Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: polylactide

7 Preparation of Polylactide Nanoparticles by Supercritical Fluid Technology

Authors: Jakub Zágora, Daniela Plachá, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Sylva Holešová, Roman Gábor, Alexandra Muñoz Bonilla, Marta Fernández García

Abstract:

The development of new antimicrobial materials that are not toxic to higher living organisms is a major challenge today. Newly developed materials can have high application potential in biomedicine, coatings, packaging, etc. A combination of commonly used biopolymer polylactide with cationic polymers seems to be very successful in the fight against antimicrobial resistance [1].PLA will play a key role in fulfilling the intention set out in the New Deal announced by the EU commission, as it is a bioplastic that is easily degradable, recyclable, and mass-produced. Also, the development of 3D printing in the context of this initiative, and the actual use of PLA as one of the main materials used for this printing, make the technology around the preparation and modification of PLA quite logical. Moreover, theenvironmentally friendly and energy saving technology like supercritical fluid process (SFP) will be used for their preparation. In a first approach, polylactide nano- and microparticles and structures were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction. The RESS (rapid expansion supercritical fluid solution) method is easier to optimize and shows better particle size control. On the contrary, a highly porous structure was obtained using the SAS (supercritical antisolvent) method. In a second part, the antimicrobial biobased polymer was introduced by SFP.

Keywords: polylactide, antimicrobial polymers, supercritical fluid technology, micronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
6 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Diakowska K., Zaborski M.

Abstract:

Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: renewable resources, biopolymer, degradation, polylactide

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
5 Use Process Ring-Opening Polymerization to Melt Processing of Cellulose Nanowhisker from Coconut Husk Fibers-Filled Polylactide-Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Imam Wierawansyah Eltara, Iftitah, Agus Ismail

Abstract:

In the present work, cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) extracted from coconut husk fibers, were incorporated in polylactide (PLA)-based composites. Prior to the blending, PLA chains were chemically grafted on the surface of CNW to enhance the compatibilization between CNW and the hydrophobic polyester matrix. Ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide was initiated from the hydroxyl groups available at the CNW surface to yield CNW-g-PLA nanohybrids. PLA-based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending to ensure a green concept of the study thereby limiting the use of organic solvents. The influence of PLA-grafted cellulose nanoparticles on the mechanical and thermal properties of the ensuing nanocomposites was deeply investigated. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical and thermal analysis (DMTA), respectively. In theory, evidenced that the chemical grafting of CNW enhances their compatibility with the polymeric matrix and thus improves the final properties of the nanocomposites. Large modification of the crystalline properties such as the crystallization half-time was evidenced according to the nature of the PLA matrix and the content of nanofillers.

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, nanocomposites, coconut husk fiber, ring opening polymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
4 Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid/MDI Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

Authors: Sukhila Krishnan, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak

Abstract:

Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) are the most promising bio-based materials presently available on the market. Polylactic acid is one of the versatile biodegradable polyester showing wide range of applications in various fields and starch is a biopolymer which is renewable, cheap as well as extensively available. The usual increase in the cost of petroleum-based commodities in the next decades opens bright future for these materials. Their biodegradability and compostability was an added advantage in applications that are difficult to recycle. Currently, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used as a substitute for synthetic plastic in several commercial products. But, TPS shows some limitations mainly due to its brittle and hydrophilic nature, which has to be resolved to widen its application.The objective of the work we report here was to initiate chemical modifications on TPS and to build up a process to control its chemical structure using a solution process which can reduce its water sensitive properties and then blended it with PLA to improve compatibility between PLA and TPS. The method involves in cleavage of starch amylose and amylopectin chain backbone to plasticize with glycerol and water in batch mixer and then the prepared TPS was reacted in solution with diisocyanates i.e, 4,4'-Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI).This diisocyanate was used before with great success for the chemical modification of TPS surface. The method utilized here will form an urethane-linkages between reactive isocyanate groups (–NCO) and hydroxyl groups (-OH) of starch as well as of glycerol. New polymer synthesised shows a reduced crystallinity, less hydrophilic and enhanced compatibility with other polymers. The TPS was prepared by Haake Rheomix 600 batch mixer with roller rotors operating at 50 rpm. The produced material is then refluxed for 5hrs with MDI in toluene with constant stirring. Finally, the modified TPS was melt blended with PLA in different compositions. Blends obtained shows an improved mechanical properties. These materials produced are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR), DSC, X-Ray diffraction and mechanical tests.

Keywords: polylactic acid, thermoplastic starch, Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate, Polylactide (PLA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
3 Two-Component Biocompartible Material for Reconstruction of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

Authors: Alena O. Stepanova, Vera S. Chernonosova, Tatyana S. Godovikova, Konstantin A. Bulatov, Andrey Y. Patrushev, Pavel P. Laktionov

Abstract:

Trauma and arthrosis, not to mention cartilage destruction in overweight and elders put hyaline cartilage lesion among the most frequent diseases of locomotor system. These problems combined with low regeneration potential of the cartilage make regeneration of articular cartilage a high-priority task of tissue engineering. Many types of matrices, the procedures of their installation and autologous chondrocyte implantation protocols were offered, but certain aspects including adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage/bone, prevention of the ossification and fibrosis were not resolved. Simplification and acceleration of the procedures resulting in restoration of normal cartilage are also required. We have demonstrated that human chondroblasts can be successfully cultivated at the surface of electrospun scaffolds and produce extracellular matrix components in contrast to chondroblasts grown in homogeneous hydrogels. To restore cartilage we offer to use stacks of electrospun scaffolds fixed with photopolymerized solution of prepared from gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate both modified by glycidyl methacrylate and non-toxic photoinitator Darocur 2959. Scaffolds were prepared from nylon 6, polylactide-co-glicolide and their mixtures with modified gelatin. Illumination of chondroblasts in photopolymerized solution using 365 nm LED light had no effect on cell viability at compressive strength of the gel less than0,12 MPa. Stacks of electrospun scaffolds provide good compressive strength and have the potential for substitution with cartilage when biodegradable scaffolds are used. Vascularization can be prevented by introduction of biostable scaffolds in the layers contacting the subchondral bone. Studies of two-component materials (2-3 sheets of electrospun scaffold) implanted in the knee-joints of rabbits and fixed by photopolymerization demonstrated good crush resistance, biocompatibility and good adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage. Histological examination of the implants 3 month after implantation demonstrates absence of any inflammation and signs of replacement of the biodegradable scaffolds with normal cartilage. The possibility of intraoperative population of the implants with autologous cells is being investigated.

Keywords: chondroblasts, electrospun scaffolds, hyaline cartilage, photopolymerized gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2 Analysis of Trends and Challenges of Using Renewable Biomass for Bioplastics

Authors: Namasivayam Navaranjan, Eric Dimla

Abstract:

The world needs more quality food, shelter and transportation to meet the demands of growing population and improving living standard of those who currently live below the poverty line. Materials are essential commodities for various applications including food and pharmaceutical packaging, building and automobile. Petroleum based plastics are widely used materials amongst others for these applications and their demand is expected to increase. Use of plastics has environment related issues because considerable amount of plastic used worldwide is disposed in landfills, where its resources are wasted, the material takes up valuable space and blights communities. Some countries have been implementing regulations and/or legislations to increase reuse, recycle, renew and remanufacture materials as well as to minimise the use of non-environmentally friendly materials such as petroleum plastics. However, issue of material waste is still a concern in the countries who have low environmental regulations. Development of materials, mostly bioplastics from renewable biomass resources has become popular in the last decade. It is widely believed that the potential for up to 90% substitution of total plastics consumption by bioplastics is technically possible. The global demand for bioplastics is estimated to be approximately six times larger than in 2010. Recently, standard polymers like polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) or Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), but also high-performance polymers such as polyamides or polyesters have been totally or partially substituted by their renewable equivalents. An example is Polylactide (PLA) being used as a substitute in films and injection moulded products made of petroleum plastics, e.g. PET. The starting raw materials for bio-based materials are usually sugars or starches that are mostly derived from food resources, partially also recycled materials from food or wood processing. The risk in lower food availability by increasing price of basic grains as a result of competition with biomass-based product sectors for feedstock also needs to be considered for the future bioplastic production. Manufacturing of bioplastic materials is often still reliant upon petroleum as an energy and materials source. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioplastic products has being conducted to determine the sustainability of a production route. However, the accuracy of LCA depends on several factors and needs improvement. Low oil price and high production cost may also limit the technically possible growth of these plastics in the coming years.

Keywords: bioplastics, plastics, renewable resources, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1 Additive Manufacturing with Ceramic Filler

Authors: Irsa Wolfram, Boruch Lorenz

Abstract:

Innovative solutions with additive manufacturing applying material extrusion for functional parts necessitate innovative filaments with persistent quality. Uniform homogeneity and a consistent dispersion of particles embedded in filaments generally require multiple cycles of extrusion or well-prepared primal matter by injection molding, kneader machines, or mixing equipment. These technologies commit to dedicated equipment that is rarely at the disposal in production laboratories unfamiliar with research in polymer materials. This stands in contrast to laboratories that investigate complex material topics and technology science to leverage the potential of 3-D printing. Consequently, scientific studies in labs are often constrained to compositions and concentrations of fillersofferedfrom the market. Therefore, we introduce a prototypal laboratory methodology scalable to tailoredprimal matter for extruding ceramic composite filaments with fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. - A desktop single-screw extruder serves as a core device for the experiments. Custom-made filaments encapsulate the ceramic fillers and serve with polylactide (PLA), which is a thermoplastic polyester, as primal matter and is processed in the melting area of the extruder, preserving the defined concentration of the fillers. Validated results demonstrate that this approach enables continuously produced and uniform composite filaments with consistent homogeneity. Itis 3-D printable with controllable dimensions, which is a prerequisite for any scalable application. Additionally, digital microscopy confirms the steady dispersion of the ceramic particles in the composite filament. - This permits a 2D reconstruction of the planar distribution of the embedded ceramic particles in the PLA matrices. The innovation of the introduced method lies in the smart simplicity of preparing the composite primal matter. It circumvents the inconvenience of numerous extrusion operations and expensive laboratory equipment. Nevertheless, it deliversconsistent filaments of controlled, predictable, and reproducible filler concentration, which is the prerequisite for any industrial application. The introduced prototypal laboratory methodology seems capable for other polymer matrices and suitable to further utilitarian particle types beyond and above ceramic fillers. This inaugurates a roadmap for supplementary laboratory development of peculiar composite filaments, providing value for industries and societies. This low-threshold entry of sophisticated preparation of composite filaments - enabling businesses to create their own dedicated filaments - will support the mutual efforts for establishing 3D printing to new functional devices.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, ceramic composites, complex filament, industrial application

Procedia PDF Downloads 14