Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1710

Search results for: institutions

1710 Exploring the State of Leadership Effectiveness of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ojeka Alexandra

Abstract:

The study investigated the leadership effectiveness of leaders of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study sought to examine the leadership styles adopted, the leadership energy and effectiveness of the leaders of two tertiary institutions. The research was undertaken at two institutions, one Polytechnic and one University. The population of the study was the lecturers and the heads of departments of the two institutions. The leadership matrix and leadership effectiveness index questionnaires were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The preferred and practiced styles were compared and contrasted to determine whether or not they were used to achieve goals and objectives of the lecturers and the organizations. The recommendations contribute towards the academic and professional development of the lecturers and their institutions.

Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, leadership energy, tertiary institutions, and leadership styles

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1709 Contested Space for Regulation in Higher Education

Authors: Sulila Anar

Abstract:

Institutions of any kind are regulated by laws which could be formal or informal, visible or invisible that influences the very structure of the institutions itself. Here in this paper the attempt will be to see how institutions of higher education are regulated by the regulatory institutions by taking the case of India, the third largest education system in the world. The attempt is to try to see how regulation of higher education creates a space for contestation among regulatory institutions based on secondary resources and how this affects the governance of university to achieve the goals and visions.

Keywords: higher education, regulation, autonomy, space

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1708 Strategies Considered Effective for Funding Public Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile

Abstract:

The study sought to ascertain from the opinions of the business educators, effective strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Funding of tertiary institutions has become so important following the dilapidated state of most of the public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Tertiary institutions are known for the production of competitive and competent workforce in the nation. Considering the state of public tertiary institutions currently, one wonders if their objectives are achieved. Many scholars have identified funding as one of the major barriers to effective functioning of tertiary institutions. Although federal and state governments have been supporting the tertiary institutions, but their support seems not to be adequate. This study therefore ascertained from the perspective of business educators, other strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 104 business educators from the public tertiary institutions in the State constituted the population. There was no sampling, hence the whole population was used. Structured questionnaire validated by three experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was the instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Findings from the study revealed that public-private partnership and external aids were among the strategies considered effective for funding public tertiary institutions. It was therefore recommended among others that associations like alumni should be strongly instituted in each of the public tertiary institutions so as to assist in the funding of tertiary institutions for effective functioning and delivery.

Keywords: strategies, funding, tertiary institutions, business educators

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1707 Maintaining Discipline in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ipenyi Peter

Abstract:

Discipline is an issue that tends to undermine the provision of quality education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This is because the overall goals of tertiary institutions, as enunciated in the National Policy of Education, can hardly be achieved by all the stakeholders without strict conformity and adherence to the rules and regulations and the ideals of the entire society. The adherence is essential for the general welfare of the society. This paper critically X-rayed the causes of indiscipline in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Such courses include laxity in home control and parental supervision, school, teacher and societal factors as well as government influence. The paper recommended among others such strategies as enculturation, acculturation as well as the acquisition of a certain number of generic skills for dealing with discipline and ethical issues in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: discipline, education, tertiary institutions, society

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1706 Settlement of Dispute and the Islamic Financial Institutions

Authors: Yusuf Sani Abubakar

Abstract:

This paper investigates mechanisms of settlement of disputes at the Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs). Dispute settlement at the Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) can be both through litigation as well as Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). The paper aims to investigate how disputes are settled at the Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs), as it is natural to have disagreements between different parties involved in the business of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs). The paper adopts a qualitative methodology where the sources are taken from journals, books, websites etc. In analyzing the data obtained from the sources, content analysis will be used. In addition to writings on this topic by various writers, this paper will add to the literature and will recommend certain effective ways of solving disputes arising between parties participating in the business of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs).

Keywords: Islamic finance, dispute resolution, Islamic financial institutions, litigation

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1705 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Tertiary Institutions in Bauchi State Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba, Mustapha Makama

Abstract:

Tertiary institutions are citadel of learning and societal orientation. Due to the huge investment of various government to tertiary institutions, these institutions are solely financed by the government alone. As stakeholders of society, corporations have to have to intervene and provide corporate social responsibility. The study intends to investigate the role of Entrepreneurs in incorporating social Responsibility. Tertiary institutions are citadel of learning and societal orientation. Due to the huge investment of various government to tertiary institutions, the study intends to investigate the role of businesses and Entrepreneurs, which could be among the important contributions of businesses and Entrepreneurs on corporate social Responsibility to Tertiary Institutions in Bauchi State. Corporate social responsibility is vital in enhancing the infrastructural development of the tertiary institution as almost all individuals and corporate bodies benefit from this tertiary institutions. The study intends to examine the impact of corporate social responsibility to tertiary institutions and entrepreneurs in Bauchi state Nigeria. Questionnaires would be distributed to tertiary institutions and entrepreneurs in the Bauchi metropolis. The data collected will be analyzed with the help of SPSS version 23. The main objective is to investigate the role of businesses and Entrepreneurs, which could be among the important contributions of businesses and entrepreneurs on corporate social Responsibility to Tertiary Institutions in Bauchi State.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, tertiary, institutions, profitability

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1704 Cultural Effects on the Performance of Non- Profit and For-Profit Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Patrick M. Stanton, William R. McCumber

Abstract:

Using a large dataset of more than 2,400 individual microfinance institutions (MFIs) from 120 countries from 1999 to 2016, this study finds that nearly half of the international MFIs operate as for-profit institutions. Formal institutions (business regulatory environment, property rights, social protection, and a developed financial sector) impact the likelihood of MFIs being for-profit across countries. Cultural differences across countries (power distance, individualism, masculinity, and indulgence) seem to be a factor in the legal status of the MFI (non-profit or for-profit). MFIs in countries with stronger formal institutions, a greater degree of power distance, and a higher degree of collectivism experience better financial and social performance.

Keywords: Hofstede cultural dimensions, international finance, microfinance institutions, non-profite

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1703 Testing a Structural Model of SME Development in Mauritius and Botswana: The Role of Institutions in a Comparative Perspective

Authors: B. Seetanah, R. V. Sannassee, Lamport, K. Padachi, K. Seetah, S. Matadeen, N. Okurutt, N. Ama, L. Mokoodi

Abstract:

This paper analyses the impact of the various enabling elements towards fostering entrepreneurial behavior for two Sub Saharan African countries namely Mauritius and Botswana, with focus is on role of institutions (ministries, government support institutions, financing institutions and SME associations). Using a structural equation modeling framework, it is found that finance was some of the most determinant of respondents’ evaluation of the business climate thus emphasizing on the crucial of such an ingredient. Interestingly government related factors such as government support and institutional support are also reported to have a significant influence on the SME business climate in both countries.

Keywords: institutions, SME, SEM, Mauritius, Botswana

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1702 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo

Abstract:

This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: autonomy, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units, Vietnam

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1701 The Role of Formal and Informal Institutions in Water Governance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Endalew Jibat, Feyera Senbeta, Tesfaye Zeleke, Fitsum Hagos

Abstract:

Institutions can play a key role in coordinating how natural resources are effectively used without over-exploitation. Institutions are the laws, policies, and organizational arrangements that permit, forbid or regulate human action. The aim of this study was to look into the roles of formal and informal institutions, as well as their interactions, in water resource governance in Ethiopia's Central Rift Valley (CRV), where water scarcity is a concern. Key informant interviews, group discussions, in depth-interview, and secondary data sources were used to generate relevant data. The study revealed that formal and informal institutions were involved in water resource governance in the study area. However, the influence of informal institutions on formal institutions or vice versa is trivial to change the action of water users. Lack of clear roles and responsibilities of actors, weak capacity and lack of meaningful decentralization and participation of key actors in policy development, lack of synergy and incongruence between formal and informal institutions, and absence of enforcement mechanisms including incentives are attributed to inefficient use of water resources in the CRV. Enhancing the interplay of formal and informal institutions in the water resource policy development and meaningful decentralization and key stakeholders' engagement is recommended for sustainable water use.

Keywords: institutions, governance, institutional interplay, water users

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1700 Smartphones: Tools for Enhancing Teaching in Nigeria’s Higher Institutions

Authors: Ma'amun Muhammed

Abstract:

The ability of smartphones in enhancing communication, providing access to business and serving as a pool for information retrieval has a far reaching and potentially beneficial impacts on enhancing teaching in higher institutions in the developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria as one of the fast growing economies in Africa, whose citizens patronize smartphones can utilize this opportunity by inculcating the culture of using smartphones not only for communication, business transaction, banking etc. but also for enhancing teaching in the higher institutions. Smartphones have become part and parcel of our lives, particularly among young people. The primary objective of this paper is to ascertain the use of smartphones in enhancing teaching in Nigeria’s higher institutions, to achieve this, content analysis was used thoroughly. This paper examines the opportunities offered by smartphones to the students of higher institutions of learning, the challenges being faced by lecturers of these institutions in classrooms. Lastly, it offers solution on how some of these critical challenges will be overcame, so as to utilize the technology of these devices.

Keywords: communication, information retrieval, mobile phone, smartphones teaching

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1699 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar

Abstract:

Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: middle class, households, market institutions, transition

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1698 International Relations and the Transformation of Political Regimes in Post-Soviet States

Authors: Sergey Chirun

Abstract:

Using of a combination of institutional analysis and network access has allowed the author to identify the characteristics of the informal institutions of regional political power and political regimes. According to the author, ‘field’ of activity of post-Soviet regimes, formed under the influence of informal institutions, often contradicts democratic institutional regional changes which are aimed at creating of a legal-rational type of political domination and balanced model of separation of powers. This leads to the gap between the formal structure of institutions and the real nature of power, predetermining the specific character of the existing political regimes.

Keywords: authoritarianism, institutions, political regime, social networks, transformation

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1697 An Evaluation of the Trends in Land Values around Institutions of Higher Learning in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Ben Nwokenkwo, Michael M. Eze, Felix Ike

Abstract:

The need to study trends in land values around institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. Numerous studies in Nigeria have investigated the economic, and social influence of the sitting of institutions of higher learning at the micro, meso and macro levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the temporal extent at which such institution influences local land values. Since institutions greatly influence both the physical and environmental aspects of their immediate vicinity, attention must be taken to understand the influence of such changes on land values. This study examines the trend in land values using the Mann-Kendall analysis in order to determine if, between its beginning and end, a monotonic increase, decrease or stability exist in the land values across six institutions of higher learning for the period between 2004 and 2014. Specifically, The analysis was applied to the time series of the price(or value) of the land .The results of this study revealed that land values has either been increasing or remained stabled across all the institution sampled. The study finally recommends measures that can be put in place as counter magnets for land values estimation across institutions of higher learning.

Keywords: influence, land, trend, value

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1696 Measures for Conflict Management in Nigerian Higher Institutions

Authors: Oyelade Oluwatoyin

Abstract:

The phenomenon of crises in educational sector in Nigeria has reached its peak in the 21st century. Thus, this paper examines the strategies that can be used in managing the conflict situation in Nigeria Higher Institution of learning. The causes of conflicts such as inadequate funding, insufficient school facilities, poor working condition, poor enrolment, proliferation of higher institutions and unfavourable administrative decision are the major detriment of law and order i.e. strike action, destruction of property and programmes coupled with the student unrest. This write-up will make use of the available information and with the aim of adding value to existing knowledge. It was recommend that steps should be taken by policy maker to prevent scourge of conflicts in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

Keywords: conflicts, higher institutions, management, measures

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1695 Anti-Money Laundering and Countering of Terrorist Financing: The Role of Domestic Financial Institutions to Prevent Money Laundering

Authors: Dinesh Sivaguru, Kamal Thilakasiri

Abstract:

Preventing money laundering and terrorist financing is a major national and international problem today. Several attempts have been made to prevent money laundering by national and international dimension. These are often counteracted by the multi dynamic nature of the crimes. However, launders are often to use remittance systems to clean their ill-gotten money. This study presents the role of domestic financial institutions and the effective practices and actions should implement within domestic financial institutions to control and prevent financial crimes. This thesis highlights the progress that is required to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing, further it is an original contribution to the knowledge in an under researched field in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorists financing, financial institutions, regulatory bodies

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1694 Human Performance Technology (HPT) as an Entry Point to Achieve Organizational Development in Educational Institutions of the Ministry of Education

Authors: Alkhathlan Mansour

Abstract:

Current research aims at achieving the organizational development in the educational institutions in the governorate of Al-Kharj through the human performance technology (HPT) model that is named; “The Intellectual Model to improve human performance”. To achieve the goal of this research, it tools -that it is consisting of targeted questionnaires to research sample numbered (120)- have been set up. This sample is represented in; department managers in Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University (50), educational supervisors in the Department of Education (40), school administrators in the governorate (30), and the views of education experts through personal interviews in the proposal to achieve organizational development through the intellectual model to improve human performance. Among the most important research results is that there are many obstacles prevent the organizational development in the educational institutions, so the research suggested a model to achieve organizational development through human performance technologies, as well as the researcher recommended through the results of his research that the administrators have to take into account the justice in the distribution of incentives to employees of educational institutions and training leaders in educational institutions on organizational development strategies and working on the preparation of experts of organizational development in the educational institutions to develop the necessary policies and procedures of each institution.

Keywords: human performance, development, education, organizational

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1693 The Agency of Black Women Professors in Higher Education: A Critical Consciousness Perspective

Authors: Ncamisile T. Zulu, Nicholas Munro

Abstract:

Black women academics in higher education institutions are predominantly portrayed by literature as individuals who usually lack a sense of belonging, progression, and workload management. The oversaturation of this literature can (overtime) perpetuate a stereotypical idea that Black women academics are incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The current article explores the agency, motivated by critical consciousness that Black women professors have and utilise in higher education institutions. In order to provide an understanding of how Black women academics can progress, manage their workloads and succeed in higher education institutions, the article considers how these women can take responsibility for their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal in academic endeavours. As a result, the article presents a line of thought which could help in challenging the stereotype about Black women academics. The study was conducted at two higher education institutions involving Black women professors from different disciplines. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit nine women participants, while data were collected through interviews. A critical consciousness perspective was adopted to formulate an understanding of the agency of Black women professors in higher education institutions, while thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The results challenge the widely disseminated view that portrays Black women academics as incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The findings highlight Black women professors as proactive, flexible, and self-regulating in their academic endeavours. These findings contribute to the literature by adding a more constructive narrative of Black women academics in higher education.

Keywords: agency, Black women academics, critical consciousness, higher education institutions

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1692 Non-Parametric, Unconditional Quantile Estimation of Efficiency in Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Komlan Sedzro

Abstract:

We apply the non-parametric, unconditional, hyperbolic order-α quantile estimator to appraise the relative efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in Africa in terms of outreach. Our purpose is to verify if these institutions, which must constantly try to strike a compromise between their social role and financial sustainability are operationally efficient. Using data on African MFIs extracted from the Microfinance Information eXchange (MIX) database and covering the 2004 to 2006 periods, we find that more efficient MFIs are also the most profitable. This result is in line with the view that social performance is not in contradiction with the pursuit of excellent financial performance. Our results also show that large MFIs in terms of asset and those charging the highest fees are not necessarily the most efficient.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, microfinance institutions, quantile estimation of efficiency, social and financial performance

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1691 Evaluation the Financial and Social Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions Using Data Envelope Analysis - A Sample Study of Active Microfinance Institutions in India

Authors: Hiba Mezaache

Abstract:

The study aims to assess the financial and social efficiency of microfinance institutions in india for the period 2015-2019 by using two models of economies of scale and choosing the output direction of the data envelope analysis (DEA) method and using the MIX MARKET database. The study concluded that microfinance institutions focus on achieving financial efficiency beyond their focus on achieving social efficiency to ensure their continuity in the market. Convergence in the efficiency ratios that have been achieved, but the optimum ratios have been achieved under the changing economies of scale; Efficiency is affected by the depth of reaching low-income groups, as serving this group raises costs and risks. The importance of lending to women in rural areas and raising their awareness to ensure their financial and social empowerment; Make improvements in operating expenses, asset management, and loan personnel control in order to maximize output.

Keywords: microfinance, financial efficiency, social efficiency, mix market, microfinance institutions

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1690 The Role and Effectiveness of Audit Committee in Corporate Governance of Credit Institutions

Authors: Tina Vuko, Marija Maretić, Marko Čular

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the role and effectiveness of internal mechanism (audit committee) of corporate governance on credit institutions performance in Croatia. Based on research objective, sample of 78 credit institutions listed on Zagreb Stock Exchange, from 2007 to 2012, has been collected and efficiency index of audit committee (EIAC) has been created. Based on the sample and created EIAC, conclusions are as follows: audit committees of credit institutions have medium efficiency, based on EIAC measurement; there is a significant difference in audit committee effectiveness, in observed period; there is no positive relationship between audit committee effectiveness and credit institution performance; there is a significant difference between level of audit committee effectiveness and audit firm type. Future research should contain increased number of elements in EIAC creation and increased sample, for all obligators who need to establish audit committee.

Keywords: corporate governance, audit committee, financial institutions, efficiency index of audit committee

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1689 Developing Index of Democratic Institutions' Vulnerability

Authors: Kamil Jonski

Abstract:

Last year vividly demonstrated, that populism and political instability can endanger democratic institutions in countries regarded as democratic transition champions (Poland) or cornerstones of liberal order (UK, US). So called ‘illiberal democracy’ is winning hearts and minds of voters, keen to believe that rule of strongman is a viable alternative to perceived decay of western values and institutions. These developments pose a serious threat to the democratic institutions (including rule of law), proven critical for both personal freedom and economic development. Although scholars proposed some structural explanations of the illiberal wave (notably focusing on inequality, stagnant incomes and drawbacks of globalization), they seem to have little predictive value. Indeed, events like Trump’s victory, Brexit or Polish shift towards populist nationalism always came as a surprise. Intriguingly, in the case of US election, simple rules like ‘Bread and Peace model’ gauged prospects of Trump’s victory better than pundits and pollsters. This paper attempts to compile set of indicators, in order to gauge various democracies’ vulnerability to populism, instability and pursuance of ‘illiberal’ projects. Among them, it identifies the gap between consensus assessment of institutional performance (as measured by WGI indicators) and citizens’ subjective assessment (survey based confidence in institutions). Plotting these variables against each other, reveals three clusters of countries – ‘predictable’ (good institutions and high confidence, poor institutions and low confidence), ‘blind’ (poor institutions, high confidence e.g. Uzbekistan or Azerbaijan) and ‘disillusioned’ (good institutions, low confidence e.g. Spain, Chile, Poland and US). It seems that this clustering – carried out separately for various institutions (like legislature, executive and courts) and blended with economic indicators like inequality and living standards (using PCA) – offers reasonably good watchlist of countries, that should ‘expect the unexpected’.

Keywords: illiberal democracy, populism, political instability, political risk measurement

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1688 Facial Recognition Technology in Institutions of Higher Learning: Exploring the Use in Kenya

Authors: Samuel Mwangi, Josephine K. Mule

Abstract:

Access control as a security technique regulates who or what can access resources. It is a fundamental concept in security that minimizes risks to the institutions that use access control. Regulating access to institutions of higher learning is key to ensure only authorized personnel and students are allowed into the institutions. The use of biometrics has been criticized due to the setup and maintenance costs, hygiene concerns, and trepidations regarding data privacy, among other apprehensions. Facial recognition is arguably a fast and accurate way of validating identity in order to guard protected areas. It guarantees that only authorized individuals gain access to secure locations while requiring far less personal information whilst providing an additional layer of security beyond keys, fobs, or identity cards. This exploratory study sought to investigate the use of facial recognition in controlling access in institutions of higher learning in Kenya. The sample population was drawn from both private and public higher learning institutions. The data is based on responses from staff and students. Questionnaires were used for data collection and follow up interviews conducted to understand responses from the questionnaires. 80% of the sampled population indicated that there were many security breaches by unauthorized people, with some resulting in terror attacks. These security breaches were attributed to stolen identity cases, where staff or student identity cards were stolen and used by criminals to access the institutions. These unauthorized accesses have resulted in losses to the institutions, including reputational damages. The findings indicate that security breaches are a major problem in institutions of higher learning in Kenya. Consequently, access control would be beneficial if employed to curb security breaches. We suggest the use of facial recognition technology, given its uniqueness in identifying users and its non-repudiation capabilities.

Keywords: facial recognition, access control, technology, learning

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1687 The Potentials of Online Learning and the Challenges towards Its Adoption in Nigeria's Higher Institutions of Learning

Authors: Kuliya Muhammed

Abstract:

This paper examines the potentials of online learning and the challenges to its adoption in Nigeria’s higher institutions of learning. The research would assist in tackling the challenges of online learning adoption and enlighten institutions on the numerous benefits of online learning in Nigeria. The researcher used survey method for the study and questionnaires were used to obtain the needed data from 230 respondents cut across 20 higher institutions in the country. The findings revealed that online learning has the prospect to boost access to learning tools, assist students’ to learn from the comfort of their offices or homes, reduce the cost of learning, and enable individuals to gain self-knowledge. The major challenges in the adoption of e-learning are poor Information and Communication Technology infrastructures, poor internet connectivity where available, lack of Information and Communication Technology background, problem of power supply, lack of commitment by institutions, poor maintenance of Information and Communication Technology tools, inadequate facilities, lack of government funding and fraud. Recommendations were also made at the end of the research work.

Keywords: electronic, ICT, institution, internet, learning, technology

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1686 An E-Government Implementation Model for Peruvian State Companies Based on COBIT 5.0: Definition and Goals of the Model

Authors: M. Bruzza, M. Tupia, F. Rodríguez

Abstract:

As part of the regulatory compliance process and the streamlining of public administration, the Peruvian government has implemented the National E-Government Plan in all state institutions with the aim of providing citizens with solid services based on the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). As part of the regulations, the requisites to be met by public institutions have been submitted. However, the lack of an implementation model was detected, one that can serve as a guide to such institutions in order to materialize the organizational and technological structures needed, which allow them to provide the required digital services. This paper develops an implementation model of electronic government (e-government) for Peru’s state institutions, in compliance with current regulations based on a COBIT 5.0 framework. Furthermore, the paper introduces phase 1 of this model: business and IT goals, the goals cascade and the future model of processes.

Keywords: e-government, u-government, COBIT, implementation model

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1685 Online Consortium of Independent Colleges and Universities (OCICU): Using Cluster Analysis to Grasp Student and Institutional Value of Consolidated Online Offerings in Higher Education

Authors: Alex Rodriguez, Adam Guerrero

Abstract:

Purpose: This study is designed to examine the institutions that comprise the Online Consortium of Independent Colleges and Universities (OCICU) to understand better the types of higher education institutions that comprise their membership. The literature on this topic is extensive in analyzing the current economic environment around higher education, which is largely considered to be negative for independent, tuition-driven institutions, and is forcing colleges and universities to reexamine how the college-attending population defines value and how institutions can best utilize their existing resources (and those of other institutions) to meet that value expectation. The results from this analysis are intended to give OCICU the ability to target their current customer base better, based on their most notable differences, and other institutions to see how to best approach consolidation within higher education. Design/Methodology: This study utilized k-means cluster analysis in order to explore the possibility that different segments exist within the seventy-one colleges and universities that have comprised OCICU. It analyzed fifty different variables, whose selection was based on the previous literature, collected by the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), whose data is self-reported by individual institutions. Findings: OCICU member institutions are partitioned into two clusters: "access institutions" and "conventional institutions” based largely on the student profile they target. Value: The methodology of the study is relatively unique as there are not many studies within the field of higher education marketing that have employed cluster analysis, and this type of analysis has never been conducted on OCICU members, specifically, or that of any higher education consolidated offering. OCICU can use the findings of this study to obtain a better grasp as to the specific needs of the two market segments OCICU currently serves and develop measurable marketing programs around how those segments are defined that communicate the value sought by current and potential OCICU members or those of similar institutions. Other consolidation efforts within higher education can also employ the same methodology to determine their own market segments.

Keywords: Consolidation, Colleges, Enrollment, Higher Education, Marketing, Strategy, Universities

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1684 Money Laundering Risk Assessment in the Banking Institutions: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Yusarina Mat-Isa, Zuraidah Mohd-Sanusi, Mohd-Nizal Haniff, Paul A. Barnes

Abstract:

In view that money laundering has become eminent for banking institutions, it is an obligation for the banking institutions to adopt a risk-based approach as the integral component of the accepted policies on anti-money laundering. In doing so, those involved with the banking operations are the most critical group of personnel as these are the people who deal with the day-to-day operations of the banking institutions and are obligated to form a judgement on the level of impending risk. This requirement is extended to all relevant banking institutions staff, such as tellers and customer account representatives for them to identify suspicious customers and escalate it to the relevant authorities. Banking institutions staffs, however, face enormous challenges in identifying and distinguishing money launderers from other legitimate customers seeking genuine banking transactions. Banking institutions staffs are mostly educated and trained with the business objective in mind to serve the customers and are not trained to be “detectives with a detective’s power of observation”. Despite increasing awareness as well as trainings conducted for the banking institutions staff, their competency in assessing money laundering risk is still insufficient. Several gaps have prompted this study including the lack of behavioural perspectives in the assessment of money laundering risk in the banking institutions. Utilizing experimental approach, respondents are randomly assigned within a controlled setting with manipulated situations upon which judgement of the respondents is solicited based on various observations related to the situations. The study suggests that it is imperative that informed judgement is exercised in arriving at the decision to proceed with the banking services required by the customers. Judgement forms a basis of opinion for the banking institution staff to decide if the customers posed money laundering risk. Failure to exercise good judgement could results in losses and absorption of unnecessary risk into the banking institutions. Although the banking institutions are exposed with choices of automated solutions in assessing money laundering risk, the human factor in assessing the risk is indispensable. Individual staff in the banking institutions is the first line of defence who are responsible for screening the impending risk of any customer soliciting for banking services. At the end of the spectrum, the individual role involvement on the subject of money laundering risk assessment is not a substitute for automated solutions as human judgement is inimitable.

Keywords: banking institutions, experimental approach, money laundering, risk assessment

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1683 Perceived Physical Exercise Benefits among Staff of Tertiary Institutions in Adamawa State

Authors: Salihu Mohammed Umar

Abstract:

Perceived physical exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa State was investigated as a basis for formulating proper exercise intervention strategies. The study utilized descriptive survey design. The purpose of the study was to determine perceived exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire adapted from Exercise Benefit/Barrier Scale (EBBS) developed by Sechrist, Walker and Pender (1985) which was validated by five experts. Three hundred and thirty (330) copies of the questionnaire were distributed among study participants in six institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state. The scale comprised two components; Benefits and Barriers dimensions. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were posed. The instrument had a four response forced-choice Likert-type format with responses ranging from 4 = strongly agree (SA), 3 = Agree (A), 2 = Disagree (D) and 1 = Strongly Disagree (SD). The findings of the study revealed that both male and female staff in institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state perceived exercise as highly beneficial. However, male staff had higher perceived benefits score than their female counterparts. (Male: x̄ = 95.02. SD = 3.08) > female: x̄ = 94.04, SD = 4.35. There was also no significant difference in perceived exercise barriers between staff and students of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state. Based on the finding of the study, it was concluded that staff of tertiary institutions perceived exercise as highly beneficial. It was recommended that since staff of institutions of higher learning in Adamawa State irrespective of gender and religious affiliations have basic knowledge of perceived benefits of exercise, there is the need to explore programmes that will enable staff across the sub-groups to overcome barriers that could discourage physical exercise participation.

Keywords: perception, physical exercise, staff, benefits

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1682 The Roots of the Robust and Looting Economy (poverty and inequality) in Iran after the 1979 Revolution, From the Perspective of Acem Oglu & Robinson theory

Authors: Vorya Shabrandi

Abstract:

The study factors of poverty and inequality causes in countries is the subject of many scholars and economists in the last century, theorists in various areas of economic science know different factors as the roots of poverty and inequality in Iran after the 1979 revolution. Economists have emphasized political elements and political scientists on political elements. This research reviews the political economy of poverty and corruption in Iran after the revolution. The findings of this research, based on AcemOgluand Robinson theory, show how the institutional structural dependence of Iran's economy to raw has led to the growth of its non-economic economic institutions and its consequence of the continuity of the release and looting economy and poverty and inequality in Iran's political economy Is. This research was carried out using descriptive-analytical and comparative methods. Many economists try to justify the conditions of the country based on war, sanctions; And the external factors, and ... knows. In this study, we tried to examine the roots of poverty and the looting economy of Iran by implementing Research AcemOgluand Robinson on the institutions and roots of poverty. Looking for a framework for understanding why countries, such as Iran, the reason for the difference in revenue in different countries, as well as the poor or wealth of countries, regardless of the non-effective and non-professional institutions, and why inefficient institutions in some countries, such as Iran, such as Iran It remains and does not have a voluntary political powers to change these institutions. Findings The research shows that institutions are broadly the main reason for the roots of the robust and looting economy (poverty and inequality) in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, plunderable (Loot) economy, raw shopping, poverty and inequality, acem oglu and robinson, non-inclusive institutions

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1681 A Critical Analysis of the Financial Reporting Practices of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFI)

Authors: Riaz Dhai

Abstract:

The inherent differences between Islamic and conventional finance have given rise to a debate on whether conventional accounting standards provide sufficient disclosure in the annual financial statements of Islamic financial institutions (IFI). This issue has become more pronounced due to the rapid growth of IFIs over the last decade. This paper seeks to collate the literature surrounding this debate as well as summarise the key macro and micro level financial reporting differences between conventional and Islamic accounting. Based on these findings we propose some important areas of future research in this emerging field.

Keywords: Islamic financial institutions, financial reporting, critical analysis, conventional accounting standards

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