nitrogen fertilizer (624.58 mg m-2), the lowest leaching was recorded in the variant with high addition of compost (315.51 mg m-2). On the other hand, losses of mineral nitrogen are not in connection with the losses of available form of nitrogen in microbial biomass. Because loss of mineral nitrogen was detected in variant with the least change in the availability of N in microbial biomass. The leaching of mineral nitrogen, yields as well as the results concerning nitrogen availability from the first year of long term experiment suggest that compost can positive influence the leaching of nitrogen into underground water.

Keywords: nitrogen, compost, biomass production, lysimeter

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3240 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom

Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker

Abstract:

This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared  to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.

Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivity

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3239 An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid

Authors: Celal Kocatepe, Eyup Taslak, Celal Fadil Kumru, Oktay Arikan

Abstract:

While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, dielectric dissipation factor, mineral oil, vegetable oils

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3238 Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, H. Otanwa, O. F. Paul, A. J. Salifu, J. E. Toryila, C. E. Gimba

Abstract:

The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.

Keywords: AAS, heavy metals, mechanic workshops, soil, variation

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3237 Geochemical Study of Claystone from Nunukan Island, North Kalimantan of Indonesia

Authors: Mutiara Effendi

Abstract:

Nunukan Island is located on North Kalimantan of Indonesia. The region is one of Indonesia’s cross-border with Malaysia. In conjunction with its strategic geographic location, its potential as the new oil and gas resources has brought many researchers to do their studies here. The research area consists of claystone which criss-crossed with quarts sandstone. There are also rocks claystone-grained which are the weathering product of basaltic volcanic rocks. In some places, there are argillic clays which are the hydrothermal-altered product of Sei Apok ancient volcano. Geochemical study was established to learn the origin of the claystones, whether it came from weathering, hydrothermal alteration, or both. The samples used in this research are fresh rock, weathering rocks, hydrothermally-altered rock, and claystones. Chemical compositions of each sample were determined and their relations was studied. The studies encompass major and minor elements analysis using X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF) method and trace elements analysis, specifically rare earth elements, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The results were plotted on certain graphics to learn about the trend and the relations of each sample and element. Any changes in chemical compositions, like increase and decrease of elements or species, was analysed to learn about geological phenomenon that happens during the formation of claystones. The result of this study shows that claystones of Nunukan Island have relation with volcanic rocks of its surrounding area. Its chemical composition profile corresponds to weathering product of volcanic rocks rather than hydrothermally-altered product. The general profile also resembles claystone minerals of illite or montmorillonite, especially in the existence of aluminum, iron, potassium, and magnesium. Both minerals are formed in basic condition and commonly happen to shales. It is consistent with the fact that claystone was found mixing with shales and silt to clay grained mudstones in field exploration. Even though the general profile is much alike, the amount of each elements is not precisely the same as theoretically claystone mineral compositions because the mineral have not formed completely yet.

Keywords: claystone, geochemistry, ICP-MS, XRF

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3236 Mineral Deposits in Spatial Planning Systems – Review of European Practices

Authors: Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska

Abstract:

Securing sustainable access to raw materials is vital for the growth of the European economy and for the goals laid down in Strategy Europe 2020. One of the most important sources of mineral raw materials are primary deposits. The efficient management of them, including extraction, will ensure competitiveness of the European economy. A critical element of this approach is mineral deposits safeguarding and the most important tool - spatial planning. The safeguarding of deposits should be understood as safeguarding of land access, and safeguarding of area against development, which may (potential) prevent the use of the deposit and the necessary mining activities. Many European Union countries successfully integrated their mineral policy and spatial policy, which has ensured the proper place of mineral deposits in their spatial planning systems. These, in turn, are widely recognized as the most important mineral deposit safeguarding tool, the essence of which is to ensure long-term access to its resources. The examples of Austria, Portugal, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, discussed in the paper, are often mentioned as examples of good practices in this area. Although none of these countries managed to avoid cases of social and environmental conflicts related to mining activities, the solutions they implement certainly deserve special attention. And for many countries, including Poland, they can be a potential source of solutions aimed at improving the protection of mineral deposits.

Keywords: mineral deposits, land use planning, mineral deposit safeguarding, European practices

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3235 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

Abstract:

We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3234 The Distribution and Environmental Behavior of Heavy Metals in Jajarm Bauxite Mine, Northeast Iran

Authors: Hossein Hassani, Ali Rezaei

Abstract:

Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least five times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Environmental protection against various pollutants, such as heavy metals formed by industries, mines and modern technologies, is a concern for researchers and industry. In order to assess the contamination of soils the distribution and environmental behavior have been investigated. Jajarm bauxite mine, the most important deposits have been discovered in Iran, which is about 22 million tons of reserve, and is the main mineral of the Diaspora. With a view to estimate the heavy metals ratio of the Jajarm bauxite mine area and to evaluate the pollution level, 50 samples have been collected and have been analyzed for the heavy metals of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb with the help of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP- MS). In this study, we have dealt with determining evaluation criteria including contamination factor (CF), average concentration (AV), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (GI) to assess the risk of pollution from heavy metals(As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb) in Jajarm bauxite mine. In the samples of the studied, the average of recorded concentration of elements for Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Mercury, Nickel and Lead are 18, 0.11, 12, 0.07, 58 and 51 (mg/kg) respectively. The comparison of the heavy metals concentration average and the toxic potential in the samples has shown that an average with respect to the world average of the uncontaminated soil amounts. The average of Pb and As elements shows a higher quantity with respect to the world average quantity. The pollution factor for the study elements has been calculated on the basis of the soil background concentration and has been categorized on the basis of the uncontaminated world soil average with respect to the Hakanson classification. The calculation of the corrected pollutant degree shows the degree of the bulk intermediate pollutant (1.55-2.0) for the average soil sampling of the study area which is on the basis of the background quantity and the world average quantity of the uncontaminated soils. The provided conclusion from calculation of the concentrated factor, for some of the samples show that the average of the lead and arsenic elements stations are more than the background values and the unnatural metal concentration are covered under the study area, That's because the process of mining and mineral extraction. Given conclusion from the calculation of Geoaccumulation index of the soil sampling can explain that the copper, nickel, cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury elements are Uncontamination. In general, the results indicate that the Jajarm bauxite mine of heavy metal pollution is uncontaminated area and extract the mineral from the mine, not create environmental hazards in the region.

Keywords: enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, heavy metals, Jajarm bauxite mine, pollution

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3233 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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3232 Bone Mineral Density and Quality, Body Composition of Women in the Postmenopausal Period

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Oksana Ivanyk, Nataliia Dzerovych

Abstract:

In the diagnostics of osteoporosis, the gold standard is considered to be bone mineral density; however, X-ray densitometry is not an accurate indicator of osteoporotic fracture risk under all circumstances. In this regard, the search for new methods that could determine the indicators not only of the mineral density, but of the bone tissue quality, is a logical step for diagnostic optimization. One of these methods is the evaluation of trabecular bone quality. The aim of this study was to examine the quality and mineral density of spine bone tissue, femoral neck, and body composition of women depending on the duration of the postmenopausal period, to determine the correlation of body fat with indicators of bone mineral density and quality. The study examined 179 women in premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The patients were divided into the following groups: Women in the premenopausal period and women in the postmenopausal period at various stages (early, middle, late postmenopause). A general examination and study of the above parameters were conducted with General Electric X-ray densitometer. The results show that bone quality and mineral density probably deteriorate with advancing of postmenopausal period. Total fat and lean mass ratio is not likely to change with age. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods, the bone tissue mineral density of the spine and femoral neck increases along with total fat mass.

Keywords: osteoporosis, bone tissue mineral density, bone quality, fat mass, lean mass, postmenopausal osteoporosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3231 WebGIS Development Framework With Prioritized Usability Elements

Authors: Ezekiel Mwangi, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila

Abstract:

Usability is one of the key factors that determine the success or failure of any WebGIS (technology normally applied on the internet to analyze and present spatial data on the Internet). However, not all the usability attributes have the same impact on usability. It is, therefore, necessary to prioritize WebGIS usability elements and determine the ones that are more crucial to the success of the WebGIS. This research aims to identify the main elements of WebGIS usability, investigate the order of importance and priority of the usability elements of WebGIS, and propose a WebGIS development framework that incorporates the prioritization of the usability elements. This will be achieved through a literature review. The outcome of this research will help usability specialists and WebGIS developers in determining specific usability elements that should be accorded more emphasis during the design and development of WebGIS.

Keywords: framework, prioritization, usability, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
3230 Evaluation and Provenance Studies of Heavy Mineral Deposits in Recent Sediment of Ologe Lagoon, South Western, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Akinade-Solomon Olorunfemi, Abe Oluwaseun Banji

Abstract:

Heavy minerals studies were carried out on eighteen sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located at Lagos Barrier complex, with the aim of evaluating the heavy mineral deposits and determining the provenance of the sediments. The samples were subjected to grain analysis techniques in order to collect the finest grain size. Separation of heavy minerals from the samples was done with the aid of bromoform to enable petrographic analyses of the heavy mineral suite, under the polarising microscope. The data obtained from the heavy mineral analysis were used in preparing histograms and pie chart, from which the individual heavy mineral percentage distribution and ZTR index were derived. The percentage composition of the individual heavy mineral analyzed are opaque mineral 63.92%, Zircon 12.43%, Tourmaline 5.79%, Rutile 13.44%, Garnet 1.74% and Staurolite 3.52%. The calculated zircon, tourmaline, rutile index in percentage (ZTR) varied between 76.13 -92.15%, average garnet-zircon index (GZI), average rutile-zircon index (RuZI) and average staurolite-zircon index values in all the stations are 16.18%, 54.33%, 25.11% respectively. The mean ZTR index percentage value is 85.17% indicates that the sediments within the lagoon are mineralogically matured. The high percentage of zircon, rutile, and tourmaline indicates an acid igneous rock source for the sediments. However, the low percentage of staurolite, rutile and garnet occurrence indicates sediment of metamorphic rock source input.

Keywords: lagoon, provenance, heavy mineral, ZTR index

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3229 The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Jakub Elbl, Irina Mikajlo, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Olga Urbánková, Jaroslav Záhora

Abstract:

Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1–V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1–V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3–V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.

Keywords: arable soil, biochar, drought, mineral nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 296