Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 136

Search results for: accommodation

136 A Model of Sustainability in the Accommodation Sector

Authors: L. S. Zavodna, J. Zavodny Pospisil

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the factors for sustainability in the accommodation sector. Although sustainability is a current trend in tourism, not many facilities know how to apply the concept in practice. This paper presents a model for the implementation of sustainability in hotels, hostels, campgrounds, or other facilities. First, there are identified sections of each accommodation facility, which can contribute to sustainability. Furthermore, concrete steps are presented to transfer this model into reality.

Keywords: accommodation sector, model, sustainable tourism, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
135 Information System Management Factors Related to Behavioral Trend of Online Accommodation Services

Authors: Supattra Kanchanopast

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The purpose of this research was to study the customers’ behavioral trend for online accommodation system at Bangkonthi District, Samutsongkhram province. The research collected data from 400 online users. A questionnaire was utilized as the tool in collecting information. Descriptive statistics included frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Independent- sample t- test, analysis of variance and Pearson Correlation were also used. The findings of this research revealed that the majority of the respondents were male, 25-32 years old, and graduated a bachelor degree. The respondents mostly worked in private sectors and had monthly income between 10,001-15,000 baht. The regular online users, visiting this system between 3-4 times/month, spending 1-2 hours/time, searched for online accommodation information. This result showed that the users had good and high attitude towards the system. According to the hypothesis testing, the number of online usage had positive related to the behavioral trends: accommodation purchasing intention and recommend the accommodation to others. Furthermore, both the number of online usage and overall attitude had a significant correlation to accommodation purchase intention and recommend the accommodation to others.

Keywords: customer behavior, information system management, online accommodation services, behavioral trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
134 Sustainable Accommodation Design: Improving Residential Property Shortage for Low-Income People in Nigeria

Authors: Paulinus W. Ihuah, Iyenemi Ibimina Kakulu, Victor A. Akujuru

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The development of the residential property is very expensive in Nigeria, especially as it is observed in Port Harcourt, although it is also investment costly in the other cities of Nigeria. The costly development nature incidentally reasons to the high deficits in residential property availability and affordability for the low-income people. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to provide sustainable accommodation design, which should improve residential property expensiveness and shortages for the low-income people. This is achieved through investigation of the tangible requirements and needs of the end-user of the property (low-income people), which thereafter would enhance sustainable and affordable residential property accommodation design for the end-users. Both the quantitative and qualitative instruments of data collection were utilised. The quantitative instrument via questionnaires was designed to examine the real needs and r requirement of the low-income people. However, the qualitative instrument via structured interview was espoused for the gathering of professionals’ opinions on the three predicted sustainable accommodation design alternatives. The analysis employed content analysis parameters, which offered a sustainable accommodation design and designed alternatives minimises costs and environmental impacts whereas exploiting the social satisfaction in residential accommodation developments. The finding underscores that sustainable accommodation design and development is practicable in Nigeria, so that cost of residential accommodation provided through this system is cheap to the low-income people. Further, erection of multi-storey residential accommodation units such as bedsit structure by utilising the concrete frame structure and building the internal and external walls with hollow concrete blocks within areas 60-130 square meters is encouraged. This paper philosophy indicates that by using sustainable accommodation design practices in Nigeria, improvements in the costs and shortages of residential accommodation can be attained for low-income people. However, policies support the government cannot be overemphasised for proper implementation of the suggested scheme.

Keywords: sustainable accommodation, housing design, residential property, low-income people

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133 The Hotel Logging Behavior and Factors of Tourists in Bankontee District, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Aticha Kwaengsopha

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The purpose of this research was to study the behaviour and related factors that tourists utilized for making decisions to choose their accommodations at a tourist destination, Bangkontee district, Samut Songkhran Province, Thailand. The independent variables included gender, age, income, occupation, and region, while the three important dependent variables included selection behaviour, factors related selection process, and satisfaction of the accommodation service. A total of 400 Thai and international tourists were interviewed at tourist destination of Bangkontee. A questionnaire was used as the tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents were single, female, and with the age between 23-30 years old. Most of the international tourists were from Asia and planned to stay in Thailand about 1-6 days. In addition, the majority of tourists preferred to travel in small groups of 3 persons. The majority of respondents used internet and word of mouth as the main tool to search for information. The majority of respondents spent most of their budget on food & drink, accommodation, and travelling. Even though the majority of tourists were satisfied with the quality of accommodation, the price range of accommodation, and the image of accommodation and the facilities of the accommodation, they indicated that they were not likely to re-visit Thailand in the near future.

Keywords: behaviour, decision factors, tourists, media engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
132 Travellers’ Innovation Segmentation for Shared Accommodation: Comparing Travellers’ Segmentation Pre- and Post-adoption in Shanghai, China

Authors: Lei Qin

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As shared accommodation has become one of the most important market developments in the tourism industry, numerous contributions have emerged on travelers’ motivations to choose shared accommodation. A debated question, however, resides in the heterogeneity of travelers based on motivations. This paper aims to reconcile opposing perspectives by comparing motivation segmentation at two distinct phases of innovation adoption of this new hospitality option: (i) before the first travel – potential users showing interest (n=420) and (ii) after the first travel – users (n=420). Interestingly, we find that travelers (including pre-and-post adopters) have a stronger agreement in experiential motivations than practical motivations. However, the heterogeneity of motivations among travelers is significantly higher in users, increasing from two to six clusters, which means travelers cluster into more and distinct motivation groups after adoption. Rather than invalidating specific assumptions used in the literature in terms of motivation heterogeneity, this paper reconciles opposing findings by putting them along with one another in the process of innovation adoption. A subsequent tourists’ segmentation based on motivations were conducted according to their innovation adoption stages.

Keywords: motivation, pre-and-post adoption, shared accommodation, segmentation

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131 Human Capital, Adversity Quotient and Entrepreneurial Success

Authors: Vichada Chokesikarin

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We propose that the ability to create the business success requires Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Human Capital (HC). The aims of the present study are to investigate adversity quotient, human capital and entrepreneurial success of accommodation entrepreneurs in Pranakorn, Bangkok and to examine the relationship between AQ, HC and Entrepreneurial Success. The participants of this study were 112 entrepreneurs in accommodation business in the Khao San/Grand Palace, the location nearby demonstration area in 2014. Specifically, we focus on higher adversity which provides a measure of one’s perceived capacity to prevail in the face of adversity and the effects of human capital on success. Results indicated that there is significant relationship between human capital and entrepreneurial success, while adversity quotient was found to partially mediate the entrepreneurial success. Moreover, our findings showed that the human capital -experience and skills- are more important than adversity quotient. This suggests that the entrepreneurial success should rely on their skill and experiences.

Keywords: accommodation business, adversity quotient, entrepreneurial success, human capital

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130 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

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The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
129 Program of Health/Safety Integration and the Total Worker Health Concept in the Improvement of Absenteeism of the Work Accommodation Management

Authors: L. R. Ferreira, R. Biscaro, C. C. Danziger, C. M. Galhardi, L. C. Biscaro, R. C. Biscaro, I. S. Vasconcelos, L. C. R. Ferreira, R. Reis, L. H. Oliveira

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a worldwide trend for the employer to be aware of investing in health promotion that goes beyond occupational hygiene approaches with the implementation of a comprehensive program with integration between occupational health and safety, and social/psychosocial responsibility in the workplace. Work accommodation is a necessity in most companies as it allows the worker to return to its function respecting its physical limitations. This study had the objective to verify if the integration of health and safety in the companies, with the inclusion of the concept of TWH promoted by an occupational health service has impacted in the management of absenteeism of workers in work accommodation. Method: A retrospective and paired cohort study was used, in which the impact of the implementation of the Program for the Health/Safety Integration and Total Worker Health Concept (PHSITWHC) was evaluated using the indices of absenteeism, health attestations, days and hours of sick leave of workers that underwent job accommodation/rehabilitation. This was a cohort study and the data were collected from January to September of 2017, prior to the initiation of the integration program, and compared with the data obtained from January to September of 2018, after the implementation of the program. For the statistical analysis, the student's t-test was used, with statistically significant differences being made at p < 0.05. Results: The results showed a 35% reduction in the number of absenteeism rate in 2018 compared to the same period in 2017. There was also a significant reduction in the total numbers of days of attestations/absences (mean of 2,8) as well as days of attestations, absence and sick leaves (mean of 5,2) in 2018 data after the implementation of PHSITWHC compared to 2017 data, means of 4,3 and 25,1, respectively, prior to the program. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the inclusion of the PHSITWHC was associated with a reduction in the rate of absenteeism of workers that underwent job accommodation. It was observed that, once health and safety were approached and integrated with the inclusion of the TWH concept, it was possible to reduce absenteeism, and improve worker’s quality of life and wellness, and work accommodation management.

Keywords: absenteeism, health/safety integration, work accommodation management, total worker health

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
128 Baby Cot’s Indoor Air Quality

Authors: Wim Zeiler

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The indoor quality of occupied space is very important for the well-being of its occupants, especially in the case of babies. The lungs of a young child are still growing and adverse conditions could affect this development. Presently little children spend a lot of their time in day care centers while parents are at work. Little is known about the effects of different indoor environmental factors present in these day care centers and the quality of air of baby cots in which the babies are accommodated in these day care centers. Therefore this research investigated the quality of the accommodation of Dutch day care centers. Besides an extensive literature research actual measurements were performed in baby cots within three-day care center. Some experiments were performed to find out the importance of the configuration and types of baby cots. This research investigated the quality of the accommodation of a Dutch day care center which led to a tool describing the quality needs (e.g., quality standard) for the accommodation of day care centers. The results of our detailed studies were compared with the results of earlier Dutch more global studies in day care centers, in which more than 60 day care centers were investigated. Also the results are compared with the outcomes of research on school ventilation. The results proved that the situation in day care centers is even worse than that of schools within the Netherlands. More attention is needed to improve the current situation.

Keywords: ventilation, baby cots, day care centers, case study

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127 Flourishing in Marriage among Arab Couples in Israel: The Impact of Capitalization Support and Accommodation on Positive and Negative Affect

Authors: Niveen Hassan-Abbas, Tammie Ronen-Rosenbaum

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Background and purpose: 'Flourishing in marriage' is a concept refers to married individuals’ high positivity ratio regarding their marriage, namely greater reported positive than negative emotions. The study proposes a different approach to marriage which emphasizes the place of the individual himself as largely responsible for his personal flourishing within marriage. Accordingly, the individual's desire to preserve and strengthen his marriage largely determines the marital behavior in a way that will contribute to his marriage success (Actor Effect), regardless the contribution of his or her partner to his marriage success (Partner Effect). Another assumption was that flourishing in marriage could be achieved by two separate processes, where capitalization support increases the positive marriage's evaluations and accommodation decreases the negative one. A theoretical model was constructed, whereby individuals who were committed to their marriage were hypothesized as employing self-control skills by way of two dynamic processes. First, individual’s higher degree of 'capitalization supportive responses' - supportive responses to the partner's sharing of positive personal experiences - was hypothesized as increasing one’s positive evaluations of marriage and thereby one’s positivity ratio. Second, individual’s higher degree of 'accommodation' responses - the ability during conflict situations to control the impulse to respond destructively and instead to respond constructively - was hypothesized as decreasing one’s negative evaluations of marriage and thereby increasing one’s positivity ratio. Methods: Participants were 156 heterosexual Arab couples from different regions of Israel. The mean period of marriage was 10.19 (SD=7.83), ages were 31.53 years for women (SD=8.12) and 36.80 years for men (SD=8.07). Years of education were 13.87 for women (SD=2.84) and 13.23 years for men (SD=3.45). Each participant completed seven questionnaires: socio-demographic, self-control skills, commitment, capitalization support, accommodation, marital quality, positive and negative affect. Using statistical analyses adapted to dyadic research design, firstly descriptive statistics were calculated and preliminary tests were performed. Next, dyadic model based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: The assumption according to which flourishing in marriage can be achieved by two processes was confirmed. All of the Actor Effect hypotheses were confirmed. Participants with higher self-control used more capitalization support and accommodation responses. Among husbands, unlike wives, these correlations were stronger when the individual's commitment level was higher. More capitalization supportive responses were found to increase positive evaluations of marriage, and greater spousal accommodation was found to decrease negative evaluations of marriage. High positive evaluations and low negative evaluations were found to increase positivity ratio. Not according to expectation, four partner effect paths were found significant. Conclusions and Implications: The present findings coincide with the positive psychology approach that emphasizes human strengths. The uniqueness of this study is its proposal that individuals are largely responsible for their personal flourishing in marriage. This study demonstrated that marital flourishing can be achieved by two processes, where capitalization increases the positive and accommodation decreases the negative. Practical implications include the need to construct interventions that enhance self-control skills for employment of capitalizing responsiveness and accommodation processes.

Keywords: accommodation, capitalization support, commitment, flourishing in marriage, positivity ratio, self-control skills

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126 Environmental Metabolic Rift and Tourism Development: A Look at the Impact of the Malawi Tourism Industry Development Pattern

Authors: Lameck Zetu Khonje, Mulala Danny Simatele

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The tourism industry in Malawi has grown tremendously during the past twenty-five years. This growth is attributed to the change in the political system which opened doors to international tourist and investment opportunities in the country which previously was under a strict repressive one-party political system. This research paper focuses on the developments that took place in the accommodation sector during the same period and the impact that it has partly caused on an environmental metabolic rift in the country which is now vulnerable to climate change-related catastrophes. Respondents from the government departments and the hotel sector were recruited for in-depth interviews. These interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 and follow up interviews were conducted between September and December 2017. Both results indicated there were minimal efforts pursued from the public sector to cartel capitalistic development tendencies in the accommodation sector. The results from the hotel revealed there were considerable efforts pursued driven by operating cost-cutting motive. Applying systems thinking the paper recommends that the policing machinery needs improvement to ensure that the industry also focuses on environmental wellbeing instead of profit maximization. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge on tourism development and climate change.

Keywords: accommodation sector, climate change, metabolic rift, Malawi, tourism industry

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125 Aspects of the Promotional Language of Tourism in Social Media. A Case Study of Romanian Accommodation Industry

Authors: Sanda-Maria Ardeleanu, Ana Crăciunescu

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This paper is sustained by our previous research on discursive strategies, whichdemonstrated that tourismhas developed and employed apromotional languageper se. We have studied this concept within the framework of audio-visual advertising by analyzing its discursive structures at the level of three main strategies (textual, visual, and both textual and visual) and confirmed the applicability of the promotional language per se within the field. Tourism, at large, represents a largely potential interdisplinary field, which allowed us to use qualitative methods of research such as Discourse Analysis (DA). Due to further research which showed that in the third phase of qualitative research methodologies, scholars in tourism recognized semiotics and DA as potential paths to follow, but which were insufficiently explored at the time, we soon realized that the natural next step to take is to bring together common qualitative methodologies for both fields, such as the method of observation, the triangulation, Discourse Analysis, etc. Therefore and in the light of fast transformations of the medium that intermediates the message, in this paper, we are going to focus on the manifestations of the promotional language in social media texts, which advertise for the urban industry of accommodation in Romania. We shall constitute a corpus of study as the basis for our research methodology and, through the empirical method of observation and DA, we propose to recognize or discover new patterns developed at textual (mainly) and visual level or the mix of the two, known as strategies of the promotional language of tourism.

Keywords: discourse analysis, promotional language of tourism, social media, urban accommodation industry, tourism

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124 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller

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The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, reading, social cognition

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123 Renovation of Industrial Zones in Ho Chi Minh City: An Approach from Changing Function of Processing to Urban Warehousing

Authors: Thu Le Thi Bao

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Industrial parks have both active roles in promoting economic development and source of appearance of boarding houses and slums in the adjacent area, lacking infrastructure, causing many social evils. The context of the recent pandemic and climate change on a global scale pose issues that need to be resolved for sustainable development. Ho Chi Minh City aims to develop housing for migrant workers to stabilize human resources and, at the same time, solve problems of social evils caused by poor living conditions. The paper focuses on the content of renovating existing industrial parks and worker accommodation in Ho Chi Minh City to propose appropriate models, contributing to the goal of urban embellishment and solutions for industrial parks to adapt to abnormal impact conditions such as pandemics, climate change, crises.

Keywords: industrial park, social housing, accommodation, distribution center

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122 Tourism Competitiveness Survey Analysis of Serbian Ski Resorts

Authors: Marijana Pantić, Saša Milijić

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In Serbia as a continental country, the tourism industry relies on city-break, spa and mountain tourism, where ski resorts have primacy during the winter season. Even though the number of tourists has recently increased, the share of domestic tourists remained predominant. It is also noticed that tourists from Serbia eagerly travel abroad, which was so far researched in the context of summer holidays but not in the framework of ski resorts. Therefore, this paper examines the competitiveness of ski resorts in Serbia from the perspective of domestic tourists. A survey was used as a data collection method, covering various competitiveness dimensions. The aim is to recognize the main motives of consumers when choosing a ski resort in Serbia or abroad. The results showed that the choices of Serbian tourists are predominantly shaped by the cost of an offer – of accommodation above all others. They are attentive by estimating the value for money, which is the most common reason to choose a ski resort abroad over a domestic one. The crowd at ski resorts and ski runs appears to be a result of unbalanced accommodation capacities on the one hand and ski infrastructure on the other, which is currently the most notable competitiveness drawback of ski resorts in Serbia.

Keywords: mountain tourism, Serbia, ski resorts, tourism competitiveness

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121 The Analysis of Language Shift, Accommodation, Attrition and Effects On Minority Languages In Pakistan

Authors: Afsheen Kashifa, Muhammad Saad Khan

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The present study examines the linguistic use of English as a permanent part of the regional languages of Pakistan. This research has delimited its investigation to the language used by the students of English language who speak different regional languages. It deals with the attitudes, causes, and effects of the language shift from regional and minority languages to English. It further gets insights from the feedback provided by the students as respondents that English is replacing the minority languages for being the language of prestige, convenience, and rich vocabulary. These concepts have been achieved through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The findings of this research exhibit that the respondents speak English because of its vocabulary and easy way of communication; therefore, they enjoy a high place in society. This research also shows that the speakers of the regional languages are encouraged by their parents to speak English. Eventually, the words and expressions of English, the dominant language, have become a permanent part of the minority languages. Therefore, the minority languages are becoming endangered languages.

Keywords: language shift, language accommodation, language attrition, effects on minority languages

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120 Patient Tracking Challenges During Disasters and Emergencies

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Reza Safdari, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Nahid Tavakoli

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One of the greatest challenges in disaster and emergencies is patient tracking. The concept of tracking has different denotations. One of the meanings refers to tracking patients’ physical locations and the other meaning refers to tracking patients ‘medical needs during emergency services. The main goal of patient tracking is to provide patient safety during disaster and emergencies and manage the flow of patient and information in different locations. In most of cases, there are not sufficient and accurate data regarding the number of injuries, medical conditions and their accommodation and transference. The objective of the present study is to survey on patient tracking issue in natural disaster and emergencies. Methods: This was a narrative study in which the population was E-Journals and the electronic database such as PubMed, Proquest, Science direct, Elsevier, etc. Data was gathered by Extraction Form. All data were analyzed via content analysis. Results: In many countries there is no appropriate and rapid method for tracking patients and transferring victims after the occurrence of incidents. The absence of reliable data of patients’ transference and accommodation, even in the initial hours and days after the occurrence of disasters, and coordination for appropriate resource allocation, have faced challenges for evaluating needs and services challenges. Currently, most of emergency services are based on paper systems, while these systems do not act appropriately in great disasters and incidents and this issue causes information loss. Conclusion: Patient tracking system should update the location of patients or evacuees and information related to their states. Patients’ information should be accessible for authorized users to continue their treatment, accommodation and transference. Also it should include timely information of patients’ location as soon as they arrive somewhere and leave therein such a way that health care professionals can be able to provide patients’ proper medical treatment.

Keywords: patient tracking, challenges, disaster, emergency

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119 Albinism in the South African Workplace: Reasonable Accommodation of a Black Person Living in a White Skin

Authors: Laetitia Fourie

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Dangerous myths and stereotypes contribute to the fact that persons living with albinism are amongst the most vulnerable groups in society. The prevalence of albinism varies around the world and the World Health Organization estimates that around 1 in 5000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are affected by this genetic disorder. Persons who are living with the condition usually experience a lack of melanin in their skin, eyes and hair that results in possible physical impairments such as poor eyesight and skin cancers. Being affected by such disorders and consequently classified as an albino, give way for unequal treatment which ultimately requires safeguarding these persons against unfair discrimination - not only on the basis of their race and color (or lack thereof), but also on the basis of their disability. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone is equal before the law and prohibits unfair discrimination on the grounds of race, color and disability. This right is given effect to by the Employment Equity Act, which strives to eliminate unfair discrimination on similar grounds within any employment policy or practice. An essential non-discrimination measure that can be implemented in the labor market to achieve equality is the duty of reasonable accommodation that rests upon employers. However, reasonable accommodation is only introduced as an affirmative action measure in order to provide equal employment opportunities to the identified designated groups who include black people (defined to include Indians, Chinese and Colored), women and people with disabilities. Even though this duty exists, South African law does not elaborate on the scope of the duty, except for a Disability Code, which does not hold the force of law. Furthermore, in respect of applying affirmative action measures to people with disabilities, the law does not elaborate on the meaning of disability. Considering that persons living with albinism will find it difficult to show that they are black or disabled in order to be acknowledged as part of the designated groups, their access to reasonable accommodation will be limited to a great extent. This paper will aim to illustrate to which extent South African law currently fails to implement its international obligations as a State Party to the Conventions of the United Nations, and how these failures should be corrected in order to serve the needs of all South Africans, including albinos.

Keywords: albinism, disability, equality, South Africa, United Nations

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118 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

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This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
117 Ethical Considerations for Conducting Research on Violence against Women with Disabilities: Discussing Issues of Reasonable Accommodation, Capacity and Equal Participation

Authors: Ingrid Van Der Heijden, Naeemah Abrahams, Jane Harries

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Background: Women with disabilities are largely missing from global research on violence prevention, yet research shows that women with disabilities are a particularly marginalised group who experience heightened levels and unique forms of violence than men with disabilities, and women without disabilities. They face heightened stigma, discrimination, and violence due to their gender and their disability. Including women with disabilities in violence, research helps inform policy and prevention interventions that are relevant and inclusive. To ensure their inclusion in violence research, we need ethical guidelines that are sensitive to their heightened risk and vulnerability, that recognize the diversity in the disabled population, but that also promote disabled people’s agency in defining their own violence prevention needs and agendas. Objective: To highlight pertinent ethical issues around women with disabilities’ inclusion and participation in violence research. Methodology: Considering the lack of formalized guidelines for research of people with disabilities, we draw from the literature on international ethics guidelines for researching violence against women, and the Emancipatory Disability Research paradigm, as well as drawing from our own experiences from the field in applying the guidelines when doing research with disabled women. Findings: Following the guiding ethical principles of respect, benefit, justice, and do no harm, we argue that reasonable accommodation, capacity, and equal participation need to be considered in conceptualizing and conducting ethical violence research with women with disabilities. We conclude that disability research in the area of violence is highly politicized and must be carefully scrutinized to ensure justice and the contribution of women with disabilities to their own welfare. Implications: We suggest that these issues are practically applied in the field and tested and critiqued to enhance best practice for undertaking ethical research with this particular group. It is important that not only researchers and ethics committees, but also disabled women and disabled organizations, are involved in enhancing and formalizing ethical research guidelines for marginalized populations.

Keywords: capacity, emancipatory disability research paradigm equal participation, reasonable accommodation, research ethics, violence against women with disabilities

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116 Regulating Information Asymmetries at Online Platforms for Short-Term Vacation Rental in European Union– Legal Conondrum Continues

Authors: Vesna Lukovic

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Online platforms as new business models play an important role in today’s economy and the functioning of the EU’s internal market. In the travel industry, algorithms used by online platforms for short-stay accommodation provide suggestions and price information to travelers. Those suggestions and recommendations are displayed in search results via recommendation (ranking) systems. There has been a growing consensus that the current legal framework was not sufficient to resolve problems arising from platform practices. In order to enhance the potential of the EU’s Single Market, smaller businesses should be protected, and their rights strengthened vis-à-vis large online platforms. The Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services aims to level the playing field in that respect. This research looks at Airbnb through the lenses of this regulation. The research explores key determinants and finds that although regulation is an important step in the right direction, it is not enough. It does not entail sufficient clarity obligations that would make online platforms an intermediary service which both accommodation providers and travelers could use with ease.

Keywords: algorithm, online platforms, ranking, consumers, EU regulation

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115 Applied Actuator Fault Accommodation in Flight Control Systems Using Fault Reconstruction Based FDD and SMC Reconfiguration

Authors: A. Ghodbane, M. Saad, J. F. Boland, C. Thibeault

Abstract:

Historically, actuators’ redundancy was used to deal with faults occurring suddenly in flight systems. This technique was generally expensive, time consuming and involves increased weight and space in the system. Therefore, nowadays, the on-line fault diagnosis of actuators and accommodation plays a major role in the design of avionic systems. These approaches, known as Fault Tolerant Flight Control systems (FTFCs) are able to adapt to such sudden faults while keeping avionics systems lighter and less expensive. In this paper, a (FTFC) system based on the Geometric Approach and a Reconfigurable Flight Control (RFC) are presented. The Geometric approach is used for cosmic ray fault reconstruction, while Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based on Lyapunov stability theory is designed for the reconfiguration of the controller in order to compensate the fault effect. Matlab®/Simulink® simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control system against actuators’ faulty signal caused by cosmic rays. The results demonstrate the successful real-time implementation of the proposed FTFC system on a non-linear 6 DOF aircraft model.

Keywords: actuators’ faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, Lyapunov stability

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114 Enhanced Water Vapor Flow in Silica Microtubes Explained by Maxwell’s Tangential Momentum Accommodation and Langmuir’s Adsorption

Authors: Wenwen Lei, David R. Mckenzie

Abstract:

Recent findings of anomalously high gas flow rates in carbon nanotubes show smooth hydrophobic walls can increase specular reflection of molecules and reduce the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Here we report the first measurements of water vapor flows in microtubes over a wide humidity range and show that for hydrophobic silica there is a range of humidity over which an adsorbed water layer reduces TMAC and accelerates flow. Our results show that this association between hydrophobicity and accelerated moisture flow occurs in readily available materials. We develop a hierarchical theory that unifies Maxwell’s ideas on TMAC with Langmuir’s ideas on adsorption. We fit the TMAC data as a function of humidity with the hierarchical theory based on two stages of Langmuir adsorption and derive total adsorption isotherms for water on hydrophobic silica that agree with direct observations. We propose structures for each stage of the water adsorption, the first reducing TMAC by a passivation of adsorptive patches and a smoothing of the surface, the second resembling bulk water with large TMAC. We find that leak testing of moisture barriers with an ideal gas such as helium may not be accurate enough for critical applications and that direct measurements of the water leak rate should be made.

Keywords: water vapor flows, silica microtubes, TMAC, enhanced flow rates

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113 A Mathematical Agent-Based Model to Examine Two Patterns of Language Change

Authors: Gareth Baxter

Abstract:

We use a mathematical model of language change to examine two recently observed patterns of language change: one in which most speakers change gradually, following the mean of the community change, and one in which most individuals use predominantly one variant or another, and change rapidly if they change at all. The model is based on Croft’s Utterance Selection account of language change, which views language change as an evolutionary process, in which different variants (different ‘ways of saying the same thing’) compete for usage in a population of speakers. Language change occurs when a new variant replaces an older one as the convention within a given population. The present model extends a previous simpler model to include effects related to speaker aging and interspeaker variation in behaviour. The two patterns of individual change (one more centralized and the other more polarized) were recently observed in historical language changes, and it was further observed that slower changes were more associated with the centralized pattern, while quicker changes were more polarized. Our model suggests that the two patterns of change can be explained by different balances between the preference of speakers to use one variant over another and the degree of accommodation to (propensity to adapt towards) other speakers. The correlation with the rate of change appears naturally in our model, and results from the fact that both differential weighting of variants and the degree of accommodation affect the time for change to occur, while also determining the patterns of change. This work represents part of an ongoing effort to examine phenomena in language change through the use of mathematical models. This offers another way to evaluate qualitative explanations that cannot be practically tested (or cannot be tested at all) in a real-world, large-scale speech community.

Keywords: agent based modeling, cultural evolution, language change, social behavior modeling, social influence

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112 Effect of Underwater Antiquities as a Hidden Competitive Advantage of Hotels on Their Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Iman Shawky, Mohamed Elsayed

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Every hotel works in the hospitality market tends to have its own merit and character in its products marketing in order to maintain both its brand's identity and image among guests. According to the growth of global competition in the hospitality industry; the concept of competitive advantage is becoming increasingly important in hotels' marketing world as it examines reasons for outweighing hotels in their dimensions of strategic and marketing plans. In fact, Egypt is the land of appeared and submerged secrets as a result of its ancient civilization ongoing explorations. Although underwater antiquities represent ambiguous treasures, they have auspicious future in it, particularly in Alexandria. The study aims at examining to what extent underwater antiquities represent a competitive advantage of four and five-star hotels in Alexandria. For achieving this aim, an exploratory study conducted by currying out the investigation and comparison of the closest and most popular landmarks mentioned on both hotels' official websites and on common used reservations' websites. In addition to that, two different questionnaire forms designed; one for both revenue and sales and marketing hotels' managers while the other for their guests. The results indicate that both official hotels' websites and the most common used reservations' websites totally ignore mentioning underwater antiquities as attractive landmarks surrounding Alexandria hotels. Furthermore, most managers expect that underwater antiquities can furnish distinguished competitive advantage to their hotels. Also, they can help exceeding guests' expectations during their accommodation as long as they included on both official hotels' and reservations' websites as the most surrounding famous landmarks. Moreover, most managers foresee that high awareness of underwater antiquities can enhance the guests' accommodation frequencies and improve the financial performance of their hotels.

Keywords: competitive advantage, financial performance, hotels' websites, underwater antiquities

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111 Well Log Sequences Stratigraphy and Potential Reservoirs of Wells KF-1and KF-2; Kribi Oil Field, Douala-Kribi-Campo Basin, Cameroon

Authors: Nkwanyang L. Takem, Christopher M. Agyingi

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Background and aim: An integrated interpretation of wireline logs and lithology of two selected wells (KF-1 and KF-2) of Kribi oil field within the southeastern offshore Douala/Kribi Campo Basin was carried out for sequence stratigraphic analysis of sediments penetrated by the wells. Methods: The stratigraphic units within the wells were subdivided into depositional sequences using characteristic well log patterns that were deposited between Tertiary Miocene to lower Cretaceous. Results: Nine (9) and eight (8) depositional sequences were identified respectively for KF-1 and KF-2. The sequences comprise LST (progradational packages), TSTs (retrogradational packages) and HSTs (aggradational packages), which reflect depositional systems deposited during different phases of base-level changes. The (LST) consists of Basin Floor Fans (BFF), Slope Fans and Channel Sands deposited when sea level was low and accommodation space lower than rate of sediment influx. TST consists of retrogradational marine shales deposited during high relative sea levels and when accommodation space was higher than rate of sediment influx. HST consisted of shoreface sands displaying mostly aggradational to progradational stacking patterns. Conclusion: The rapid facies changes between successive systems tracts provide potential stratigraphic traps. Reservoir stratification and continuity vary greatly between systems tracts and this enhanced development of stratigraphic traps in the area. Basin floor fans comprise sandstone of good reservoir quality, thus huge accumulation of HC can be trapped in this reservoirs.

Keywords: Douala-Kribi-Campo Basin, reservoirs, sequence strastigraphyy, system tracks

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110 English Language Proficiency and Use as Determinants of Transactional Success in Gbagi Market, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: A. Robbin

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Language selection can be an efficient negotiation strategy employed by both service or product providers and their customers to achieve transactional success. The transactional scenario in Gbagi Market, Ibadan, Nigeria provides an appropriate setting for the exploration of the Nigerian multilingual situation with its own interesting linguistic peculiarities which questions the functionality of the ‘Lingua Franca’ in trade situations. This study examined English Language proficiency among Yoruba Traders in Gbagi Market, Ibadan and its use as determinants of transactional success during service encounters. Randomly selected Yoruba-English bilingual traders and customers were administered questionnaires and the data subjected to statistical and descriptive analysis using Giles Communication Accommodation Theory. Findings reveal that only fifty percent of the traders used for the study were proficient in speaking English language. Traders with minimal proficiency in Standard English, however, resulted in the use of the Nigerian Pidgin English. Both traders and customers select the Mother Tongue, which is the Yoruba Language during service encounters but are quick to converge to the other’s preferred language as the transactional exchange demands. The English language selection is not so much for the prestige or lingua franca status of the language as it is for its functions, which include ease of communication, negotiation, and increased sales. The use of English during service encounters is mostly determined by customer’s linguistic preference which the trader accommodates to for better negotiation and never as a first choice. This convergence is found to be beneficial as it ensures sales and return patronage. Although the English language is not a preferred code choice in Gbagi Market, it serves a functional trade strategy for transactional success during service encounters in the market.

Keywords: communication accommodation theory, language selection, proficiency, service encounter, transaction

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109 Determinants of Free Independent Traveler Tourist Expenditures in Israel: Quantile Regression Model

Authors: Shlomit Hon-Snir, Sharon Teitler-Regev, Anabel Lifszyc Friedlander

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Tourism, one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, exerts a major economic influence. The number of international tourists is growing every year, and the relative portion of independent (FIT) tourists is growing as well. The characteristics of independent tourists differ from those of tourists who travel in organized trips. The purpose of the research is to identify the factors that affect the individual tourist's expenses in Israel: total expenses, expenses per day, expenses per tourist, expenses per day per tourist, accommodation expenses, dining expenses and transportation expenses. Most of the research analyzed the total expenses using OLS regression. The determinants influencing expenses were divided into four groups: budget constraints, socio-demographic data, psychological characteristics and travel-related characteristics. Since the effect of each variable may change over different levels of total expenses the quantile regression (QR) theory will be applied. The current research will use data collected by the Israeli Ministry of Tourism in 2015 from individual independent tourists at the end of their visit to Israel. Preliminary results show that: At lower levels of expense, only income has a (positive) effect on total expenses, while at higher levels of expense, both income and length of stay have (positive) effects. -The effect of income on total expenses is higher for higher levels of expenses than for lower level of expenses. -The number of sites visited during the trip has a (negative) effect on tourist accommodation expenses only for tourists with a high level of total expenses. Due to the increasing share of independent tourism in Israel and around the world and due to the importance of tourism to Israel, it is very important to understand the factors that influence the expenses and behavior of independent tourists. Understanding the factors that affect independent tourists' expenses in Israel can help Israeli policymakers in their promotional efforts to attract tourism to Israel.

Keywords: independent tourist, quantile regression theory, tourism expenses, tourism

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108 Personnel Selection Based on Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis Methods

Authors: Emre Ipekci Cetin, Ebru Tarcan Icigen

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Personnel selection process is considered as one of the most important and most difficult issues in human resources management. At the stage of personnel selection, the applicants are handled according to certain criteria, the candidates are dealt with, and efforts are made to select the most appropriate candidate. However, this process can be more complicated in terms of the managers who will carry out the staff selection process. Candidates should be evaluated according to different criteria such as work experience, education, foreign language level etc. It is crucial that a rational selection process is carried out by considering all the criteria in an integrated structure. In this study, the problem of choosing the front office manager of a 5 star accommodation enterprise operating in Antalya is addressed by using multi-criteria decision-making methods. In this context, SWARA (Step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis) and MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of ratio analysis) methods, which have relatively few applications when compared with other methods, have been used together. Firstly SWARA method was used to calculate the weights of the criteria and subcriteria that were determined by the business. After the weights of the criteria were obtained, the MOORA method was used to rank the candidates using the ratio system and the reference point approach. Recruitment processes differ from sector to sector, from operation to operation. There are a number of criteria that must be taken into consideration by businesses in accordance with the structure of each sector. It is of utmost importance that all candidates are evaluated objectively in the framework of these criteria, after these criteria have been carefully selected in the selection of suitable candidates for employment. In the study, staff selection process was handled by using SWARA and MOORA methods together.

Keywords: accommodation establishments, human resource management, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, multi-criteria decision making, step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
107 Sustainable Tourism and Heritage in Sığacık/Seferihisar

Authors: Sibel Ecemiş Kılıç, Muhammed Aydoğan

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The rapid development of culture tourism has drawn attention to conserving cultural values especially by developing countries that would like to benefit from the economic contribution this type of tourism attracts. Tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for historical settlements and their residents. The accommodation-purposed rehabilitation and revitalization project in “Sigacik Old City Zone” are to be discussed with spatial, economic, social and organizational dimensions. It is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the development of tourism and sustainable heritage conservation.

Keywords: Sığacık, urban conservation, sustainable tourism, Seferihisar

Procedia PDF Downloads 402