Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6223

Search results for: nano material

6223 The Effect of Volume Fraction of Nano-Alumina Strengthening on AC4B Composite Characteristics through the Stir Casting Method as a Material Brake Shoe

Authors: Benny Alexander, Ikhlashia N. Fadhilah, Muhammad R. Pasha, Michelle Julia, Anne Z. Syahrial


Brake shoe is a component that serves to reduce speed or stop the train's speed by utilizing the friction force. Generally, the material used as a brake shoe is cast iron, where cast iron itself is a heavy, expensive, and easily worn material. Aluminum matrix composites are one of candidates for the cast iron replacement material as the basic material for brake shoe. The matrix in the composite used is Aluminum AC4B. Reinforcement used in aluminum matrix composites is nano-alumina, where the use of nano-alumina of 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, and 0.5% volume fraction will be tested. The sample is made using the stir casting method; then, it will be tested mechanically. The use of nano-alumina as a reinforcement will increase the strength of the matrix. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing is used to test the distribution of reinforcing particles due to stirring. Therefore, the addition of nano-alumina will improve AC4B aluminum matrix composites.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composites, brake shoe application, stir casting, nano-alumina

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6222 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon


Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocomposites

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6221 The Elastic Field of a Nano-Pore, and the Effective Modulus of Composites with Nano-Pores

Authors: Xin Chen, Moxiao Li, Xuechao Sun, Fei Ti, Shaobao Liu, Feng Xu, Tian Jian Lu


The composite materials with pores have the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and have broad prospects in many fields, including aerospace. In general, the stiffness of such composite is less than the stiffness of the matrix material, limiting their applications. In this paper, we establish a theoretical model to analyze the deformation mechanism of a nano-pore. The interface between the pores and matrix material is described by the Gurtin-Murdoch model. By considering scale effect related with current deformation, we estimate the effective mechanical properties (e.g., effective shear modulus and bulk modulus) of a composite with nano-pores. Due to the scale effect, the elastic field in the composite was changed and local hardening was observed around the nano-pore, and the effective shear modulus and effective bulk modulus were found to be a function of the surface energy. The effective shear modulus increase with the surface energy and decrease with the size of the nano-pores, and the effective bulk modulus decrease with the surface energy and increase with the size of the nano-pores. These results have potential applications in the nanocomposite mechanics and aerospace field.

Keywords: composite mechanics, nano-inhomogeneity, nano-pores, scale effect

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6220 Microbial Evaluation of Geophagic and Cosmetic Clays from Southern and Western Nigeria: Potential Natural Nanomaterials

Authors: Bisi-Johnson, Mary A., Hamzart A. Oyelade, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola


Geophagic and cosmetic clays are among potential nano-material which occur naturally and are of various forms. The use of these nano-clays is a common practice in both rural and urban areas mostly due to tradition and medicinal reasons. These naturally occurring materials can be valuable sources of nano-material by serving as nano-composites. The need to ascertain the safety of these materials is the motivation for this research. Physical Characterization based on the hue value and microbiological qualities of the nano-clays were carried out. The Microbial analysis of the clay samples showed considerable contamination with both bacteria and fungi with fungal contaminants taking the lead. This observation may not be unlikely due to the ability of fungi species to survive harsher growth conditions than bacteria. 'Atike pupa' showed no bacterial growth. The clay with the largest bacterial count was Calabash chalk (Igbanke), while that with the highest fungal count was 'Eko grey'. The most commonly isolated bacteria in this study were Clostridium spp. and Corynebacterium spp. while fungi included Aspergillus spp. These results are an indication of the need to subject these clay materials to treatments such as heating before consumption or topical usage thereby ascertaining their safety.

Keywords: nano-material, clay, microorganism, quality

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6219 Electrophysical and Thermoelectric Properties of Nano-scaled In2O3:Sn, Zn, Ga-Based Thin Films: Achievements and Limitations for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, B. K. Cho


The thermoelectric properties of nano-scaled In2O3:Sn films deposited by spray pyrolysis are considered in the present report. It is shown that multicomponent In2O3:Sn-based films are promising material for the application in thermoelectric devices. It is established that the increase in the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion at CSn~5% occurred due to nano-scaled structure of the films studied and the effect of the grain boundary filtering of the low energy electrons. There are also analyzed the limitations that may appear during such material using in devices developed for the market of thermoelectric generators and refrigerators. Studies showed that the stability of nano-scaled film’s parameters is the main problem which can limit the application of these materials in high temperature thermoelectric converters.

Keywords: energy conversion technologies, thermoelectricity, In2O3-based films, power factor, nanocomposites, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
6218 Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia


Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.

Keywords: nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM), phase change material (PCM), nanoparticles, latent heat storage unit (LHSU), melting.

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6217 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim


Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

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6216 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay


In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

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6215 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal


In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: nano, epoxy, composite, fillers, clay

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6214 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim


In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.

Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.

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6213 Tuneability Sub-10-nm WO3 Nano-Flakes and Their Electrical Properties

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, E. Kats


Electrical properties and morphology of orthorhombic β–WO3 nano-flakes with thickness of ~7-9 nm were investigated at the nano scale using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and current sensing force spectroscopy atomic force microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNATM). CSFS-AFM analysis established good correlation between the topography of the developed nano-structures and various features of WO3 nano-flakes synthesized via a two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method. It was determined that β–WO3 nano-flakes annealed at 550ºC possess distinguished and exceptional thickness-dependent properties in comparison with the bulk, micro- and nano-structured WO3 synthesized at alternative temperatures.

Keywords: electrical properties, layered semiconductors, nano-flake, sol-gel, exfoliation WO3

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6212 Comprehensive Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Nano Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications

Authors: Hammad Aziz


Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is applied on the surface of material requiring fire protection. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, zinc borate, mica, magnesium oxide, and bisphenol A BE-188 with polyamide polyamine H-4014 as curing agent. Formulations were prepared using nano size MgO and compared with control formulation i.e. without nano size MgO. Small scale hydrocarbon fire test was conducted to scrutinize the thermal performance of the coating. Char and coating were further characterized by using FESEM, FTIR, EDS, TGA and DTGA. Thus, Intumescent coatings reinforced with 2 wt. % of nano-MgO (rod shaped particles) provide superior thermal performance and uniform microstructure of char due to well dispersion of nano particles.

Keywords: intumescent coating, char, SEM, TGA

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6211 Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Nano Composite Pipe with PZT Layers Subjected to Moving Load

Authors: Morteza Raminnia


In this study, dynamic analysis of functionally graded nano-composite pipe reinforced by single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) with simply supported boundary condition subjected to moving mechanical loads is investigated. The material properties of functionally graded carbon nano tube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and are estimated through a micro-mechanical model. In this paper polymeric matrix considered as isotropic material and for the CNTRC, uniform distribution (UD) and three types of FG distribution patterns of SWCNT reinforcements are considered. The system equation of motion is derived by using Hamilton's principle under the assumptions of first order shear deformation theory (FSDT).The thin piezoelectric layers embedded on inner and outer surfaces of FG-CNTRC layer are acted as distributed sensor and actuator to control dynamic characteristics of the FG-CNTRC laminated pipe. The modal analysis technique and Newmark's integration method are used to calculate the displacement and dynamic stress of the pipe subjected to moving loads. The effects of various material distribution and velocity of moving loads on dynamic behavior of the pipe is presented. This present approach is validated by comparing the numerical results with the published numerical results in literature. The results show that the above-mentioned effects play very important role on dynamic behavior of the pipe .This present work shows that some meaningful results that which are interest to scientific and engineering community in the field of FGM nano-structures.

Keywords: nano-composite, functionally garded material, moving load, active control, PZT layers

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6210 Nano Sol Based Solar Responsive Smart Window for Aircraft

Authors: K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, R. M. De Silva, K. M. N. De Silva


This research work was based on developing a solar responsive aircraft window panel which can be used as a self-cleaning surface and also a surface which degrade Volatile Organic compounds (VOC) available in the aircraft cabin areas. Further, this surface has the potential of harvesting energy from Solar. The transparent inorganic nano sol solution was prepared. The obtained sol solution was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Particle size analyzer and FT-IR. The existing nano material which shows the similar characteristics was also used to compare the efficiencies with the newly prepared nano sol. Nano sol solution was coated on cleaned four aircraft window pieces separately using a spin coater machine. The existing nano material was dissolved and prepared a solution having the similar concentration as nano sol solution. Pre-cleaned four aircraft window pieces were coated with this solution and the rest cleaned four aircraft window pieces were considered as control samples. The control samples were uncoated from anything. All the window pieces were allowed to dry at room temperature. All the twelve aircraft window pieces were uniform in all the factors other than the type of coating. The surface morphologies of the samples were analyzed using SEM. The photocatalytic degradation of VOC was determined after incorporating gas of Toluene to each sample followed by the analysis done by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The self- cleaning capabilities were analyzed after adding of several types of stains on the window pieces. The self-cleaning property of each sample was analyzed using UV-VIS spectroscopy. The highest photocatalytic degradation of Volatile Organic compound and the highest photocatalytic degradation of stains were obtained for the samples which were coated by the nano sol solution. Therefore, the experimental results clearly show that there is a potential of using this nano sol in aircraft window pieces which favors the self-cleaning property as well as efficient photocatalytic degradation of VOC gases. This will ensure safer environment inside aircraft cabins.

Keywords: aircraft, nano, smart windows, solar

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6209 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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6208 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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6207 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, silicon carbide, waste glass

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6206 Synthesis, Characterization and Rheological Properties of Boronoxide, Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Mehmet Doğan, Mahir Alkan, Yasemin Turhan, Zürriye Gündüz, Pinar Beyli, Serap Doğan


Advances and new discoveries in the field of the material science on the basis of technological developments have played an important role. Today, material science is branched the lower branches such as metals, nonmetals, chemicals, polymers. The polymeric nano composites have found a wide application field as one of the most important among these groups. Many polymers used in the different fields of the industry have been desired to improve the thermal stability. One of the ways to improve this property of the polymers is to form the nano composite products of them using different fillers. There are many using area of boron compounds and is increasing day by day. In order to the further increasing of the variety of using area of boron compounds and industrial importance, it is necessary to synthesis of nano-products and to find yourself new application areas of these products. In this study, PMMA/boronoxide nano composites were synthesized using solution intercalation, polymerization and melting methods; and PAA/boronoxide nano composites using solution intercalation method. Furthermore, rheological properties of nano composites synthesed according to melting method were also studied. Nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR-ATR, DTA/TG, BET, SEM, and TEM instruments. The effects of filler material amount, solvent types and mediating reagent on the thermal stability of polymers were investigated. In addition, the rheological properties of PMMA/boronoxide nano composites synthesized by melting method were investigated using High Pressure Capillary Rheometer. XRD analysis showed that boronoxide was dispersed in polymer matrix; FTIR-ATR that there were interactions with boronoxide between PAA and PMMA; and TEM that boronoxide particles had spherical structure, and dispersed in nano sized dimension in polymer matrix; the thermal stability of polymers was increased with the adding of boronoxide in polymer matrix; the decomposition mechanism of PAA was changed. From rheological measurements, it was found that PMMA and PMMA/boronoxide nano composites exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic, shear thinning behavior under all experimental conditions.

Keywords: boronoxide, polymer, nanocomposite, rheology, characterization

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6205 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor

Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil


Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.

Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumented

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6204 Comparison Between Nano Composite and Pits and Fissure Sealant: In Vitro Study

Authors: Osama Safwat Mohamed


Pits and fissures dental caries can be prevented using sealant material. This study aimed to compare the microleakage and interfacial morphology of flowable nanocomposites and conventional pit and fissure sealants. 60 extracted intact and caries-free permanent mandibular third molars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the material used for pit and fissure sealant. Group I: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant, Group II: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant with bond and Group III: Nano flowable composite resin with bond. The results showed that nano-flowable composite was significantly better than the conventional sealants groups p = 0.000. As well there was better as well, there were gaps between sealants and the tooth surfaces in groups I and II, but for group III, there was close contact between the nano-flowable composite and tooth surfaces. It was concluded that nano-flowable composite showed better microleakage and interfacial morphology results than conventional pits and fissure sealant and offered promising results at the fissure sealing.

Keywords: pits and fissures, Sealant, nanocomposite, dental caries

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6203 Evaluation of Microleakage of a New Generation Nano-Ionomer in Class II Restoration of Primary Molars

Authors: Ghada Salem, Nihal Kabel


Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to assess the microleakage properties of nano-filled glass ionomer in comparison to resin-reinforced glass ionomers. Material and Methods: 40 deciduous molar teeth were included in this study. Class-II cavity was prepared in a standard form for all the specimens. The teeth were randomly distributed into two groups (20 per group) according to the restorative material used either nano-glass ionomer or Photac Fill glass ionomer restoration. All specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C. After that, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye then sectioned and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was assessed using linear dye penetration and on a scale from zero to five. Results: Two way ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant lower degree of microleakage in both occlusal and gingival restorations (0.4±0.2), (0.9±0.1) for nano-filled glass ionomer group in comparison to resin modified glass ionomer (2.3±0.7), (2.4±0.5). No statistical difference was found between gingival and occlusal leakage regarding the effect of the measured site. Conclusion: Nano-filled glass ionomer shows superior sealing ability which enables this type of restoration to be used in minimum invasive treatment.

Keywords: microleakage, nanoionomer, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, proximal cavity preparation

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6202 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas


A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: nanostructures, Monte Carlo, pattern media, magnetic properties

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6201 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao


The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

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6200 Sensing Mechanism of Nano-Toxic Ions Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Authors: Chanho Park, Juneseok You, Kuewhan Jang, Sungsoo Na


Detection technique of nanotoxic materials is strongly imperative, because nano-toxic materials can harmfully influence human health and environment as their engineering applications are growing rapidly in recent years. In present work, we report the DNA immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based sensor for detection of nano-toxic materials such as silver ions, Hg2+ etc. by using functionalization of quartz crystal with a target-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz crystal is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated fast and in situ detection of nanotoxic materials using quartz crystal microbalance. We report the label-free and highly sensitive detection of silver ion for present case, which is a typical nano-toxic material by using QCM and silver-specific DNA. The detection is based on the measurement of frequency shift of Quartz crystal from constitution of the cytosine-Ag+-cytosine binding. It is shown that the silver-specific DNA measured frequency shift by QCM enables the capturing of silver ions below 100pM. The results suggest that DNA-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.

Keywords: nano-toxic ions, quartz crystal microbalance, frequency shift, target-specific DNA

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6199 Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano- Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application

Authors: L. Major, J. M. Lackner, M. Dyner, B. Major


Development of new generation bio- tribological, multilayer coatings, opens an avenue for fabrication of future high- tech functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano- composite, Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools. Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nano- multilayer coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition conditions on bio- tribological properties of the coatings were studied. The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed nano- multilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical tools. Bio- medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-on-disc mechanical test. The microhardness was done using Berkovich indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell indenter. From the bio- tribological point of view, the optimal properties had the C106_1 material.

Keywords: bio- tribological coatings, cell- material interaction, hybrid PLD, tribology

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6198 Study of the ZnO Effect on the Properties of HDPE/ ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, F. Zouai, N. Kharchi, D. Benachour


A HDPE/ZnO nano composites have been successfully performed using the co-mixing. The ZnO was first co-mixed with the stearic acid then added to the polymer in the plastograph. The nano composites prepared with the co-mixed ZnO were compared to those prepared with the neat TiO2. The nano composites were characterized by different techniques as the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nano structure/properties relationships were investigated. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: exfoliation, ZnO, nano composites, HDPE, co-mixing

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6197 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad


Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: INNPT technology, nanomaterial, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

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6196 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

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6195 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim


This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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6194 Moisture Absorption Analysis of LLDPE-NR Nanocomposite for HV Insulation

Authors: M. S. Kamarulzaman, N. A. Muhamad, N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. F. Kasri


Insulation for high voltage application that has been service for a very long time is subjected to several types of degradation. The degradation can lead to premature breakdown and definitely will spent highly cost to replace the cable. Thus, there are many research on nano composite material get serious attention attention due to their abilities to enhance electrical performance by addition of nano filler. In this paper, water absorption of Low Linear Density Polyethyelene (LLDPE) with different amount of nano filler added is studied. This study is necessary to be conducted since most of electrical apparatus such as cable insulation are dominant used especially in high voltage application. The cable insulation are continuously exposed in uncontrolled environment may suffer degradation process. Three type of nano fillers, was used in this study are: Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Monmorillonite (MMT). The percentage absorption of water was measured by weighted using high precision scales for absorption process up to 92 days. Experimental result demonstrate that SiO2 absorb less water than other filler while, the MMT has hydrophilic properties which it absorbs more water compare to another sample.

Keywords: nano composite, nano filler, water absorption, hydrophilic properties

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