Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: polycaprolactone

35 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla


In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, starch, biodegradable, nanocomposite

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34 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay


Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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33 Chloroform-Formic Acid Solvent Systems for Nanofibrous Polycaprolactone Webs

Authors: I. Yalcin Enis, J. Vojtech, T. Gok Sadikoglu


In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) was dissolved in chloroform: ethanol solvent system at a concentration of 18 w/v %. 1, 2, 4, and 6 droplets of formic acid were added to the prepared 10ml PCL-chloroform:ethanol solutions separately. Fibrous webs were produced by electrospinning technique. Morphology of the webs was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas fiber diameters were measured by Image J Software System. The effect of formic acid addition to the mostly used chloroform solvent on fiber morphology was examined.

Keywords: chloroform, electrospinning, formic acid polycaprolactone, fiber

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32 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George


The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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31 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Emi Govorčin Bajsića, Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum


Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, titanium dioxide, thermal properties, morphology

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30 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei


Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: atorvastatin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), polycaprolactone, skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporation

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29 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Fathilahbinti Ali, Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay


Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: biodegradable polymer, flexible, poly(lactic acid), polyurethane

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28 Functional Yoghurt Enriched with Microencapsulated Olive Leaves Extract Powder Using Polycaprolactone via Double Emulsion/Solvent Evaporation Technique

Authors: Tamer El-Messery, Teresa Sanchez-Moya, Ruben Lopez-Nicolas, Gaspar Ros, Esmat Aly


Olive leaves (OLs), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, have a considerable amount of phenolic compounds. The exploitation of these compounds represents the current trend in food processing. In this study, OLs polyphenols were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone (PCL) and utilized in formulating novel functional yoghurt. PCL-microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Their total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS), and polyphenols bioaccessibility were measured after oral, gastric, and intestinal steps of in vitro digestion. The four yoghurt formulations (containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg of PCL-microsphere/100g yoghurt) were evaluated for their pH, acidity, syneresis viscosity, and color during storage. In vitro digestion significantly affected the phenolic composition in non-encapsulated extract while had a lower impact on encapsulated phenolics. Higher protection was provided for encapsulated OLs extract, and their higher release was observed at the intestinal phase. Yoghurt with PCL-microsphere had lower viscosity, syneresis, and color parameters, as compared to control yoghurt. Thus, OLs represent a valuable and cheap source of polyphenols which can be successfully applied, in microencapsulated form, to formulate functional yoghurt.

Keywords: yoghurt quality attributes, olive leaves, phenolic and flavonoids compounds, antioxidant activity, polycaprolactone as microencapsulant

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27 Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers

Authors: Seon Yeong Byeon, Hwa Sung Shin


Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.

Keywords: alginate, cosmetic patch, electrospun nanofiber, polycaprolactone, Spirulina extract

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26 Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior

Authors: Neetu Malik, Sharad Shrivastava, Subrata Bandhu Ghosh


Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

Keywords: thermally exfoliated graphene oxide, PCL, water absorption, density

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25 Polymerization of Epsilon-Caprolactone Using Lipase Enzyme for Medical Applications

Authors: Sukanya Devi Ramachandran, Vaishnavi Muralidharan, Kavya Chandrasekaran


Polycaprolactone is polymer belonging to the polyester family that has noticeable characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility which is essential for medical applications. Polycaprolactone is produced by the ring opening polymerization of the monomer epsilon-Caprolactone (ε-CL) which is a closed ester, comprising of seven-membered ring. This process is normally catalysed by metallic components such as stannous octoate. It is difficult to remove the catalysts after the reaction, and they are also toxic to the human body. An alternate route of using enzymes as catalysts is being employed to reduce the toxicity. Lipase enzyme is a subclass of esterase that can easily attack the ester bonds of ε-CL. This research paper throws light on the extraction of lipase from germinating sunflower seeds and the activity of the biocatalyst in the polymerization of ε-CL. Germinating Sunflower seeds were crushed with fine sand in phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 into a fine paste which was centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10 minutes. The clear solution of the enzyme was tested for activity at various pH ranging from 5 to 7 and temperature ranging from 40oC to 70oC. The enzyme was active at pH6.0 and at 600C temperature. Polymerization of ε-CL was done using toluene as solvent with the catalysis of lipase enzyme, after which chloroform was added to terminate the reaction and was washed in cold methanol to obtain the polymer. The polymerization was done by varying the time from 72 hours to 6 days and tested for the molecular weight and the conversion of the monomer. The molecular weight obtained at 6 days is comparably higher. This method will be very effective, economical and eco-friendly to produce as the enzyme used can be regenerated as such at the end of the reaction and can be reused. The obtained polymers can be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.

Keywords: lipase, monomer, polycaprolactone, polymerization

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24 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad


Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, montmorillonite, nanocomposite, organoclay, polycaprolactone

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23 Determining the Electrospinning Parameters of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)

Authors: M. Kagan Keler, Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Oguzhan Gunduz


Electrospinning is a versatile way to occur fibers at nano-scale and polycaprolactone is a biomedical material which has a wide usage in cartilage defects and tissue regeneration. PCL is biocompatible and durable material which can be used in bio-implants. Therefore, electrospinning process was chosen as a fabrication method to get PCL fibers in an effective way because of its significant adjustments. In this research study, electrospinning parameters was evaluated during the producing of polymer tissue scaffolds. Polycaprolactone’s molecular weight was 80.000 Da and was employed as a tissue material in the electrospinning process. PCL was decomposed in dimethylformamid(DMF) and chloroform(CF) with the weight ratio of 1:1. Different compositions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 20 %) of PCL was prepared in the laboratory conditions. All solvents with different percentages of PCL have been taken into the syringe and loaded into the electrospinning system. In electrospinning dozens of trial were applied to get homogeneously uniform scaffold samples. Taylor cone which is crucial point for electrospinning characteristic was occurred and changed in different voltages up to the material compositions’ conductivity. While the PCL percentages were increasing in the electrospinning, structure started to arise with droplets, which was an expressive problem for tissue scaffold. The vertical and horizontal layouts were applied to produce non-woven structures at all.

Keywords: tissue engineering, artificial scaffold, electrospinning, biocomposites

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22 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polycaprolactone-Soy Lecithin Modified Bentonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Danila Merino, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez


Clays are commonly used to reinforce polymeric materials. In order to modify them, long-chain quaternary-alkylammonium salts have been widely employed. However, the application of these clays in biological fields is limited by the toxicity and poor biocompatibility presented by these modifiers. Meanwhile, soy lecithin, acts as a natural biosurfactant and environment-friendly biomodifier. In this report, we analyse the effect of content of soy lecithin-modified bentonite on the properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites. Commercial grade PCL (CAPA FB 100) was supplied by Perstorp, with Mw = 100000 g/mol. Minarmco S.A. and Melar S.A supplied bentonite and soy lecithin, respectively. Clays with 18, 30 and 45 wt% of organic content were prepared by exchanging 4 g of Na-Bent with 1, 2 and 4 g of soy lecithin aqueous and acid solution (pH=1, with HCl) at 75ºC for 2 h. Then, they were washed and lyophilized for 72 h. Samples were labeled A, B and C. Nanocomposites with 1 and 2 wt.% of each clay were prepared by melt-intercalation followed by compression-moulding. An intensive Brabender type mixer with two counter-rotating roller rotors was used. Mixing temperature was 100 ºC; speed of rotation was 100 rpm. and mixing time was 10 min. Compression moulding was carried out in a hydraulic press under 75 Kg/mm2 for 10 minutes at 100 ºC. The thickness of the samples was about 1 mm. Thermal and mechanical properties were analysed. PCL nanocomposites with 1 and 2% of B presented the best mechanical properties. It was observed that an excessive organic content produced an increment on the rigidity of PCL, but caused a detrimental effect on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetrical analyses suggest that all reinforced samples have higher resistance to degradation than neat PCL.

Keywords: chemical modification, clay, nanocomposite, characterization

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21 Increase of the Nanofiber Degradation Rate Using PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP as a Shell in the Electrospun Core-Shell Nanofibers Using the Needleless Blades

Authors: Matej Buzgo, Erico Himawan, Ksenija JašIna, Aiva Simaite


Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient technology for producing nanofibers for biomedical applications. One of the most common polymers used for the preparation of nanofibers for regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications is polycaprolactone (PCL). PCL is a biocompatible and bioabsorbable material that can be used to stimulate the regeneration of various tissues. It is also a common material used for the development of drug delivery systems by blending the polymer with small active molecules. However, for many drug delivery applications, e.g. cancer immunotherapy, PCL biodegradation rate that may exceed 9 months is too long, and faster nanofiber dissolution is needed. In this paper, we investigate the dissolution and small molecule release rates of PCL blends with two hydrophilic polymers: polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). We show that adding hydrophilic polymer to the PCL reduces the water contact angle, increases the dissolution rate, and strengthens the interactions between the hydrophilic drug and polymer matrix that further sustain its release. Finally using this method, we were also able to increase the nanofiber degradation rate when PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP were used as a shell in the electrospun core-shell nanofibers and spread up the release of active proteins from their core. Electrospinning can be used for the preparation of the core-shell nanofibers, where active ingredients are encapsulated in the core and their release rate is regulated by the shell. However, such fibers are usually prepared by coaxial electrospinning that is an extremely low-throughput technique. An alternative is emulsion electrospinning that could be upscaled using needleless blades. In this work, we investigate the possibility of using emulsion electrospinning for encapsulation and sustained release of the growth factors for the development of the organotypic skin models. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared using the optimized formulation and the release rate of proteins from the fibers was investigated for 2 weeks – typical cell culture conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

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20 Microfluidic Synthesis of Chlorophyll Extraction–Loaded PCL Composite Microparticles Developed as Health Food

Authors: Ching-Ju Hsiao, Mao-Chen Huang, Pei-Fan Chen, Ruo-Yun Chung, Jiun-Hua Chou, Chih-Hui Yang, Keng-Shiang Huang, Jei-Fu Shaw


Chlorophyll has many benefits for human body. It is known to improve the health of the circulatory, digestive, immune and detoxification systems of the body. However, Chl can’t be preserved at the environment of high temperature and light exposure for a long time due to it is chemical structure is easily degradable. This characteristic causes that human body is difficult to absorb Chl effective components. In order to solve this problem, we utilize polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer encapsulation technology to increase the stability of Chl. In particular, we also established a microfluidic platform provide the control of composite beads diameter. The new composite beads is potential to be a health food. Result show that Chl effective components via the microfludic platform can be encapsulated effectively and still preserve its effective components.

Keywords: chlorophyll, PCL, PVA, microfluidic

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19 Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Oxide for Improving Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyurethane Composites

Authors: Qifei Jing, Vadim V. Silberschmidt, Lin Li, ZhiLi Dong


Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically functionalized to prepare polyurethane (PU) composites with improved mechanical and thermal properties. In order to achieve a well exfoliated and stable GO suspension in an organic solvent (dimethylformamide, DMF), 4, 4′- methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) and polycaprolactone diol, which were the two monomers for synthesizing PU, were selectively used to functionalize GO. The obtained functionalized GO (FGO) could form homogeneous dispersions in DMF solvent and the PU matrix, as well as provide a good compatibility with the PU matrix. The most efficient improvement of mechanical properties was achieved when 0.4 wt% FGO was added into the PU matrix, showing increases in the tensile stress, elongation at break and toughness by 34.2%, 27.6% and 64.5%, respectively, compared with those of PU. Regarding the thermal stability, PU filled with 1 wt% FGO showed the largest extent of improvement with T2% and T50% (the temperatures at which 2% and 50% weight-loss happened) 16 °C and 21 °C higher than those of PU, respectively. The significant improvement in both mechanical properties and thermal stability of FGO/PU composites should be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion of FGO in the PU matrix and strong interfacial interaction between them.

Keywords: composite, dispersion, graphene oxide, polyurethane

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18 3D Printing of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treated Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Dong Nyoung Heo, Il Keun Kwon


Three-dimensional (3D) technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering. In order to enhance bone tissue regeneration, it is important to have ideal 3D constructs with biomimetic mechanical strength, structure interconnectivity, roughened surface, and the presence of chemical functionality. In this respect, a 3D printing system combined with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was developed to fabricate a 3D construct that has a rough surface with polar functional chemical groups. The CAP-etching process leads to oxidation of chemical groups existing on the polycaprolactone (PCL) surface without conformational change. The surface morphology, chemical composition, mean roughness of the CAP-treated PCL surfaces were evaluated. 3D printed constructs composed of CAP-treated PCL showed an effective increment in the hydrophilicity and roughness of the PCL surface. Also, an in vitro study revealed that CAP-treated 3D PCL constructs had higher cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, a 3D printing system with CAP can be a highly useful fabrication method for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, cold atmospheric plasma, PCL, 3D printing

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17 Process Optimization of Electrospun Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein Based Nanofibers

Authors: Sena Su, Burak Ozbek, Yesim M. Sahin, Sevil Yucel, Dilek Kazan, Faik N. Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Oguzhan Gunduz


In recent years, protein, lipid or polysaccharide-based polymers have been used in order to develop biodegradable materials and their chemical nature determines the physical properties of the resulting films. Among these polymers, proteins from different sources have been extensively employed because of their relative abundance, film forming ability, and nutritional qualities. In this study, the biodegradable composite nanofiber films based on fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) were prepared via electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with the FSP to obtain hybrid FSP/PCL nanofiber mats with desirable physical properties. Mixture solutions of FSP and PCL were produced at different concentrations and their density, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension were measured. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibers were evaluated. Morphology of composite nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) studies were used for analysis chemical composition of composite nanofibers. This study revealed that the FSP based nanofibers have the potential to be used for different applications such as biodegradable packaging, drug delivery, and wound dressing, etc.

Keywords: edible film, electrospinning, fish sarcoplasmic protein, nanofiber

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16 Development of Chitosan/Dextran Gelatin Methacrylate Core/Shell 3D Scaffolds and Protein/Polycaprolactone Melt Electrowriting Meshes for Tissue Regeneration Applications

Authors: J. D. Cabral, E. Murray, P. Turner, E. Hewitt, A. Ali, M. McConnell


Worldwide demand for organ replacement and tissue regeneration is progressively increasing. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, where a physical construct is produced using computer-aided design, is a promising tool to advance the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields. In this paper we describe two different approaches to developing 3D bioprinted constructs for use in tissue regeneration. Bioink development is critical in achieving the 3D biofabrication of functional, regenerative tissues. Hydrogels, cross-linked macromolecules that absorb large amounts of water, have received widespread interest as bioinks due to their relevant soft tissue mechanics, biocompatibility, and tunability. In turn, not only is bioink optimisation crucial, but the creation of vascularized tissues remains a key challenge for the successful fabrication of thicker, more clinically relevant bioengineered tissues. Among the various methodologies, cell-laden hydrogels are regarded as a favorable approach; and when combined with novel core/shell 3D bioprinting technology, an innovative strategy towards creating new vessel-like structures. In this work, we investigate this cell-based approach by using human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) entrapped in a viscoelastic chitosan/dextran (CD)-based core hydrogel, printed simulataneously along with a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) shell. We have expanded beyond our previously reported FDA approved, commercialised, post-surgical CD hydrogel, Chitogel®, by functionalizing it with cell adhesion and proteolytic peptides in order to promote bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (immortalized BMSC cell line, hTERT) and HUVECs growth. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of these cell lines in a 3D bioprinted construct is demonstrated. Our studies show that particular peptide combinations crosslinked within the CD hydrogel was found to increase in vitro growth of BMSCs and HUVECs by more than two-fold. These gels were then used as a core bioink combined with the more mechanically robust, UV irradiated GelMA shell bioink, to create 3D regenerative, vessel-like scaffolds with high print fidelity. As well, microporous MEW scaffolds made from milk proteins blended with PCL were found to show promising bioactivity, exhibiting a significant increase in keratinocyte (HaCaTs) and fibroblast (normal human dermal fibroblasts, NhDFs) cell migration and proliferation when compared to PCL only scaffolds. In conclusion, our studies indicate that a peptide functionalized CD hydrogel bioink reinforced with a GelMA shell is biocompatible, biodegradable, and an appropriate cell delivery vehicle in the creation of regenerative 3D constructs. In addition, a novel 3D printing technique, melt electrowriting (MEW), which allows fabrication of micrometer fibre meshes, was used to 3D print polycaprolactone (PCL) and bioactive milk protein, lactorferrin (LF) and whey protein (WP), blended scaffolds for potential skin regeneration applications. MEW milk protein/PCL scaffolds exhibited high porosity characteristics, low overall biodegradation, and rapid protein release. Human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells were seeded on to the scaffolds. Scaffolds containing high concentrations of LF and combined proteins (LF+WP) showed improved cell viability over time as compared to PCL only scaffolds. This research highlights two scaffolds made using two different 3D printing techniques using a combination of both natural and synthetic biomaterial components in order to create regenerative constructs as potential chronic wound treatments.

Keywords: biomaterials, hydrogels, regenerative medicine, 3D bioprinting

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15 The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Yu-Shan Wu, Po-Liang Lai, I-Ming Chu


Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.

Keywords: bone cement, biocompatibility, nano-hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, PMMA, surface grafting

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14 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim


These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: injectable hydrogel, stem cell, osteogenic differentiation, tissue engineering

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13 Problems Associated with Fibre-Reinforced Composites Ultrasonically-Assisted Drilling

Authors: Sikiru Oluwarotimi Ismail, Hom Nath Dhakal, Anish Roy, Dong Wang, Ivan Popov


The ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD) is a non-traditional technique which involves the superimposition of a high frequency and low amplitude vibration, usually greater than 18kHz and less than 20µm respectively, on a drill bit along the feed direction. UAD has remarkable advantages over the conventional drilling (CD), especially the high drilling-force reduction. Force reduction improves the quality of the drilled holes, reduces power consumption rate and cost of production. Nevertheless, in addition to the setbacks of UAD including expensiveness of set-up, unpredicted results and chipping effects, this paper presents the problems of insignificant force reduction and poor surface quality during UAD of hemp fibre-reinforced composites (HFRCs), a natural composite, with polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix. The experimental results obtained depict that HFRCs/PCL samples have more burnt chip-materials attached on the drilled holes during UAD than CD. This effect produced a very high surface roughness (Ra), up to 13µm. In a bid to reduce these challenges, different drilling parameters (feed rates and cutting speeds, frequencies and amplitudes for UAD), conditions (dry machining and airflow cooling) and diameters of drill bits (3mm and 6mm of high speed steel), as well as HFRCs/PCL samples of various fibre aspect ratios, including 0 (neat), 19, 26, 30 and 38 have been used. However, the setbacks still persisted. Evidently, the benefits of UAD are not obtainable for the drilling of the HFRCs/PCL laminates. These problems occurred due to the 60 °C melting temperature of PCL, quite lower than 56-90.2 °C and 265–290.8 °C composite-tool interface temperature during CD and UAD respectively.

Keywords: force reduction, hemp fibre-reinforced composites, ultrasonically-assisted drilling, surface quality

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12 Quince Seed Mucilage (QSD)/ Multiwall Carbonano Tube Hybrid Hydrogels as Novel Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Raouf Alizadeh, Kadijeh Hemmati


The aim of this study is to synthesize several series of hydrogels from combination of a natural based polymer (Quince seed mucilage QSD), a synthetic copolymer contained methoxy poly ethylene glycol -polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) in the presence of different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotube (f-MWNT). Mono epoxide functionalized mPEG (mP EG-EP) was synthesized and reacted with sodium azide in the presence of NH4Cl to afford mPEG- N3(-OH). Then ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ε–caprolactone (CL) in the presence of mPEG- N3(-OH) as initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst led to preparation of mPEG-PCL- N3(-OH ) which was grafted onto propagylated f-MWNT by the click reaction to obtain mPEG-PCL- f-MWNT (-OH ). In the presence of mPEG- N3(-Br) and mixture of NHS/DCC/ QSD, hybrid hydrogels were successfully synthesized. The copolymers and hydrogels were characterized using different techniques such as, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The gel content of hydrogels showed dependence on the weight ratio of QSD:mPEG-PCL:f-MWNT. The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was also studied under variation of pH, immersion time, and temperature. According to the results, the swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels showed significant dependence in the gel content, pH, immersion time and temperature. The highest swelling was observed at room temperature, in 60 min and at pH 8. The loading and in-vitro release of quercetin as a model drug were investigated at pH of 2.2 and 7.4, and the results showed that release rate at pH 7.4 was faster than that at pH 2.2. The total loading and release showed dependence on the network structure of hydrogels and were in the range of 65- 91%. In addition, the cytotoxicity and release kinetics of the prepared hydrogels were also investigated.

Keywords: antioxidant, drug delivery, Quince Seed Mucilage(QSD), swelling behavior

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11 Surface Functionalized Biodegradable Polymersome for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Susmita Roy, Madhavan Nallani


In recent years' polymersomes, self-assembled polymeric vesicles emerge from block copolymers, have been widely investigated due to their enhance stability and unique advantageous properties compared to their phospholipid counterpart, liposomes, dendrimers, and micelles. It provides a distinctive platform for advanced therapeutics and the creation of complex (bio) catalytically active systems for research in Nanomedicine and synthetic biology. Inspired by nature, where compartmentalization of biological components is all ubiquitous, we are interested in developing a platform technology of self-assembled multifunctional compartments with applications in areas from targeted drug/gene delivery, biosensing, pharmaceutical to cosmetics. Polymersome surfaces can be a proper choice of derivatization with a controlled amount of functional groups. To achieve site-specific targeting of polymersomes, biological recognition motives can be attached to the polymersomes surface by standard bioconjugation techniques, (like esterification, amidation, thiol-maleimide coupling, click-chemistry routes or other coupling methods). Herein, we are developing easy going, one-step bioconjugation strategies for site-specific surface functionalized biodegradable polymeric and/or polymer-lipid hybrid vesicles for targeted drug delivery. Biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG), polylactic acid-b-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) and phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2- oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) has been widely used for numerous vesicle formulations. Some of these drug-loaded formulations are being tested on mice for controlled release. These surface functionalized polymersomes are also appropriate for membrane protein reconstitution/insertion, antibodies conjugation and various bioconjugation with diverse targeted molecules for controlled drug delivery.

Keywords: drug delivery, membrane protein, polymersome, surface modification

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10 Drug-Based Nanoparticles: Comparative Study of the Effect Drug Type on Release Kinetics and Cell Viability

Authors: Chukwudalu C. Nwazojie, Wole W. Soboyejo, John Obayemi, Ali Salifu Azeko, Sandra M. Jusu, Chinyerem M. Onyekanne


The conventional methods for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer include bulk systematic mammography, ultrasound, dynamic contrast-enhanced fast 3D gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymer microspheres for disease (cancer) targeting and treatment have enormous potential to enhance the approaches that are used today. The goal is to produce an implantable biomedical device for localized breast cancer drug delivery within Africa and the world. The main advantage of localized delivery is that it reduces the amount of drug that is needed to have a therapeutic effect. Polymer blends of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), which are biodegradable, is used as a drug excipient. This work focuses on the development of PLGA-PCL (poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blended with based injectable drug microspheres and are loaded with anticancer drugs (prodigiosin (PG), and paclitaxel (PTX) control) and also the conjugated forms of the drug functionalized with LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) (PG-LHRH, and PTX- LHRH control), using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA-PCL (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). Comparative study of the various drugs release kinetics and degradation mechanisms of the PLGA-PCL with an encapsulated drug is achieved, and the implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-PCL loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple-negative breast tumor.

Keywords: cancer, polymers, drug kinetics, nanoparticles

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9 Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Using Injectable Hydrogel

Authors: Prasamsha Panta, Da Yeon Kim, Ja Yong Jang, Min Jae Kim, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim


Introduction: Among the many anticancer drugs used clinically, doxorubicin (Dox), was one of widely used drugs to treat many types of solid tumors such as liver, colon, breast, or lung. Intratumoral injection of chemotherapeutic agents is a potentially more effective alternative to systemic administration because direct delivery of the anticancer drug to the target may improve both the stability and efficacy of anticancer drugs. Injectable in situ-forming gels have attracted considerable attention because they can achieve site specific drug delivery, long term action periods, and improved patient compliance. Objective: Objective of present study is to confirm clinical benefit of intratumoral chemotherapy using injectable in situ-forming poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer (MP) and Dox with increase in efficacy and reducing the toxicity in patients with cancer diseases. Methods and methodology: We prepared biodegradable MP hydrogel and measured viscosity for the evaluation of thermo-sensitive property. In vivo antitumor activity was performed with normal saline, MP only, single free Dox, repeat free Dox, and Dox-loaded MP gel. The remaining amount of Dox drug was measured using HPLC after the mouse was sacrified. For cytotoxicity studies WST-1 assay was performed. Histological analysis was done with H&E and TUNEL processes respectively. Results: The works in this experiment showed that Dox-loaded MP have biodegradable drug depot property. Dox-loaded MP gels showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity activities against cancer cells. Finally, this work indicates that injection of Dox-loaded MP allowed Dox to act effectively in the tumor and induced long-lasting supression of tumor growth. Conclusion: This work has examined the potential clinical utility of intratumorally injected Dox-loaded MP gel, which shows significant effect of higher local Dox retention compared with systemically administered Dox.

Keywords: injectable in-situ forming hydrogel, anticancer, doxorubicin, intratumoral injection

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8 Micromechanical Compatibility Between Cells and Scaffold Mediates the Efficacy of Regenerative Medicine

Authors: Li Yang, Yang Song, Martin Y. M. Chiang


Objective: To experimentally substantiate the micromechanical compatibility between cell and scaffold, in the regenerative medicine approach for restoring bone volume, is essential for phenotypic transitions Methods: Through nanotechnology and electrospinning process, nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated to host dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs). Blends (50:50) of polycaprolactone (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF), mixed with various content of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, up to 5% in weight), were electrospun to prepare nanofibrous scaffolds with heterogeneous microstructure in terms of fiber size. Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conventional uniaxial tensile tests measured the scaffold stiffness at the micro-and macro-scale, respectively. The cell elastic modulus and cell-scaffold adhesive interaction (i.e., a chemical function) were examined through single-cell force spectroscopy using AFM. The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine if the mechanotransduction signal (i.e., Yap1, Wwr2, Rac1, MAPK8, Ptk2 and Wnt5a) is upregulated by the scaffold stiffness at the micro-scale (cellular scale). Results: The presence of CNC produces fibrous scaffolds with a bimodal distribution of fiber diameter. This structural heterogeneity, which is CNC-composition dependent, remarkably modulates the mechanical functionality of scaffolds at microscale and macroscale simultaneously, but not the chemical functionality (i.e., only a single material property is varied). In in vitro tests, the osteogenic differentiation and gene expression associated with mechano-sensitive cell markers correlate to the degree of micromechanical compatibility between DFSCs and the scaffold. Conclusion: Cells require compliant scaffolds to encourage energetically favorable interactions for mechanotransduction, which are converted into changes in cellular biochemistry to direct the phenotypic evolution. The micromechanical compatibility is indeed important to the efficacy of regenerative medicine.

Keywords: phenotype transition, scaffold stiffness, electrospinning, cellulose nanocrystals, single-cell force spectroscopy

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7 Electrospun Fibre Networks Loaded with Hydroxyapatite and Barium Titanate as Smart Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Authors: C. Busuioc, I. Stancu, A. Nicoara, A. Zamfirescu, A. Evanghelidis


The field of tissue engineering has expanded its potential due to the use of composite biomaterials belonging to increasingly complex systems, leading to bone substitutes with properties that are continuously improving to meet the patient's specific needs. Furthermore, the development of biomaterials based on ceramic and polymeric phases is an unlimited resource for future scientific research, with the final aim of restoring the original tissue functionality. Thus, in the first stage, composite scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL) or polylactic acid (PLA) and inorganic powders were prepared by employing the electrospinning technique. The targeted powders were: commercial and laboratory synthesized hydroxyapatite (HAp), as well as barium titanate (BT). By controlling the concentration of the powder within the precursor solution, together with the processing parameters, different types of three-dimensional architectures were achieved. In the second stage, both the mineral powders and hybrid composites were investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure, and microstructure so that to demonstrate their suitability for tissue engineering applications. Regarding the scaffolds, these were proven to be homogeneous on large areas and loaded with mineral particles in different proportions. The biological assays demonstrated that the addition of inorganic powders leads to modified responses in the presence of simulated body fluid (SBF) or cell cultures. Through SBF immersion, the biodegradability coupled with bioactivity were highlighted, with fiber fragmentation and surface degradation, as well as apatite layer formation within the testing period. Moreover, the final composites represent supports accepted by the cells, favoring implant integration. Concluding, the purposed fibrous materials based on bioresorbable polymers and mineral powders, produced by the electrospinning technique, represent candidates with considerable potential in the field of tissue engineering. Future improvements can be attained by optimizing the synthesis process or by simultaneous incorporation of multiple inorganic phases with well-defined biological action in order to fabricate multifunctional composites.

Keywords: barium titanate, electrospinning, fibre networks, hydroxyapatite, smart scaffolds

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6 Core-Shell Nanofibers for Prevention of Postsurgical Adhesion

Authors: Jyh-Ping Chen, Chia-Lin Sheu


In this study, we propose to use electrospinning to fabricate porous nanofibrous membranes as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers and to improve the properties of current post-surgical anti-adhesion products. We propose to combine FDA-approved biomaterials with anti-adhesion properties, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid (HA) with silver nanoparticles (Ag) and ibuprofen (IBU), to produce anti-adhesion barrier nanofibrous membranes. For this purpose, PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers were prepared. The shell layer contains PEG + PCL to provide mechanical supports and Ag was added to the outer PEG-PCL shell layer during electrospinning to endow the nanofibrous membrane with anti-bacterial properties. The core contains HA to exert anti-adhesion and IBU to exert anti-inflammation effects, respectively. The nanofibrous structure of the membranes can reduce cell penetration while allowing nutrient and waste transports to prevent postsurgical adhesion. Nanofibers with different core/shell thickness ratio were prepared. The nanofibrous membranes were first characterized for their physico-chemical properties in detail, followed by in vitro cell culture studies for cell attachment and proliferation. The HA released from the core region showed extended release up to 21 days for prolonged anti-adhesion effects. The attachment of adhesion-forming fibroblasts is reduced using the nanofibrous membrane from DNA assays and confocal microscopic observation of adhesion protein vinculin expression. The Ag released from the shell showed burst release to prevent E Coli and S. aureus infection immediately and prevent bacterial resistance to Ag. Minimum cytotoxicity was observed from Ag and IBU when fibroblasts were culture with the extraction medium of the nanofibrous membranes. The peritendinous anti-adhesion model in rabbits and the peritoneal anti-adhesion model in rats were used to test the efficacy of the anti-adhesion barriers as determined by gross observation, histology, and biomechanical tests. Within all membranes, the PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers showed the best reduction in cell attachment and proliferation when tested with fibroblasts in vitro. The PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU nanofibrous membranes also showed significant improvement in preventing both peritendinous and peritoneal adhesions when compared with other groups and a commercial adhesion barrier film.

Keywords: anti-adhesion, electrospinning, hyaluronic acid, ibuprofen, nanofibers

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