Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4475

Search results for: renewable resources

4475 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

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4474 Conservation of Energy in Households in Urban Areas in India

Authors: Aashee Garg, Anusha Agarwal

Abstract:

India, as a country is very rich in terms of natural resources however as citizens, we have not respected this fact and have been continuously exploiting nature’s gift to mankind. Further as the population is ever increasing, the load on the consumption of resources is unprecedented. This has led to the depletion of natural resources such as coal, oil, gas etc., apart from the pollution it causes. It is time that we shift from use of these conventional resources to more effective new ways of energy generation. We should develop and encourage usage of renewable resources such as wind and solar in households to conserve energy in place of the above mentioned nonrenewable energy sources. This paper deals with the most effective ways in which the households in India can conserve energy thus reducing effect on environment and depletion of limited resources.

Keywords: energy consumption, resources, India, renewable resources and environment

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4473 Optimal Planning and Design of Hybrid Energy System for Taxila University

Authors: Habib Ur Rahman Habib

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources are being realized as suitable options in hybrid energy planning for on-grid and micro grid. In this paper, operation, planning and optimal design of on-grid distributed energy resources based hybrid system are investigated. The aim is to minimize the cost of the overall energy system keeping in view the environmental emission and minimum penetration of conventional energy resources. Seven grid connected different case studies including diesel only, diesel-renewable based, and renewable based only are designed to perform economic analysis, operational planning and emission. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate the impact of different parameters on the performance of energy resources.

Keywords: data management, renewable energy, distributed energy, smart grid, micro-grid, modeling, energy planning, design optimization

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4472 Comprehensive Study of Renewable Energy Resources and Present Scenario in India

Authors: Aparna Bhat, Rajeshwari Hegde

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy- bio-fuels grown sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable. This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of India. The paper also presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India and implementing renewable for the future is also been presented.

Keywords: solar energy, renewabe energy, wind energy, bio-diesel, biomass, feedin

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4471 Renewable Energy and Energy Security in Malaysia: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Endang Jati Mat Sahid, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Robust economic growth, increasing population, and personal consumption are the main drivers for the rapid increase of energy demand in Malaysia. Increasing demand has compounded the issue of national energy security due to over-dependence on fossil fuel, depleting indigenous domestic conventional energy resources which in turns has increased the country’s energy import dependence. In order to improve its energy security, Malaysia has seriously embarked on a renewable energy journey. Many initiatives on renewable energy have been introduced in the past decade. These strategies have resulted in the exploding growth of renewable energy deployment in Malaysia. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of renewable energy deployment on energy security. Secondary data was used to calculate the energy security indicators. The study also compared the results of applying different energy security indicators namely availability, applicability, affordability and acceptability dimension of energy resources. The evaluation shows that Malaysia will experience slight improvement in availability and acceptability dimension of energy security. This study suggests that energy security level could be further enhanced by efficient utilization of energy, reducing carbon content of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries.

Keywords: energy policy, energy security, Malaysia, renewable energy

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4470 Geothermal Resources to Ensure Energy Security During Climate Change

Authors: Debasmita Misra, Arthur Nash

Abstract:

Energy security and sufficiency enables the economic development and welfare of a nation or a society. Currently, the global energy system is dominated by fossil fuels, which is a non-renewable energy resource, which renders vulnerability to energy security. Hence, many nations have begun augmenting their energy system with renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, biomass and hydro. However, with climate change, how sustainable are some of the renewable energy resources in the future is a matter of concern. Geothermal energy resources have been underexplored or underexploited in global renewable energy production and security, although it is gaining attractiveness as a renewable energy resource. The question is, whether geothermal energy resources are more sustainable than other renewable energy resources. High-temperature reservoirs (> 220 °F) can produce electricity from flash/dry steam plants as well as binary cycle production facilities. Most of the world’s high enthalpy geothermal resources are within the seismo-tectonic belt. However, exploration for geothermal energy is of great importance in conventional geothermal systems in order to improve its economic viability. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use and development of several exploration methods for geo-thermal resources, such as seismic or electromagnetic methods. The thermal infrared band of the Landsat can reflect land surface temperature difference, so the ETM+ data with specific grey stretch enhancement has been used to explore underground heat water. Another way of exploring for potential power is utilizing fairway play analysis for sites without surface expression and in rift zones. Utilizing this type of analysis can improve the success rate of project development by reducing exploration costs. Identifying the basin distribution of geologic factors that control the geothermal environment would help in identifying the control of resource concentration aside from the heat flow, thus improving the probability of success. The first step is compiling existing geophysical data. This leads to constructing conceptual models of potential geothermal concentrations which can then be utilized in creating a geodatabase to analyze risk maps. Geospatial analysis and other GIS tools can be used in such efforts to produce spatial distribution maps. The goal of this paper is to discuss how climate change may impact renewable energy resources and how could a synthesized analysis be developed for geothermal resources to ensure sustainable and cost effective exploitation of the resource.

Keywords: exploration, geothermal, renewable energy, sustainable

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4469 Energy Trading for Cooperative Microgrids with Renewable Energy Resources

Authors: Ziaullah, Shah Wahab Ali

Abstract:

Micro-grid equipped with heterogeneous energy resources present the idea of small scale distributed energy management (DEM). DEM helps in minimizing the transmission and operation costs, power management and peak load demands. Micro-grids are collections of small, independent controllable power-generating units and renewable energy resources. Micro-grids also motivate to enable active customer participation by giving accessibility of real-time information and control to the customer. The capability of fast restoration against faulty situation, integration of renewable energy resources and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) make micro-grid as an ideal system for distributed power systems. Micro-grids can have a bank of energy storage devices. The energy management system of micro-grid can perform real-time energy forecasting of renewable resources, energy storage elements and controllable loads in making proper short-term scheduling to minimize total operating costs. We present a review of existing micro-grids optimization objectives/goals, constraints, solution approaches and tools used in micro-grids for energy management. Cost-benefit analysis of micro-grid reveals that cooperation among different micro-grids can play a vital role in the reduction of import energy cost and system stability. Cooperative micro-grids energy trading is an approach to electrical distribution energy resources that allows local energy demands more control over the optimization of power resources and uses. Cooperation among different micro-grids brings the interconnectivity and power trading issues. According to the literature, it shows that open area of research is available for cooperative micro-grids energy trading. In this paper, we proposed and formulated the efficient energy management/trading module for interconnected micro-grids. It is believed that this research will open new directions in future for energy trading in cooperative micro-grids/interconnected micro-grids.

Keywords: distributed energy management, information and communication technologies, microgrid, energy management

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4468 A Paradigm Shift in Energy Policy and Use: Exergy and Hybrid Renewable Energy Technologies

Authors: Adavbiele Airewe Stephen

Abstract:

Sustainable energy use is exploiting energy resources within acceptable levels of global resource depletion without destroying the ecological balance of an area. In the context of sustainability, the rush to quell the energy crisis of the fossil fuels of the 1970's by embarking on nuclear energy technology has now been seen as a disaster. In the circumstance, action (policy) suggested in this study to avoid future occurrence is exergy maximization/entropy generation minimization and the use is renewable energy technologies that are hybrid based. Thirty-two (32) selected hybrid renewable energy technologies were assessed with respect to their energetic efficiencies and entropy generation. The results indicated that determining which of the hybrid technologies is the most efficient process and sustainable is a matter of defining efficiency and knowing which of them possesses the minimum entropy generation.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, hybrid renewable energy technologies, sustainability

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4467 Hybrid System Configurations and Charging Strategies for Isolated Electric Tuk-Tuk Charging Station in South Africa

Authors: L. Bokopane, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaark

Abstract:

The success of renewable powered electric vehicle charging station in isolated areas depends highly on the availability and sustainability of renewable resources all year round at a selected location. The main focus of this paper is to discuss the possible charging strategies that could be implemented to find the best possible configuration of an electric Tuk-Tuk charging station at a given location within South Africa. The charging station is designed, modeled and simulated to evaluate its performances. The techno-economic analysis of different feasible supply configurations of the charging station using renewable energies is simulated using HOMER software and the results compared in order to select the best possible charging strategies in terms of cost of energy consumed.

Keywords: electric tuk-tuk, renewable energy, energy Storage, hybrid systems, HOMER

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4466 Evolution of Germany’s Feed-in Tariff Policy

Authors: Gaafar Muhammed, N. T. Ersoy

Abstract:

The role of electricity in the economic development of any country is undeniable. The main goal of utilizing renewable sources in electricity generation, especially in the emerging countries, is to improve electricity access, economic development and energy sustainability. Germany’s recent transition from conventional to renewable energy technologies is overwhelming, this might not be associated with its abundant natural resources but owing to the policies in place. In line with the fast economic and technological developments recorded in recent years, Germany currently produces approximately 1059 GW of its energy from renewable sources. Hence, at the end of 2016, Germany is among the world leaders in terms of installed renewable energy capacity. As one of the most important factors that lead to renewable energy utilization in any nation is an effective policy, this study aims at examining the effect of policies on renewable energy (RE) development in Germany. Also, the study will focus on the evolution of the adopted feed-in tariff policies, as this evolution has affected the renewable energy capacity in Germany over a period of 15 years (2000 to 2015). The main contribution of the study is to establish a link between the feed-in tariff and the increase of RE in Germany’s energy mix. This is done by analyzing the characteristics of various feed-in tariff mechanisms adopted through the years. These characteristics include the feed-in-tariff rate, degression, special conditions, supported technology, etc. Then, the renewable energy development in Germany has been analyzed through the years along with the targets and the progress in reaching these targets. The study reveals that Germany’s renewable energy support policies (especially feed-in tariff) lead to several benefits and contribute towards the targets existing for renewable energy.

Keywords: feed-in tariff, Germany, policy, penewable energy

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4465 Wind Energy Status in Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Engin Başoğlu, Bekir Çakir

Abstract:

Since large part of electricity generation is provided by using fossil based resources, energy is an important agenda for countries. Depletion of fossil resources, increasing awareness of climate change and global warming concerns are the major reasons for turning to alternative energy resources. Solar, wind and hydropower energy are the main renewable energy sources. Among of them, wind energy is promising for Turkey whose installed power capacity increases approximately eight times between 2008 - seventh month of 2014. Signing of Kyoto Protocol can be accepted as a milestone for Turkey's energy policy. Turkish government has announced 2023 Vision (2023 targets) in 2010-2014 Strategic Plan prepared by Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). 2023 Energy targets can be summarized as follows: Share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation is 30% of total electricity generation by 2023. Installed capacity of wind energy will be 20 GW by 2023. Other renewable energy sources such as solar, hydropower and geothermal are encouraged with new incentive mechanisms. Share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation will be 10% of total electricity generation by 2023. Dependence on foreign energy is reduced for sustainability and energy security. As of seventh month of 2014, total installed capacity of wind power plants is 3.42 GW and a lot of wind power plants are under construction with capacity 1.16 GW. Turkish government also encourages the locally manufactured equipments. MILRES is an important project aimed to promote the use of renewable sources in electricity generation. A 500 kW wind turbine will be produced in the first phase of project. Then 2.5 MW wind turbine will be manufactured domestically within this project

Keywords: wind energy, wind speed, 2023 vision, MILRES, wind energy potential in TURKEY

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4464 Perspectives of Renewable Energy in 21st Century in India: Statistics and Estimation

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

With the favourable geographical conditions at Indian-subcontinent, it is suitable for flourishing renewable energy. Increasing amount of dependence on coal and other conventional sources is driving the world into pollution and depletion of resources. This paper presents the statistics of energy consumption and energy generation in Indian Sub-continent, which notifies us with the increasing energy demands surpassing energy generation. With the aggrandizement in demand for energy, usage of coal has increased, since the major portion of energy production in India is from thermal power plants. The increase in usage of thermal power plants causes pollution and depletion of reserves; hence, a paradigm shift to renewable sources is inevitable. In this work, the capacity and potential of renewable sources in India are analyzed. Based on the analysis of this work, future potential of these sources is estimated.

Keywords: depletion of reserves, energy consumption and generation, emmissions, global warming, renewable sources

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4463 Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Sumi, Kiichiro Hayashi

Abstract:

Now, the use of renewable energy power generation has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the expansion support policy of photovoltaic power generation which was researched using The internet and the amount of resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using the NEDO formula in the municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no consideration of the amount of resources. We think it would need to consider the suitability between the policies and resources.

Keywords: photovoltaic power generation, dissemination and support policy, amount of resources, Japan

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4462 Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Nor Hamisham Harun

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable energy in Malaysia. Energy policies and strategies to protect the non-renewable energy utilization also are highlighted, focusing in the different sources of energy available for high and sustained economic growth. Emphasis is also placed on a discussion of the role of renewable energy as an alternative source for the increase of electricity supply security. It is now evident that to achieve sustainable development through renewable energy, energy policies and strategies have to be well designed and supported by the government, industries (firms), and individual or community participation. The hope is to create a positive impact on sustainable development through renewable sources for current and future generations.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, sustainable energy

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4461 Adsorption Cooling Using Hybrid Energy Resources

Authors: R. Benelmir, M. El Kadri, A. Donnot, D. Descieux

Abstract:

HVAC represents a significant part of energy needs in buildings. Integrating renewable energy in cooling processes contributes to reducing primary energy consumption. Sorption refrigeration allows cold production through the use of solar/biomass/geothermal energy or even valuation of waste heat. This work presents an analysis of an experimental bench incorporating an adsorption chiller driven by hybrid energy resources associating solar thermal collectors with a cogeneration gas engine and a geothermal heat pump.

Keywords: solar cooling, cogeneration, geothermal heat pump, hybrid energy resources

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4460 Achieving High Renewable Energy Penetration in Western Australia Using Data Digitisation and Machine Learning

Authors: A. D. Tayal

Abstract:

The energy industry is undergoing significant disruption. This research outlines that, whilst challenging; this disruption is also an emerging opportunity for electricity utilities. One such opportunity is leveraging the developments in data analytics and machine learning. As the uptake of renewable energy technologies and complimentary control systems increases, electricity grids will likely transform towards dense microgrids with high penetration of renewable generation sources, rich in network and customer data, and linked through intelligent, wireless communications. Data digitisation and analytics have already impacted numerous industries, and its influence on the energy sector is growing, as computational capabilities increase to manage big data, and as machines develop algorithms to solve the energy challenges of the future. The objective of this paper is to address how far the uptake of renewable technologies can go given the constraints of existing grid infrastructure and provides a qualitative assessment of how higher levels of renewable energy penetration can be facilitated by incorporating even broader technological advances in the fields of data analytics and machine learning. Western Australia is used as a contextualised case study, given its abundance and diverse renewable resources (solar, wind, biomass, and wave) and isolated networks, making a high penetration of renewables a feasible target for policy makers over coming decades.

Keywords: data, innovation, renewable, solar

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4459 Teachers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Policy in Malaysia

Authors: Kazi Enamul Hoque

Abstract:

Initiatives on sustainable development are currently aggressively pursued throughout the world. The Malaysian government has developed key policies and strategies for over 30 years to achieve the nation’s policy objectives which are designed to mitigate the issues of security, energy efficiency and environmental impact to meet the rising energy demand. Malaysia’s current focus is on developing effective policies on renewable energy (RE) in order to reduce dependency on fossil fuel and contribute towards mitigating the effects of climate change. In this light mass awareness should be considered as the highest priority to protect the environment and to escape disaster due to climate change. Schools can be the reliable and effective foundation to prepare students to get familiar with environmental issues such as renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Teachers can play a vital role to create awareness among students about the advantages and disadvantages of using different renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. Thus, this study aims to investigate teachers’ knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards renewable energy through a survey aiming a sustainable energy future. Five hundred sets of questionnaires were distributed to the school teachers in Malaysia. Total 420 questionnaires were returned of which 410 were complete to analyze. Finding shows that teachers are very familiar with the renewable energy like solar, wind and also geothermal. Most teachers were not sure about the Photovoltaics and biodiesel. Furthermore, teachers are also aware that primary energy in Malaysia is imported fossil fuels. Most teachers heard about the renewable energy in Malaysia and only few claims that they did not hear of such things and the others said that they never heard of it. The outcomes of the study will assist the energy policy makers to use teachers to create mass awareness of energy usages for future planning.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, school teacher

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4458 A Review on Modeling and Optimization of Integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) for Minimum Energy Cost, Minimum CO₂ Emissions and Sustainable Development, in Recent Years

Authors: M. M. Wagh, V. V. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The rising economic activities, growing population and improving living standards of world have led to a steady growth in its appetite for quality and quantity of energy services. As the economy expands the electricity demand is going to grow further, increasing the challenges of the more generation and stresses on the utility grids. Appropriate energy model will help in proper utilization of the locally available renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro etc. to integrate in the available grid, reducing the investments in energy infrastructure. Further to these new technologies like smart grids, decentralized energy planning, energy management practices, energy efficiency are emerging. In this paper, the attempt has been made to study and review the recent energy planning models, energy forecasting models, and renewable energy integration models. In addition, various modeling techniques and tools are reviewed and discussed.

Keywords: energy modeling, integration of renewable energy, energy modeling tools, energy modeling techniques

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4457 Energy Efficient Buildings in Tehran by Reviewing High-Tech Methods and Vernacular Architecture Principles

Authors: Shima Naderi, Abbas Abbaszadeh Shahri

Abstract:

Energy resources are reachable and affordable in Iran, thus surplus access to fossil fuels besides high level of economic growth leads to serious environmental critical such as pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, increase in average degrease and lack of water sources specially in Tehran as a capital city of Iran. As building sector consumes a huge portion of energy, taking actions towards alternative sources of energy as well as conserving non-renewable energy resources and architectural energy saving methods are the fundamental basis for achieving sustainability`s goals. This study tries to explore implantation of both high technologies and traditional issues for reduction of energy demands in buildings of Tehran and introduce some factors and instructions for achieving this purpose. Green and energy efficient buildings such as ZEBs make it possible to preserve natural resources for the next generations by reducing pollution and increasing ecosystem self-recovery. However ZEB is not widely spread in Iran because of its low economic efficiency, it is not viable for a private entrepreneur without the governmental supports. Therefore executing of Architectural Energy Efficiency can be a better option. It is necessary to experience a substructure expansion with respect to traditional residential building style. Renewable energies and passive design which are the substantial part of the history of architecture in Iran can be regenerated and employed as an essential part of designing energy efficient buildings.

Keywords: architectural energy efficiency, passive design, renewable energies, zero energy buildings

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4456 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Power System for House in Newfoundland via HOMER and BEopt Software

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Aisa, Aiman Salam Eisay

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based hybrid energy systems are ideal solutions for reducing environmental pollution. The hybrid energy system (HES) is a collection of various renewable power resources such as hydro, wind, solar, bio, geothermal, hydrokinetic (tidal/wave) and small/micro hydro that use a fossil fuel-powered diesel generator to provide electric power. This paper analyzes wind solar hybrid systems that can be connected to DC and AC via an electrolyzer connected to a hydrogen tank. The optimizations and simulations of the proposed system were performed with Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. In order to determine the optimal combination of the system, different combinations of PV arrays, generators, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tanks were selected on the basis of the Net Present Cost from the simulation results. The system installed at the house site consists of a load of 3.2 kW peak and 24kWh/d. The results show optimization performance for production at PV array 4,794kWh/yr, wind turbine 11,243kWh/yr and generator 92 kWh/yr.

Keywords: hybrid, design, renewable, energy, fossil fuel, electric power, electrolyzer

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4455 Economic Evaluation Offshore Wind Project under Uncertainly and Risk Circumstances

Authors: Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti

Abstract:

Offshore wind energy as a strategic renewable energy, has been growing rapidly due to availability, abundance and clean nature of it. On the other hand, budget of this project is incredibly higher in comparison with other renewable energies and it takes more duration. Accordingly, precise estimation of time and cost is needed in order to promote awareness in the developers and society and to convince them to develop this kind of energy despite its difficulties. Occurrence risks during on project would cause its duration and cost constantly changed. Therefore, to develop offshore wind power, it is critical to consider all potential risks which impacted project and to simulate their impact. Hence, knowing about these risks could be useful for the selection of most influencing strategies such as avoidance, transition, and act in order to decrease their probability and impact. This paper presents an evaluation of the feasibility of 500 MV offshore wind project in the Persian Gulf and compares its situation with uncertainty resources and risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate time and cost of offshore wind project under risk circumstances and uncertain resources by using Monte Carlo simulation. We analyzed each risk and activity along with their distribution function and their effect on the project.

Keywords: wind energy project, uncertain resources, risks, Monte Carlo simulation

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4454 Life Cycle Assessment of an Onshore Wind Turbine in Kuwait

Authors: Badriya Almutairi, Ashraf El-Hamalawi

Abstract:

Wind energy technologies are considered to be among the most promising types of renewable energy sources due to the growing concerns over climate change and energy security. Kuwait is amongst the countries that began realising the consequences of climate change and the long-term economic and energy security situation, considering options when oil runs out. Added to this are the fluctuating oil prices, rapid increase in population, high electricity consumption and protection of the environment It began to make efforts in the direction of greener solutions for energy needs by looking for alternative forms of energy and assessing potential renewable energy resources, including wind and solar. The aim of this paper is to examine wind energy as an alternative renewable energy source in Kuwait, due to its availability and low cost, reducing the dependency on fossil fuels compared to other forms of renewable energy. This paper will present a life cycle assessment of onshore wind turbine systems in Kuwait, comprising 4 stages; goal and scope of the analysis, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation of the results. It will also provide an assessment of potential renewable energy resources and technologies applied for power generation and the environmental benefits for Kuwait. An optimum location for a site (Shagaya) will be recommended for reasons such as high wind speeds, land availability and distance to the next grid connection, and be the focus of this study. The potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout the wind turbine system’s life-cycle are then analysed using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The results show the total carbon dioxide (CO₂) emission for a turbine with steel pile foundations is greater than emissions from a turbine with concrete foundations by 18 %. The analysis also shows the average CO₂ emissions from electricity generated using crude oil is 645gCO₂/kWh and the carbon footprint per functional unit for a wind turbine ranges between 6.6 g/kWh to 10 g/kWh, an increase of 98%, thus providing cost and environmental benefits by creating a wind farm in Kuwait. Using a cost-benefit analysis, it was also found that the electricity produced from wind energy in Kuwait would cost 17.6fils/kWh (0.05834 $/kWh), which is less than the cost of electricity currently being produced using conventional methods at 22 fils/kW (0.07$/kWh), i.e., a reduction of 20%.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, Kuwait, life cycle assessment, renewable energy, wind energy

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4453 Feasibility Study of Tidal Current of the Bay of Bengal to Generate Electricity as a Renewable Energy

Authors: Myisha Ahmad, G. M. Jahid Hasan

Abstract:

Electricity is the pinnacle of human civilization. At present, the growing concerns over significant climate change have intensified the importance of the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. The interest is primarily due to better energy security, smaller environmental impact and providing a sustainable alternative compared to the conventional energy sources. Solar power, wind, biomass, tidal power, and wave power are some of the most reliable sources of renewable energy. Ocean approximately holds 2×10³ TW of energy and has the largest renewable energy resource on the planet. Ocean energy has many forms namely, encompassing tides, ocean circulation, surface waves, salinity and thermal gradients. Ocean tide in particular, associates both potential and kinetic energy. The study is focused on the latter concept that deals with tidal current energy conversion technologies. Tidal streams or marine currents generate kinetic energy that can be extracted by marine current energy devices and converted into transmittable energy form. The principle of technology development is very comparable to that of wind turbines. Conversion of marine tidal resources into substantial electrical power offers immense opportunities to countries endowed with such resources and this work is aimed at addressing such prospects of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the extracted current velocities from numerical model works at several locations in the Bay of Bengal. Based on current magnitudes, directions and available technologies the most fitted locations were adopted and possible annual generation capacity was estimated. The paper also examines the future prospects of tidal current energy along the Bay of Bengal and establishes a constructive approach that could be adopted in future project developments.

Keywords: bay of Bengal, energy potential, renewable energy, tidal current

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4452 Guadua Bamboo as Eco-Friendly Element in Interior Design and Architecture

Authors: Sarah Noaman

Abstract:

Utilizing renewable resources has become extensive solution for most problems in Egypt nowadays. It plays role in environmental issues such as energy crisis, lake of natural resources and climate change. This paper focuses on the importance of working with the key concepts of creating eco-friendly spaces in Egypt by using traditional perennial plants, such as Guadua bamboo as renewable resources in structures manufacture. Egypt is in critical need to search for alternative raw materials. Thus, this paper focuses on studying the usage of neglected yet affordable materials, such as Guadua bamboo in light weight structures and digital fabrication. Guadua bamboo has been cultivated throughout in tropical and subtropical areas. In Egypt, they exist in many rural areas where people try to control their growth by using pesticides as it serves no economic purpose. This paper aims to discuss the usage of Guadua bamboo either in its original state or after fabrication in the context of interior design and architecture. The results will show the applicability of using perennial plants as complementary materials in the manufacturing processes; also the conclusion will focus the lights on the importance of re-forming shallow water plants in interior design and architecture.

Keywords: digital fabrication, Guadua bamboo, zero-waste material, sustainable material, interior architecture

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4451 Renewable Energy and Environment: Design of a Decision Aided Tool for Sustainable Development

Authors: Mustapha Ouardouz, Mina Amharref, Abdessamed Bernoussi

Abstract:

The future energy, for limited energy resources countries, goes through renewable energies (solar, wind etc.). The renewable energies constitute a major component of the energy strategy to cover a substantial part of the growing needs and contribute to environmental protection by replacing fossil fuels. Indeed, sustainable development involves the promotion of renewable energy and the preservation of the environment by the use of clean energy technologies to limit emissions of greenhouse gases and reducing the pressure exerted on the forest cover. So the impact studies, of the energy use on the environment and farm-related risks are necessary. For that, a global approach integrating all the various sectors involved in such project seems to be the best approach. In this paper we present an approach based on the multi criteria analysis and the realization of one pilot to achieve the development of an innovative geo-intelligent environmental platform. An implementation of this platform will collect, process, analyze and manage environmental data in connection with the nature of used energy in the studied region. As an application we consider a region in the north of Morocco characterized by intense agricultural and industrials activities and using diverse renewable energy. The strategic goals of this platform are; the decision support for better governance, improving the responsiveness of public and private companies connected by providing them in real time with reliable data, modeling and simulation possibilities of energy scenarios, the identification of socio-technical solutions to introduce renewable energies and estimate technical and implantable potential by socio-economic analyzes and the assessment of infrastructure for the region and the communities, the preservation and enhancement of natural resources for better citizenship governance through democratization of access to environmental information, the tool will also perform simulations integrating environmental impacts of natural disasters, particularly those linked to climate change. Indeed extreme cases such as floods, droughts and storms will be no longer rare and therefore should be integrated into such projects.

Keywords: renewable energies, decision aided tool, environment, simulation

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4450 Desalination Technologies and Desalination Integrated with Renewable Energies – A Case Study

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

As water resources are rapidly getting diminished, more and more interest is paid to the desalination of saline waters. Desalination has become a reliable and cost effective solution in provision of fresh water particularly in the arid areas of the world such as Middle East countries. However, the dramatic increase of utilizing desalination will cause a series of problems which are significantly related to energy consumption and environment impacts. The use of renewable energy sources to provide energy required by desalination processes is a feasible and simultaneously environmental friendly solution. In this study an attempt has been made to present a review on desalination technologies, desalination integrated with renewable energies, in brief, and practical progresses made during recent years particularly in the field of desalination by wind energy which is the most common form of renewable energies. Moreover, an economic analysis of a wind powered RO desalination system comprising of 10×2.5 MW wind turbines is done, and the results will be compared to those of a cogeneration system comprising of one 25 MW gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and MED-TVC desalination.

Keywords: wind turbine, desalination, RO, MED, cogeneration, gas turbine, HRSG

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4449 Impact of PV Distributed Generation on Loop Distribution Network at Saudi Electricity Company Substation in Riyadh City

Authors: Mohammed Alruwaili‬

Abstract:

Nowadays, renewable energy resources are playing an important role in replacing traditional energy resources such as fossil fuels by integrating solar energy with conventional energy. Concerns about the environment led to an intensive search for a renewable energy source. The Rapid growth of distributed energy resources will have prompted increasing interest in the integrated distributing network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia next few years, especially after the adoption of new laws and regulations in this regard. Photovoltaic energy is one of the promising renewable energy sources that has grown rapidly worldwide in the past few years and can be used to produce electrical energy through the photovoltaic process. The main objective of the research is to study the impact of PV in distribution networks based on real data and details. In this research, site survey and computer simulation will be dealt with using the well-known computer program software ETAB to simulate the input of electrical distribution lines with other variable inputs such as the levels of solar radiation and the field study that represent the prevailing conditions and conditions in Diriah, Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. In addition, the impact of adding distributed generation units (DGs) to the distribution network, including solar photovoltaic (PV), will be studied and assessed for the impact of adding different power capacities. The result has been achieved with less power loss in the loop distribution network from the current condition by more than 69% increase in network power loss. However, the studied network contains 78 buses. It is hoped from this research that the efficiency, performance, quality and reliability by having an enhancement in power loss and voltage profile of the distribution networks in Riyadh City. Simulation results prove that the applied method can illustrate the positive impact of PV in loop distribution generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, smart grid, efficiency, distribution network

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4448 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

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4447 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass

Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available. As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level. The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.

Keywords: biogas production, risks, risk assessment, biosystems engineering

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4446 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy

Abstract:

The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.

Keywords: SOME, POME, BMEP, BSFC, BTE

Procedia PDF Downloads 381